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CORPORATE LEADERSHIP COUNCIL NOVEMBER 2004
www.corporateleadershipcouncil.com
LITERATURE KEY FINDINGS
Using Behavior-Based Structured Interviews
 2004 Corporate Executive Board
CATALOG NUMBER: CLC12N73XL
Finding 1: Research suggests that due to the alignment with job responsibilities,
types of questions used, and consistency across candidates, structured interviews
provide a more valid assessment tool than traditional interviews and as a result
increase quality of hire.
Increase quality of hire and reduce productivity losses—While structured
interviews can prove costly and time-consuming to implement, they ultimately reduce
costs because they bring top-performers to the organization.
1,23
• Research suggests that there is a 48 percent difference in high-performing and
low-performing manager personal productivity, which for an organization with 20 $60,000-a-
year managers would amount to a $576,000 annual productivity loss that may be avoided by
hiring candidates with the best fit.
Link to organization’s core competencies—Many organizations define
competencies that employees should demonstrate in their role, but few align their
interview process with their core competencies and thus miss opportunities to bring
desired actions and behaviors into the organization. A structured interview builds
questions based on job competencies, therefore allowing companies to assess
candidates’ ability to perform in the role more effectively.
4
• Wilson’s Leather developed a behavior-based interview system to test a candidate’s integrity
and work ethic, two core recruiting criteria, and then develops a customized structured
interview based on a candidate’s responses. Stores run by managers with high assessment
scores report 14 to 20 percent higher-than-average sales.
Use questions that effectively evaluate performance—According to the
Journal of Occupational and Organizational Psychology, the types of questions asked
during structured employment interviews increase the interview’s validity and reliability.
Examples of question types include the following:
5,6
Table 1: Structured Interview Question Types
Question Type Description
Behavioral
Questions
• Research suggests that past performance both in and out of
the workplace accurately predicts a candidate’s future
performance, therefore behavioral questions can help
recruiters and hiring managers select candidates with the right
skills.
• Critics of behavioral questions note that applicants can distort
their responses; however, research has found that using
descriptive rating scales helps interviewers achieve valid
answers from applicants.
Situational
Questions
• Hypothetical situation-based questions allow applicants with
varied work experience to respond to questions they may have
never faced in the workplace.
• These questions help recruiters to benchmark applicant’s job
knowledge against standardized criteria.
Job Knowledge
Questions
• These questions assess applicants’ basic or technical
knowledge needed to perform the position.
• Organizations can adjust questions’ difficulty level based on a
job’s skill requirements.
Assess candidates consistently—Traditional interviewing often produces the
“halo effect,” where recruiters hire candidates similar to their own personality or work
style, resulting in possible discrimination issues and organizational groupthink.
Structured interviews ensure that recruiters evaluate and select candidates based on
uniform, job-related criteria.
7
According to Workforce.com,
a majority of Fortune 500
companies and government
agencies use some form of
behavior-based structured
interviewing during the
recruiting process.
3
CORPORATE LEADERSHIP COUNCIL PAGE 2
USING BEHAVIOR-BASED STRUCTURED INTERVIEWS KEY FINDINGS
 2004 Corporate Executive Board
Finding 2: To use structured interviews effectively, companies should perform a
thorough job analysis, develop behavioral-based questions and assessment criteria
based on that analysis, and provide training to interviewers.
Implement structured interviews methodically—Dr. Del Still, author of High Impact
Hiring, developed the following structured interview process to help HR and hiring
managers increase the quality of hire:
89
Step 1: Job Analysis
HR should work with hiring managers to perform a thorough job analysis to
identify specific competencies and work habits candidates should
demonstrate. Then, HR and hiring managers should create a job description
and experience-based questions around the job analysis.
Step 2: Interview Process
HR should review all questions for illegal inquiries and determine how to
structure the interview. The recruiter and hiring manager should ask and
assess all candidates using the same question roster.
Step 3: Candidate Evaluation
HR and the hiring manger should rank all candidates on their demonstration of
required competencies and work habits to make employment decisions.
