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PROCEDURE FOR ACCOUNTING PROCEDURE
FOR ACCOUNTING AND CONTROL OF OVERHEADS
TING AND CONTROL OF
OVERHEADS
The procedure for accounting and control of overheads
involves the some steps described as follow:
GOPTI EMMANUEL NCHAMCHAM
CATUC BAMENDA
• Classification of Overheads
• Collection of Overheads
• Distribution of overheads to production and
service cost centers
• Re-distribution from service cost center to
production cost centers
• Absorption of overheads by production units
ALLOCATION AND APPORTIONMENT OF OVERHEADS (DEPART-
MENTALISATION OF OVERHEADS)
Most of the manufacturing process functionally
are different and performed by different
departments in a factory. Where such a division
of functions has been made, some of the
departments would be engaged in actual
production of goods while others in providing
services ancillary thereto.
For the efficient working, a factory is divided
into a number of sub-divisions. Such sub-
divisions are referred to as departments. In
other words, departmentalisation of overhead
means dividing the factory into several
segments called departments or cost centres to
which expenses are charged. This sub-division is
done in such a manner so that each department
represents a division of activity of the
organisation such as repairs department, power
department, tools department, stores
department, cost department, cash department,
etc.
The following factors are taken care of while
dividing an organisation into number of
departments:
• Every manufacturing process is divided into its
natural divisions in order to maintain natural flow
of raw materials from the time of its purchase till
its conversion into finished goods and sale.
• The sequence of operations are taken into
consideration while determining the location of
various departments.
• Division of responsibility as far as possible should
be clear, without ambiguity and dual control.
The departments in a factory can be broadly categorised into the
following types:
• Producing or manufacturing departments: A manufacturing or
producing department is one in which manual/machine operations
and other process of production of articles or commodities take
place. The number of such departments will depend upon the
nature of industry, type of work performed and the size of the
factory.
• Service departments: These departments are not directly engaged
in production but they render special type of service for the benefit
of other departments.
• Partly producing departments: In every organisation a few
departments such that it is not possible to place these departments
into a particular category, since they fall within the purview of both
categories, i.e. producing and service departments. For example, if
a toolroom manufactures some special tools for utilisation in the
main job orders, it is acting as a productive department though it is
a service department.
ALLOCATION OF OVERHEADS
After having collected the overheads under proper
standing order numbers the next step is to arrive at the
amount for each department or cost centre. This may be
through allocation or absorption. According to the
Chartered Institute of Management Accountants, London,
cost allocation is “that part of cost attribution which
charges a specific cost to a cost centre or cost unit”. Thus,
the wages paid to maintenance workers as obtained from
wages analysis book can be allocated directly to
maintenance service cost centre. Similarly indirect
material cost can also be allocated to different cost
centres according to use by pricing stores requisitions.
APPORTIONMENT OF OVERHEADS
Apportionment refers to the distribution of overheads among
departments or cost centres on an equitable basis. In other
words, apportionment involves charging a share of the
overheads to a cost centre or cost unit.
CIMA, London has defined it as “that part of cost attribution
which shares costs among two or more cost centres or cost
units in proportion to the estimated benefit received, using a
proxy”. Apportionment is done in case of those overhead
items which cannot be wholly allocated to a particular
department. For example, the salary paid to the works
manager of the factory, factory rent, general manager’s salary
etc. cannot be charged wholly to a particular department or
cost centre, but will have to be charged to all departments or
cost centres on an equitable basis.
1. Primary distribution of overheads
Primary distribution of overhead involves
allocation or apportionment of different items
of overhead to all departments of a factory. This
is also known as departmentalisation of
overheads. While making primary distribution
the distinction between production
departments and service departments
disregarded since it is of little use. The
distribution of different items of overhead in
different departments is attempted on some
logical and reasonable basis.
2. Re-apportionment of service department overheads
(Secondary Distribution)
Normally products do not pass through service
departments, but service departments do
benefit the manufacture of products. Therefore,
it is logical that product cost should bear and
equitable share of the cost of service
departments. The process of redistribution of
the cost of service departments among the
production departments is known as secondary
distribution
Methods of Re-apportionment or Re-
distribution
At first expenses of all departments are compiled
without making a distinction between production
and service departments but, then, the expenses of
the service departments are apportioned among
the production departments on a suitable basis.
It is also possible that expenses of one service
department may also be apportioned in part to
another service department to arrive at the total
expenses incurred on the latter department, which
will then be distributed among production
department.
