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IBM Research




Paravirtualized File Systems



         Eric Van Hensbergen
         IBM Austin Research Lab
         (bergevan@us.ibm.com)




         KVM Forum 2008            © 2008 IBM Corporation
IBM Research




Agenda

     Motivation: Why File Systems?
     Overview of Approach (9P over Virtio)
     9P Basics
     Using 9P/virtio with KVM
     Preliminary Performance
     Future Work



2        Paravirtualized File Systems – KVM Forum 2008   © 2008 IBM Corporation
IBM Research




Traditional Storage Options
       Virtual Block Devices
        – Generally best performance
        – Built-in mechanisms for copy-on-write, snapshots, etc.
        – Generally exclusive to a guest
           – No easy way to maintain consistency between two guests
             sharing a block device read/write
        – Can be somewhat cumbersome to manage content out of guest
       Network File System
        – Provide mechanisms for consistency (mostly) so enable sharing
        – Can be used with special servers or stackable file systems (ie.
          Unionfs) to provide copy-on-write, snapshots, etc.
        – Incurs extra management and performance overhead
        – NFS (and many others) are quite latency sensitive and don't seem
          to do well over virtualized networks
3       Paravirtualized File Systems – KVM Forum 2008                © 2008 IBM Corporation
IBM Research




Goal

       Provide a direct file system proxy mechanism built
       on top of the native host<->guest I/O transport
       – Avoid unnecessary network and device overhead
       – Opportunity to optimize sharing and management
       Use cases
       – Access to host provided file hierarchy for consistent sharing with
         host and/or other guests
       – Access to transitive mount on host to traditional distributed or
         parallel file system
       – Use as an alternative to virtual disk for root file system so that
         content can be managed more effectively on the host
       – Use as a front-end to a file-system based content addressable
         storage system (such as Venti)

4       Paravirtualized File Systems – KVM Forum 2008                   © 2008 IBM Corporation
IBM Research




9P Basics: Overview

      Pure request/response RPC model
      Transport Independent
      – only requires reliable, in order delivery mechanism
      – can be secured with authentication, encryption, &
        digesting
      By default, requests are synchronous in nature
      avoiding coherence problems and race conditions
      Design stresses keeping things simple resulting in
      small and efficient client and servers

5       Paravirtualized File Systems – KVM Forum 2008   © 2008 IBM Corporation
IBM Research




9P in the Linux Kernel

       Since 2.6.14
       Small Client Code Base
        – fs/9p: VFS Interface ~1500 lines of code
        – net/9p
           – Core: Protocol Handling ~2500 lines of code
           – FD Transport (sockets, etc.): ~1100 lines of code
           – Virtio Transport: ~300 lines of code
       Small Server Code Base
        – Spfs (standard userspace server): ~7500 lines of code
        – Current KVM-qemu patch: ~1500 lines




6       Paravirtualized File Systems – KVM Forum 2008             © 2008 IBM Corporation
IBM Research




9P Basics: Protocol Overview


    size       op         tag          ...            Numeric pointer to a path element or open file



    size    Twrite tag                fid         offset      count               data



    size    Rwrite tag                 count




             Protocol Specification Available: http://v9fs.sf.net/rfc



7          Paravirtualized File Systems – KVM Forum 2008                                 © 2008 IBM Corporation
IBM Research



                                                           Session Management
9P Basics: Operations
                                                           – Version: protocol version and
    Metadata Management
                                                             capabilities negotiation
    – Stat: retrieve file metadata
                                                           – Attach: user identification and session
    – Wstat: write file metadata                             option negotiation

    File I/O                                               – Auth: user authentication enablement

    – Create: atomic create/open                           – Walk: hierarchy traversal and
                                                             transaction management
    – Open, Read, Write, Close

                                                           Error Management
    – Directory read packaged w/read
      operation (Reads stat information                    – Error: a pending request triggered an
      with file list)                                        error

    – Remove                                               – Flush: cancel a pending request
8          Paravirtualized File Systems – KVM Forum 2008                                  © 2008 IBM Corporation
IBM Research




9P Basics: Unix Extensions

       Existing Support:
       – UID/GID support
       – Error ID support
       – Stat mapping
       – Permissions mapping
       – Symbolic and Hard Links
       – Device Files
       Limitations which need to be overcome
       – File locking
       – Extended Attributes
       – Writable mmap
       – ioctl(?)

9       Paravirtualized File Systems – KVM Forum 2008   © 2008 IBM Corporation
IBM Research




9P/Virtio: Overview

       New transport module built for 9P which uses virtio
       9P packet buffers are marshaled into 4k chunks and
       shoved into ring buffers
       Client can handle multiple outstanding transactions,
       but server is currently single threaded
       Server is implemented within kvm-qemu (thanks to
       Anthony) and handles service of requests.
       Multiple channels supported, but currently no way of
       specifying which channel you want
       Lguest virtio also supported, but lguest server
       gateways packets from virtio to tcp/ip connection to
       server
10      Paravirtualized File Systems – KVM Forum 2008   © 2008 IBM Corporation
IBM Research




9P/Virtio: Basic Usage

       Make sure your guest kernel has:
        –9p, 9pnet and 9pnet_virtio kernel modules
       Patch kvm-qemu w/Anthony's patch
       Use -share argument to specify directory hierarchy
       to export when starting kvm-qemu
       Once guest is started:
        –mount -t 9p nodev /mnt -o trans=virtio
       Another Option:
        –Use 9P/virtio to provide root file system