Design interview questions according to the job description and its relevant
functions—Effective structured interviews assess candidates’ previous relevant job
experience. Organizations should develop questions around job characteristics to
assess candidates’ qualifications systematically.
10
Select assessment tools to score interviews and select candidates—When
developing structured interview questions, hiring mangers and recruiters should
develop a rating scale on a continuum of possible answers ranging from a great
answer to a poor answer. These ratings should link directly to job criteria and rank all
candidates’ ability to perform necessary job duties.
11
Train interviewers to ensure that structured interviews are uniform among
candidates so the interviews remain a valid hiring tool—A recent Duke University
study found that many interviewers assist candidates by avoiding “hard” questions or
overlooking negative employment history. Managers should train interviewers to not
coach applicants, stray from the interview agenda, provide verbal or non-verbal
signals, or favor one applicant over another.
12,13
• Literature suggests that organizations should provide training in the following:
o Behavioral questioning style
o Focus on the “why, how, and what” candidates learned from their experiences
o Listening skills to assesses candidate’s credibility and genuineness
Research suggests that
organizations can use structured
behavioral interviews for a
variety of reasons, including
those listed below:
9
• Evaluating applicants on job-based
core competencies prevents
recruiters from assessing unrelated
knowledge or skills.
• Organizations can increase the
depth of their applicant pool by
interviewing candidates based on
behaviors rather than vocational
experience.
• Organizations reduce legal risks by
asking applicants the same
questions, assessing them against
the same criteria, and rating them
using the same method.
Conduct
Interviews
Evaluate
Candidates
Prepare
Questions
CORPORATE LEADERSHIP COUNCIL PAGE 3
USING BEHAVIOR-BASED STRUCTURED INTERVIEWS KEY FINDINGS
 2004 Corporate Executive Board
Finding 3: Organizations can develop structured interview questions around
candidates’ experience, job level, and work habits to assess candidates’ skills,
ability, and cultural fit in the organization.
Assess and benchmark candidates’ skills through specific interview
questions—Hiring managers can ask a variety of questions to assess candidates’
ability to perform specific job responsibilities based on their previous experience,
as detailed below:
1415
• Past Work Experience
o Describe a time when you had to criticize or discipline the performance of someone
who worked with you or for you. How did you handle the situation? What was the
result?
o Recall a time when you made what you consider a mistake or a bad decision on the
job. How did you handle the situation?
o What approaches worked best for you in the past in communicating with your boss?
With your co-workers? With your subordinates?
• Previous achievements and future goals
o Describe a time when you set specific work goals for yourself. What was the result?
o Describe the major highlights of your career so far and describe your future goals.
o Describe a work emergency or crisis of some kind in which you were involved.
What was your role? What did you do?
o Describe a situation when you felt you went beyond the call of duty in helping a client.
o Describe a challenge you faced in a previous situation and how you responded.
o In your most recent position, what did you learn? How did you apply this learning?
o What are examples of work-related situations that you find stressful? How do you
typically handle such stress?
• Ability to work in teams
o Describe a situation when you took charge as a leader in a work situation without being
formally assigned to that role by your supervisor.
o In your past work experience, how have you worked with difficult clients or co-workers?
o Was there a time when you fostered a team environment among a previous group of
co-workers?
• Previous Managers
o Describe what you liked and disliked about management styles you have observed in
previous jobs.
o Describe a work situation in which you delegated responsibility successfully.
Alternatively, discuss a time when your delegation of responsibility did not work out
well. How did you handle that situation?
Structured interview questions
can help interviewers elicit
job-related competencies and
behaviors from candidates that
help interviewers assess
candidates’ experiences in the
following categories:
15
• Situation—The context in which
the behavior or action took place
• Action—What the candidate
actually did in the situation
• Result— The outcomes of the
candidate’s actions or behaviors.