• Following are the methods of re-distribution of service department costs to
production departments:
• Direct distribution method: Under this method, the cost of service
department are directly apportioned to production departments, without
taking into consideration any service from one service departments to
another service department.
• Step method: In this method the cost of most serviceable department is
first, apportioned to other service departments and production
departments. The next service department is taken up and its cost is
apportioned and this process is going on till the cost of last service
department is apportioned. The cost of last service department is
apportioned among production departments only.
• Reciprocal service method: This method gives cognizance to the fact that
where there are two or more service departments, they may render service
to each other and therefore these interdepartmental services are to be given
due weight in distributing the expenses of service departments.
There are two methods available for dealing with
inter service department transfer :
– Simultaneous equation method: Under this method,
the true cost of service departments are ascertained
first with the help of simultaneous equations. These
are then distributed among the production
departments on the basis of given percentages.
– Repeated distribution method: According to this
method service department costs are apportioned
over other departments, production as well as service
according to the agreed percentages and this process
is repeated until the total costs of the service
departments are exhausted or the figures become to
small to be considered for further apportionment.
ABSORPTION OF OVERHEADS
Absorption of overheads refers to charging of overheads to individual
products or jobs. The overhead expenses pertaining to a cost centre are
ultimately to be charged to the products, jobs etc. which pass through that
cost centre. For the purpose of absorption of overhead to individual jobs,
processes or products, overheads absorption rates are applied. The overhead
rate of expenses for absorbing them to production may be estimated on the
following three basis.
• The figure of the previous year or period may be adopted as the overhead
rate to be charged on production in the current year.
• The overhead rate for the year may be determined on the basis of the
estimated expenses and anticipated volume of production or activity.
• The overhead rate for the year may be determined on the basis of normal
volume of output or capacity of the business.
Actual and pre-determined overhead rate: The overhead absorption rate may
be computed either based on actual cost or on the basis of estimated cost:
Elements Total
Auxiliary center Main or principal centers
A B C D E
Primary sharing
Charges by nature
Raw material consumed
Transport expenses
External services
Primary total
Secondary sharing
Sharing of A
Sharing of B
Secondary totals
Nature of work unit
Number of work unit
Cost of work unit
……….
……….
……….
………
……....
………
……….
……….
……….
……….
……….
……….
……….
……….
……….
……….
……….
……….
P V
-V
W
A
-(W + a)
X
b
s
Y
c
t
Z
d
u
P 0 0 X+b+s
………
i
(X+b+s)
i
= c.o.w.u
Y+c+t
………
j
(Y+c+t)
j
= c.o.w.u
Z+d+u
……….
k
(Z+d+u)
k
= c.o.w.u
Example
The following charges were recorded in GENERAL MODERN BAKERY in
WUM during the month of January 2010
Elements Total ADMIN MAINT. W/S 1 W/S 2 DIST.
Rent expenses
Transport
External exp.
Rates & taxes
Personnel exp.
Depreciation
Financial exp.
1 215 000
1 225 000
960 000
850 000
35 920 000
1 490 000
420 000
120
520km
100%
10%
9 540 000
210 000
70%
40
50km
-
10%
8 620 000
180 000
10%
200
600km
-
30%
(1)
420 000
5%
150
-
-
30%
(1)
230 000
5%
300
2480km
-
20%
12 600 0000
450 000
10%
1) The personnel expenses under the workshop were shared amongst these
workshops proportionally to the number of workers of each workshop which
was 18 and 25 workers respectively. The administration and maintenance
centers are considered to be auxiliary centers and their totals were shared as
follows; Administration: 20% to workshop 1, 30% to wokshop2, and 50% to
distribution.
Maintenance: 40% to workshop1, 30% to workchop2, and 30% to distribution.
The mature of work unit in workshop1 is machine hours, workshop2 is direct hours
of labour and distribution is 100F of soles
There were 3 000 machine hours in workshop 1, 4000 direct hours of labour in
workshop2 and a turnover of 460 000F.
WORK REQUIRED: Present the repartition table of indirect charge
EXAMPLE 2
In an industrial enterprise the charges recorded in the
maintenance and energy centers amounted to 11 360F
and 79 040F respectively (primary totals). The nature of
work unit for maintenance is 1hour of direct labour this
center had legalized a total of 1000hours of direct labour
and provided 80hours to the energy center. The nature
work unit in the energy center is kw/hour and this center
had a total of 250000kw/hour and 2000 were provided to
the maintenance center.