CORPORATE LEADERSHIP COUNCIL PAGE 4
USING BEHAVIOR-BASED STRUCTURED INTERVIEWS KEY FINDINGS
 2004 Corporate Executive Board
Finding 3 (continued)
Assess candidates’ ability to work within an organization’s culture—When using
structured interviews, many organizations question candidates’ technical skills,
core business skills, and behavioral competencies. However, to help ensure that the
successful candidate will be engaged in the organization, hiring managers should also
assess candidates for cultural fit. Examples of cultural traits that customer- and
process-focused organizations may want to address include the following:
16,17 18
Table 2: Possible Cultural Traits to Assess During Structured Interviews
Customer-Focused
Organizations
• Ability to respond to change
• Approachability
• Compassion
• Creativity
• Customer focus
• Interpersonal savvy
• Listening skills
Process-Focused
Organizations
• Cautiousness
• Detail orientation
• Organizational agility
• Planning capabilities
• Priority setting
• Process management
• Problem solving
• Thoroughness
Question managerial candidates about their experience—For management
positions, interviewers should ask candidates specific questions that avoid generalities
and assess job-specific skills that can be adapted to different industries:
19,20
Table 3: Behavior-Based Interview Questions for Managers
Question Rationale for Asking
Tell us about a best-in-class
standard or practice that you have
introduced.
• Demonstrates strong competency in results
orientation
• To adapt to lower-level managers, ask about a
stretch goal candidates established for their
team
Describe a situation when a
subordinate was able to change
your mind.
• Identify candidates who excel in team leadership
Tell us about the most unpopular
decision you have made.
• Demonstrates skills in leadership and
negotiation
Describe a time when you were
faced with a challenging situation
that involved balancing competing
interest in your personal life with
workplace issues.
• One large pharmaceutical company uses this
question to allow candidates to show when they
were effective, creative, and found solutions
beyond the norm during difficult situations
Who was your best/worst boss or
mentor?
• Allows the candidate to describe the skills they
admire and may emulate
What are two areas of professional
development you are working on?
• Assesses a candidate’s capacity for growth both
personally and professionally
Describe a crisis and how you
managed it.
• This question shows if candidates panicked,
acted on incomplete information, communicated
effectively, and prioritized actions while leading
their team through crisis
When is it OK to lie?
• This question helps candidates define moral
boundaries by showing how they think about and
communicate questions of integrity
Describe the job you are applying
for.
• This question ensures that candidate’s
expectations of the position are accurate
Why are you interested in this
position?
• This open-ended question helps a candidate
describe what drives them to succeed
Organizations can include
cultural assessments throughout
the entire recruiting process,
including the following areas:
18
• Candidate selection—Target
candidates at organizations with
similar organizational culture and
values.
• Job posting—Write job
advertisements that reflect
organizational culture. Ensure that
internal and external recruiters
know the organization’s culture
and values.
• Interviewing— Ask candidates
behavioral questions based on
organizational culture to gain
insight into cultural fit.
CORPORATE LEADERSHIP COUNCIL PAGE 5
USING BEHAVIOR-BASED STRUCTURED INTERVIEWS KEY FINDINGS
 2004 Corporate Executive Board
1
Society for Human Resource Management, "Behavioral-Based Interviews Take Many Forms," www.shrm.org
(November 2002/ Revised January 2004). [Accessed 16 November 2004].
(Due to copyright restrictions, a copy of this article cannot be provided.)
2
Author Unknown, "Human Resources Department Management Report," IOMA (September 2002).
(Obtained through Lexis-Nexis, a division of Reed Elsevier, Incorporated).
3
Arthur Bell, Ph.D., "How to Use Behavior-Based Structured Interviewing," www.Workforce.com (Date Unknown).
(Obtained through http://www.workforce.com). [Accessed 16 November 2004].
4
Blake Lowry and Perry Alter, "Applying Core Competencies to Selection Interviews," www.HR.com (Date Unknown).
(Obtained through http://www.hr.com). [Accessed 16 November 2004].
5
Paul J. Taylor and Bruce Small, "Asking Applicants What They Would Do Versus What They Did Do:
A Meta-Analytic Comparison of Situational and Past Behaviour Employment Interview Questions,"
Journal of Occupational and Organizational Psychology (2002). (Obtained through EBSCO).
6
Author Unknown, "The Structured Selection Interview: A Sound Method of Assessment,"
Public Service Commission of Canada (Date Unknown). (Obtained through http://www.psc-cfp.gc.ca).
[Accessed 16 November 2004].
7
Arthur Bell, Ph.D., "How to Use Behavior-Based Structured Interviewing.”
8
Mary Joki Ebb, Esq., "Structured Interview: Powerful Retention Tool," CFG Update (January/February 2001).
(Obtained through http://www.cfginsurance.com). [Accessed 16 November 2004].
9
Society for Human Resource Management, "Structured Behavioral Interviewing: Oldie But Goodie," www.shrm.org
(November 2002/ Revised January 2004). [Accessed 16 November 2004].
(Due to copyright restrictions, a copy of this article cannot be provided.)
10
Author Unknown, "The Structured Selection Interview: A Sound Method of Assessment."
11
Arthur Bell, Ph.D., "How to Score a Behavior-Based Structured Interview," www.Workforce.com (Date Unknown).
(Obtained through http://www.workforce.com). [Accessed 16 November 2004].
12
Arthur Bell, Ph.D., “How to Use Behavior-Based Structured Interviewing.”
13
Author Unknown, "Using Behavioral Interviewing to Help You Hire the Best of the Best," HR Focus (1 August 2004).
(Obtained through Factiva).
14
Arthur Bell, Ph.D., "Examples of Behavior-Based Questions and Follow-Ups," www.Workforce.com (Date Unknown).
(Obtained through http://www.workforce.com). [Accessed 16 November 2004].
15
Catherine Neiner, "Making the Case for Behavioral Interviewing," Wetfeet.com (December 2000).
(Obtained through http://www.wetfeet.com). [Accessed 16 November 2004].
16
John Miraglia, "Recruiting in the Fourth Dimension," Electronic Recruiting Exchange (11 February 2003).
(Obtained through http://www.erexchange.com). [Accessed 16 November 2004].
17
John Miraglia, "Using Corporate Culture in Recruiting and Selection," Electronic Recruiting Exchange (20 May 2003).
(Obtained through http://www.erexchange.com). [Accessed 16 November 2004].
18
John Miraglia, "Using Corporate Culture in Recruiting and Selection."
19
Sarah Hood, "Hire Echelon," Canadian Business (7 June 2004). (Obtained through EBSCO).
20
Arthur Bell, Ph.D., "Examples of Behavior-Based Questions and Follow-Ups," www.Workforce.com (Date Unknown).
(Obtained through http://www.workforce.com). [Accessed 16 November 2004].

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Classic Behavior_Based_structured_interviews

  • 1. CORPORATE LEADERSHIP COUNCIL NOVEMBER 2004 www.corporateleadershipcouncil.com LITERATURE KEY FINDINGS Using Behavior-Based Structured Interviews  2004 Corporate Executive Board CATALOG NUMBER: CLC12N73XL Finding 1: Research suggests that due to the alignment with job responsibilities, types of questions used, and consistency across candidates, structured interviews provide a more valid assessment tool than traditional interviews and as a result increase quality of hire. Increase quality of hire and reduce productivity losses—While structured interviews can prove costly and time-consuming to implement, they ultimately reduce costs because they bring top-performers to the organization. 1,23 • Research suggests that there is a 48 percent difference in high-performing and low-performing manager personal productivity, which for an organization with 20 $60,000-a- year managers would amount to a $576,000 annual productivity loss that may be avoided by hiring candidates with the best fit. Link to organization’s core competencies—Many organizations define competencies that employees should demonstrate in their role, but few align their interview process with their core competencies and thus miss opportunities to bring desired actions and behaviors into the organization. A structured interview builds questions based on job competencies, therefore allowing companies to assess candidates’ ability to perform in the role more effectively. 4 • Wilson’s Leather developed a behavior-based interview system to test a candidate’s integrity and work ethic, two core recruiting criteria, and then develops a customized structured interview based on a candidate’s responses. Stores run by managers with high assessment scores report 14 to 20 percent higher-than-average sales. Use questions that effectively evaluate performance—According to the Journal of Occupational and Organizational Psychology, the types of questions asked during structured employment interviews increase the interview’s validity and reliability. Examples of question types include the following: 5,6 Table 1: Structured Interview Question Types Question Type Description Behavioral Questions • Research suggests that past performance both in and out of the workplace accurately predicts a candidate’s future performance, therefore behavioral questions can help recruiters and hiring managers select candidates with the right skills. • Critics of behavioral questions note that applicants can distort their responses; however, research has found that using descriptive rating scales helps interviewers achieve valid answers from applicants. Situational Questions • Hypothetical situation-based questions allow applicants with varied work experience to respond to questions they may have never faced in the workplace. • These questions help recruiters to benchmark applicant’s job knowledge against standardized criteria. Job Knowledge Questions • These questions assess applicants’ basic or technical knowledge needed to perform the position. • Organizations can adjust questions’ difficulty level based on a job’s skill requirements. Assess candidates consistently—Traditional interviewing often produces the “halo effect,” where recruiters hire candidates similar to their own personality or work style, resulting in possible discrimination issues and organizational groupthink. Structured interviews ensure that recruiters evaluate and select candidates based on uniform, job-related criteria. 7 According to Workforce.com, a majority of Fortune 500 companies and government agencies use some form of behavior-based structured interviewing during the recruiting process. 3