WORK REQUIRED
Evaluate the repartition of charges in these two
centers by determining the cost of work units and the
totals of these centers.

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ACCOUNTING FOR OVERHEADS CONT........pptx

  • 1. PROCEDURE FOR ACCOUNTING PROCEDURE FOR ACCOUNTING AND CONTROL OF OVERHEADS TING AND CONTROL OF OVERHEADS The procedure for accounting and control of overheads involves the some steps described as follow: GOPTI EMMANUEL NCHAMCHAM CATUC BAMENDA
  • 2. • Classification of Overheads • Collection of Overheads • Distribution of overheads to production and service cost centers • Re-distribution from service cost center to production cost centers • Absorption of overheads by production units
  • 3. ALLOCATION AND APPORTIONMENT OF OVERHEADS (DEPART- MENTALISATION OF OVERHEADS) Most of the manufacturing process functionally are different and performed by different departments in a factory. Where such a division of functions has been made, some of the departments would be engaged in actual production of goods while others in providing services ancillary thereto.
  • 4. For the efficient working, a factory is divided into a number of sub-divisions. Such sub- divisions are referred to as departments. In other words, departmentalisation of overhead means dividing the factory into several segments called departments or cost centres to which expenses are charged. This sub-division is done in such a manner so that each department represents a division of activity of the organisation such as repairs department, power department, tools department, stores department, cost department, cash department, etc.
  • 5. The following factors are taken care of while dividing an organisation into number of departments: • Every manufacturing process is divided into its natural divisions in order to maintain natural flow of raw materials from the time of its purchase till its conversion into finished goods and sale. • The sequence of operations are taken into consideration while determining the location of various departments. • Division of responsibility as far as possible should be clear, without ambiguity and dual control.
  • 6. The departments in a factory can be broadly categorised into the following types: • Producing or manufacturing departments: A manufacturing or producing department is one in which manual/machine operations and other process of production of articles or commodities take place. The number of such departments will depend upon the nature of industry, type of work performed and the size of the factory. • Service departments: These departments are not directly engaged in production but they render special type of service for the benefit of other departments. • Partly producing departments: In every organisation a few departments such that it is not possible to place these departments into a particular category, since they fall within the purview of both categories, i.e. producing and service departments. For example, if a toolroom manufactures some special tools for utilisation in the main job orders, it is acting as a productive department though it is a service department.
  • 7. ALLOCATION OF OVERHEADS After having collected the overheads under proper standing order numbers the next step is to arrive at the amount for each department or cost centre. This may be through allocation or absorption. According to the Chartered Institute of Management Accountants, London, cost allocation is “that part of cost attribution which charges a specific cost to a cost centre or cost unit”. Thus, the wages paid to maintenance workers as obtained from wages analysis book can be allocated directly to maintenance service cost centre. Similarly indirect material cost can also be allocated to different cost centres according to use by pricing stores requisitions.
  • 8. APPORTIONMENT OF OVERHEADS Apportionment refers to the distribution of overheads among departments or cost centres on an equitable basis. In other words, apportionment involves charging a share of the overheads to a cost centre or cost unit. CIMA, London has defined it as “that part of cost attribution which shares costs among two or more cost centres or cost units in proportion to the estimated benefit received, using a proxy”. Apportionment is done in case of those overhead items which cannot be wholly allocated to a particular department. For example, the salary paid to the works manager of the factory, factory rent, general manager’s salary etc. cannot be charged wholly to a particular department or cost centre, but will have to be charged to all departments or cost centres on an equitable basis.
  • 9. 1. Primary distribution of overheads Primary distribution of overhead involves allocation or apportionment of different items of overhead to all departments of a factory. This is also known as departmentalisation of overheads. While making primary distribution the distinction between production departments and service departments disregarded since it is of little use. The distribution of different items of overhead in different departments is attempted on some logical and reasonable basis.
  • 10. 2. Re-apportionment of service department overheads (Secondary Distribution) Normally products do not pass through service departments, but service departments do benefit the manufacture of products. Therefore, it is logical that product cost should bear and equitable share of the cost of service departments. The process of redistribution of the cost of service departments among the production departments is known as secondary distribution
  • 11. Methods of Re-apportionment or Re- distribution At first expenses of all departments are compiled without making a distinction between production and service departments but, then, the expenses of the service departments are apportioned among the production departments on a suitable basis. It is also possible that expenses of one service department may also be apportioned in part to another service department to arrive at the total expenses incurred on the latter department, which will then be distributed among production department.