  • 2. CORPORATE LEADERSHIP COUNCIL PAGE 2 USING BEHAVIOR-BASED STRUCTURED INTERVIEWS KEY FINDINGS  2004 Corporate Executive Board Finding 2: To use structured interviews effectively, companies should perform a thorough job analysis, develop behavioral-based questions and assessment criteria based on that analysis, and provide training to interviewers. Implement structured interviews methodically—Dr. Del Still, author of High Impact Hiring, developed the following structured interview process to help HR and hiring managers increase the quality of hire: 89 Step 1: Job Analysis HR should work with hiring managers to perform a thorough job analysis to identify specific competencies and work habits candidates should demonstrate. Then, HR and hiring managers should create a job description and experience-based questions around the job analysis. Step 2: Interview Process HR should review all questions for illegal inquiries and determine how to structure the interview. The recruiter and hiring manager should ask and assess all candidates using the same question roster. Step 3: Candidate Evaluation HR and the hiring manger should rank all candidates on their demonstration of required competencies and work habits to make employment decisions. Design interview questions according to the job description and its relevant functions—Effective structured interviews assess candidates’ previous relevant job experience. Organizations should develop questions around job characteristics to assess candidates’ qualifications systematically. 10 Select assessment tools to score interviews and select candidates—When developing structured interview questions, hiring mangers and recruiters should develop a rating scale on a continuum of possible answers ranging from a great answer to a poor answer. These ratings should link directly to job criteria and rank all candidates’ ability to perform necessary job duties. 11 Train interviewers to ensure that structured interviews are uniform among candidates so the interviews remain a valid hiring tool—A recent Duke University study found that many interviewers assist candidates by avoiding “hard” questions or overlooking negative employment history. Managers should train interviewers to not coach applicants, stray from the interview agenda, provide verbal or non-verbal signals, or favor one applicant over another. 12,13 • Literature suggests that organizations should provide training in the following: o Behavioral questioning style o Focus on the “why, how, and what” candidates learned from their experiences o Listening skills to assesses candidate’s credibility and genuineness Research suggests that organizations can use structured behavioral interviews for a variety of reasons, including those listed below: 9 • Evaluating applicants on job-based core competencies prevents recruiters from assessing unrelated knowledge or skills. • Organizations can increase the depth of their applicant pool by interviewing candidates based on behaviors rather than vocational experience. • Organizations reduce legal risks by asking applicants the same questions, assessing them against the same criteria, and rating them using the same method. Conduct Interviews Evaluate Candidates Prepare Questions
  • 3. CORPORATE LEADERSHIP COUNCIL PAGE 3 USING BEHAVIOR-BASED STRUCTURED INTERVIEWS KEY FINDINGS  2004 Corporate Executive Board Finding 3: Organizations can develop structured interview questions around candidates’ experience, job level, and work habits to assess candidates’ skills, ability, and cultural fit in the organization. Assess and benchmark candidates’ skills through specific interview questions—Hiring managers can ask a variety of questions to assess candidates’ ability to perform specific job responsibilities based on their previous experience, as detailed below: 1415 • Past Work Experience o Describe a time when you had to criticize or discipline the performance of someone who worked with you or for you. How did you handle the situation? What was the result? o Recall a time when you made what you consider a mistake or a bad decision on the job. How did you handle the situation? o What approaches worked best for you in the past in communicating with your boss? With your co-workers? With your subordinates? • Previous achievements and future goals o Describe a time when you set specific work goals for yourself. What was the result? o Describe the major highlights of your career so far and describe your future goals. o Describe a work emergency or crisis of some kind in which you were involved. What was your role? What did you do? o Describe a situation when you felt you went beyond the call of duty in helping a client. o Describe a challenge you faced in a previous situation and how you responded. o In your most recent position, what did you learn? How did you apply this learning? o What are examples of work-related situations that you find stressful? How do you typically handle such stress? • Ability to work in teams o Describe a situation when you took charge as a leader in a work situation without being formally assigned to that role by your supervisor. o In your past work experience, how have you worked with difficult clients or co-workers? o Was there a time when you fostered a team environment among a previous group of co-workers? • Previous Managers o Describe what you liked and disliked about management styles you have observed in previous jobs. o Describe a work situation in which you delegated responsibility successfully. Alternatively, discuss a time when your delegation of responsibility did not work out well. How did you handle that situation? Structured interview questions can help interviewers elicit job-related competencies and behaviors from candidates that help interviewers assess candidates’ experiences in the following categories: 15 • Situation—The context in which the behavior or action took place • Action—What the candidate actually did in the situation • Result— The outcomes of the candidate’s actions or behaviors.
  • 4. CORPORATE LEADERSHIP COUNCIL PAGE 4 USING BEHAVIOR-BASED STRUCTURED INTERVIEWS KEY FINDINGS  2004 Corporate Executive Board Finding 3 (continued) Assess candidates’ ability to work within an organization’s culture—When using structured interviews, many organizations question candidates’ technical skills, core business skills, and behavioral competencies. However, to help ensure that the successful candidate will be engaged in the organization, hiring managers should also assess candidates for cultural fit. Examples of cultural traits that customer- and process-focused organizations may want to address include the following: 16,17 18 Table 2: Possible Cultural Traits to Assess During Structured Interviews Customer-Focused Organizations • Ability to respond to change • Approachability • Compassion • Creativity • Customer focus • Interpersonal savvy • Listening skills Process-Focused Organizations • Cautiousness • Detail orientation • Organizational agility • Planning capabilities • Priority setting • Process management • Problem solving • Thoroughness Question managerial candidates about their experience—For management positions, interviewers should ask candidates specific questions that avoid generalities and assess job-specific skills that can be adapted to different industries: 19,20 Table 3: Behavior-Based Interview Questions for Managers Question Rationale for Asking Tell us about a best-in-class standard or practice that you have introduced. • Demonstrates strong competency in results orientation • To adapt to lower-level managers, ask about a stretch goal candidates established for their team Describe a situation when a subordinate was able to change your mind. • Identify candidates who excel in team leadership Tell us about the most unpopular decision you have made. • Demonstrates skills in leadership and negotiation Describe a time when you were faced with a challenging situation that involved balancing competing interest in your personal life with workplace issues. • One large pharmaceutical company uses this question to allow candidates to show when they were effective, creative, and found solutions beyond the norm during difficult situations Who was your best/worst boss or mentor? • Allows the candidate to describe the skills they admire and may emulate What are two areas of professional development you are working on? • Assesses a candidate’s capacity for growth both personally and professionally Describe a crisis and how you managed it. • This question shows if candidates panicked, acted on incomplete information, communicated effectively, and prioritized actions while leading their team through crisis When is it OK to lie? • This question helps candidates define moral boundaries by showing how they think about and communicate questions of integrity Describe the job you are applying for. • This question ensures that candidate’s expectations of the position are accurate Why are you interested in this position? • This open-ended question helps a candidate describe what drives them to succeed Organizations can include cultural assessments throughout the entire recruiting process, including the following areas: 18 • Candidate selection—Target candidates at organizations with similar organizational culture and values. • Job posting—Write job advertisements that reflect organizational culture. Ensure that internal and external recruiters know the organization’s culture and values. • Interviewing— Ask candidates behavioral questions based on organizational culture to gain insight into cultural fit.