  • 12. • Following are the methods of re-distribution of service department costs to production departments: • Direct distribution method: Under this method, the cost of service department are directly apportioned to production departments, without taking into consideration any service from one service departments to another service department. • Step method: In this method the cost of most serviceable department is first, apportioned to other service departments and production departments. The next service department is taken up and its cost is apportioned and this process is going on till the cost of last service department is apportioned. The cost of last service department is apportioned among production departments only. • Reciprocal service method: This method gives cognizance to the fact that where there are two or more service departments, they may render service to each other and therefore these interdepartmental services are to be given due weight in distributing the expenses of service departments.
  • 13. There are two methods available for dealing with inter service department transfer : – Simultaneous equation method: Under this method, the true cost of service departments are ascertained first with the help of simultaneous equations. These are then distributed among the production departments on the basis of given percentages. – Repeated distribution method: According to this method service department costs are apportioned over other departments, production as well as service according to the agreed percentages and this process is repeated until the total costs of the service departments are exhausted or the figures become to small to be considered for further apportionment.
  • 14. ABSORPTION OF OVERHEADS Absorption of overheads refers to charging of overheads to individual products or jobs. The overhead expenses pertaining to a cost centre are ultimately to be charged to the products, jobs etc. which pass through that cost centre. For the purpose of absorption of overhead to individual jobs, processes or products, overheads absorption rates are applied. The overhead rate of expenses for absorbing them to production may be estimated on the following three basis. • The figure of the previous year or period may be adopted as the overhead rate to be charged on production in the current year. • The overhead rate for the year may be determined on the basis of the estimated expenses and anticipated volume of production or activity. • The overhead rate for the year may be determined on the basis of normal volume of output or capacity of the business. Actual and pre-determined overhead rate: The overhead absorption rate may be computed either based on actual cost or on the basis of estimated cost:
  • 15. Elements Total Auxiliary center Main or principal centers A B C D E Primary sharing Charges by nature Raw material consumed Transport expenses External services Primary total Secondary sharing Sharing of A Sharing of B Secondary totals Nature of work unit Number of work unit Cost of work unit ………. ………. ………. ……… …….... ……… ………. ………. ………. ………. ………. ………. ………. ………. ………. ………. ………. ………. P V -V W A -(W + a) X b s Y c t Z d u P 0 0 X+b+s ……… i (X+b+s) i = c.o.w.u Y+c+t ……… j (Y+c+t) j = c.o.w.u Z+d+u ………. k (Z+d+u) k = c.o.w.u
  • 16. Example The following charges were recorded in GENERAL MODERN BAKERY in WUM during the month of January 2010 Elements Total ADMIN MAINT. W/S 1 W/S 2 DIST. Rent expenses Transport External exp. Rates & taxes Personnel exp. Depreciation Financial exp. 1 215 000 1 225 000 960 000 850 000 35 920 000 1 490 000 420 000 120 520km 100% 10% 9 540 000 210 000 70% 40 50km - 10% 8 620 000 180 000 10% 200 600km - 30% (1) 420 000 5% 150 - - 30% (1) 230 000 5% 300 2480km - 20% 12 600 0000 450 000 10% 1) The personnel expenses under the workshop were shared amongst these workshops proportionally to the number of workers of each workshop which was 18 and 25 workers respectively. The administration and maintenance centers are considered to be auxiliary centers and their totals were shared as follows; Administration: 20% to workshop 1, 30% to wokshop2, and 50% to distribution. Maintenance: 40% to workshop1, 30% to workchop2, and 30% to distribution. The mature of work unit in workshop1 is machine hours, workshop2 is direct hours of labour and distribution is 100F of soles There were 3 000 machine hours in workshop 1, 4000 direct hours of labour in workshop2 and a turnover of 460 000F. WORK REQUIRED: Present the repartition table of indirect charge
  • 17. EXAMPLE 2 In an industrial enterprise the charges recorded in the maintenance and energy centers amounted to 11 360F and 79 040F respectively (primary totals). The nature of work unit for maintenance is 1hour of direct labour this center had legalized a total of 1000hours of direct labour and provided 80hours to the energy center. The nature work unit in the energy center is kw/hour and this center had a total of 250000kw/hour and 2000 were provided to the maintenance center. WORK REQUIRED Evaluate the repartition of charges in these two centers by determining the cost of work units and the totals of these centers.