  • 5. CORPORATE LEADERSHIP COUNCIL PAGE 5 USING BEHAVIOR-BASED STRUCTURED INTERVIEWS KEY FINDINGS  2004 Corporate Executive Board 1 Society for Human Resource Management, "Behavioral-Based Interviews Take Many Forms," www.shrm.org (November 2002/ Revised January 2004). [Accessed 16 November 2004]. (Due to copyright restrictions, a copy of this article cannot be provided.) 2 Author Unknown, "Human Resources Department Management Report," IOMA (September 2002). (Obtained through Lexis-Nexis, a division of Reed Elsevier, Incorporated). 3 Arthur Bell, Ph.D., "How to Use Behavior-Based Structured Interviewing," www.Workforce.com (Date Unknown). (Obtained through http://www.workforce.com). [Accessed 16 November 2004]. 4 Blake Lowry and Perry Alter, "Applying Core Competencies to Selection Interviews," www.HR.com (Date Unknown). (Obtained through http://www.hr.com). [Accessed 16 November 2004]. 5 Paul J. Taylor and Bruce Small, "Asking Applicants What They Would Do Versus What They Did Do: A Meta-Analytic Comparison of Situational and Past Behaviour Employment Interview Questions," Journal of Occupational and Organizational Psychology (2002). (Obtained through EBSCO). 6 Author Unknown, "The Structured Selection Interview: A Sound Method of Assessment," Public Service Commission of Canada (Date Unknown). (Obtained through http://www.psc-cfp.gc.ca). [Accessed 16 November 2004]. 7 Arthur Bell, Ph.D., "How to Use Behavior-Based Structured Interviewing.” 8 Mary Joki Ebb, Esq., "Structured Interview: Powerful Retention Tool," CFG Update (January/February 2001). (Obtained through http://www.cfginsurance.com). [Accessed 16 November 2004]. 9 Society for Human Resource Management, "Structured Behavioral Interviewing: Oldie But Goodie," www.shrm.org (November 2002/ Revised January 2004). [Accessed 16 November 2004]. (Due to copyright restrictions, a copy of this article cannot be provided.) 10 Author Unknown, "The Structured Selection Interview: A Sound Method of Assessment." 11 Arthur Bell, Ph.D., "How to Score a Behavior-Based Structured Interview," www.Workforce.com (Date Unknown). (Obtained through http://www.workforce.com). [Accessed 16 November 2004]. 12 Arthur Bell, Ph.D., “How to Use Behavior-Based Structured Interviewing.” 13 Author Unknown, "Using Behavioral Interviewing to Help You Hire the Best of the Best," HR Focus (1 August 2004). (Obtained through Factiva). 14 Arthur Bell, Ph.D., "Examples of Behavior-Based Questions and Follow-Ups," www.Workforce.com (Date Unknown). (Obtained through http://www.workforce.com). [Accessed 16 November 2004]. 15 Catherine Neiner, "Making the Case for Behavioral Interviewing," Wetfeet.com (December 2000). (Obtained through http://www.wetfeet.com). [Accessed 16 November 2004]. 16 John Miraglia, "Recruiting in the Fourth Dimension," Electronic Recruiting Exchange (11 February 2003). (Obtained through http://www.erexchange.com). [Accessed 16 November 2004]. 17 John Miraglia, "Using Corporate Culture in Recruiting and Selection," Electronic Recruiting Exchange (20 May 2003). (Obtained through http://www.erexchange.com). [Accessed 16 November 2004]. 18 John Miraglia, "Using Corporate Culture in Recruiting and Selection." 19 Sarah Hood, "Hire Echelon," Canadian Business (7 June 2004). (Obtained through EBSCO). 20 Arthur Bell, Ph.D., "Examples of Behavior-Based Questions and Follow-Ups," www.Workforce.com (Date Unknown). (Obtained through http://www.workforce.com). [Accessed 16 November 2004].