11      Paravirtualized File Systems – KVM Forum 2008   © 2008 IBM Corporation
IBM Research




Preliminary Performance

       Running on my Thinkpad T60p
        – 2.16 GHz Core Duo
       Host Kernel: Ubuntu 2.6.24-18-generic
       KVM Userspace: kvm-69
       Guest Kernel: Ubuntu 2.6.24-18-generic w/patched
       virtio drivers
       KVM Initialized w/1 CPU and 128MB Memory
     qemu-system-x86_64 -share / -drive "file=/images/kvm-
       8.04.img,if=virtio,boot=on" -append "console=ttyS0" -serial stdio -
       nographic -net nic,module=virtio -net tap,script=/etc/kvm/qemu-ifup




12       Paravirtualized File Systems – KVM Forum 2008              © 2008 IBM Corporation
IBM Research




Preliminary Performance: Dbench

      1000




       100



                                                                                As y nc
                                                                                Sy nc



       10




         1
                        Virtio Dis k                   NFS   9P/v irtio




13           Paravirtualized File Systems – KVM Forum 2008                © 2008 IBM Corporation
IBM Research




Preliminary Performance: Postmark

      1000




       100



                                                                                                   Disk
                                                                                                   NFS
                                                                                                   9P


       10




         1
                  Create         Create/Mix        Read      Append   Delete   Delete/Mix




14           Paravirtualized File Systems – KVM Forum 2008                                  © 2008 IBM Corporation
IBM Research




Preliminary Performance: Bonnie (256MB)

      1000000




       100000




       10000


                                                                            Virtio Dis k
        1000                                                                NFS
                                                                            9P


         100




          10




           1
                     Output               Rewrite         Input   Seek




15        Paravirtualized File Systems – KVM Forum 2008                  © 2008 IBM Corporation
IBM Research




Future Work: Optimization

       Existing KVM server solution is synchronous
       – Use thread pools
       – Use async i/o
       – Use some combination of both
       More aggressive zero-copy support (2.6.27 merge
       window)
       – Current zero-copy only when cache is enabled
       – No write-cache support, so writes aren't zero-copy
       In-kernel server (2.6.28 merge window)
       – Should allow more aggressive zero-copy on the server side
       – Opens up potential for tricks such as guests sharing the server's
         page cache

16      Paravirtualized File Systems – KVM Forum 2008               © 2008 IBM Corporation
IBM Research




Future Work: Cache Mechanisms

      Linux/9P currently supports a loose read cache
       –No read-based coherence, any write-through
        invalidates the entire file's cache
      Write-cache alternatives (2.6.27 merge window)
       –Support write-back as well as write-through
        caching
      Lease based coherent caching part of a parallel
      project road map




17     Paravirtualized File Systems – KVM Forum 2008   © 2008 IBM Corporation
IBM Research




Future Work: .L extension series

       The 9P protocol is a network mapping of the Plan 9
       file system API
       Many mismatches with Linux/POSIX
       Existing .U extension model is clunky
       Developing a more direct mapping to Linux VFS
        – New opcodes which match VFS API
        – Linux native data formats (stat, permissions, etc.)
        – Direct support of extended attributes, locking, etc.
       Should be able to co-exist with legacy 9P and
       9P2000.u protocols and servers.


18      Paravirtualized File Systems – KVM Forum 2008            © 2008 IBM Corporation
IBM Research




Future Work

      Support multiple 9P connections with string-identifier
      based lookup
      Support guest to guest direct networking
      Use 9P as transport for other devices (block,
      network, audio, graphics)
      Native UID/GID mapping mechanisms
      Better packaging for server and utilities
      Kernel based built-in extensions
       – Composable exportable name space
       – Copy-on-write support & snapshot support
      Bridge based server support
       – Allow gateway of 9P from virtio to network based server
19     Paravirtualized File Systems – KVM Forum 2008               © 2008 IBM Corporation
IBM Research




Related Work

      Power Virtualization 9P Support
      Xen 9P support (currently orphaned)
      Lguest 9P support (virtio gateway to spfs)
      Envoy: Hierarchical Cache for Xen (Cambridge)
      Kvmfs: synthetic file system to control kvm (LANL)
      Plan 9 Kernel KVM and Lguest Support (Sandia)
      Foundation: Venti for storage content-addressable
      backend for vmware (MIT)




20     Paravirtualized File Systems – KVM Forum 2008   © 2008 IBM Corporation
IBM Research




Thanks

         Virtio development now part of mainline v9fs
         development repository
          –kernel.org:
           /pub/scm/linux/kernel/git/ericvh/v9fs.git#v9fs-devel
         Lguest and KVM server patches have been posted
         to mailing list
          – http://www.kernel.org/~ericvh/virtio
         Thanks to Anthony Ligouri for providing KVM server
         Thanks to Lucho Ionkov (LANL) for contributions to
         9P Linux client, providing the server infrastructure,
         and early work on PCI-based 9P client for KVM

21        Paravirtualized File Systems – KVM Forum 2008   © 2008 IBM Corporation
IBM Research




                                Backup Slides




22   Paravirtualized File Systems – KVM Forum 2008   © 2008 IBM Corporation
IBM Research




9P Client/Server Support

       Comprehensive list: http://9p.cat-
       v.org/implementations

       C, C#, Python, Ruby, Java, Python, TCL, Limbo,
       Lisp, OCAML, Scheme, PHP and Javascript

       FUSE Clients (for Linux, BSD, and Mac)

       Native Kernel Support for OpenBSD

       Windows support via Rangboom proprietary client
23      Paravirtualized File Systems – KVM Forum 2008   © 2008 IBM Corporation
IBM Research




9P Packet Trace
     <<< (0x8055650) Tattach tag 0 fid 2 afid -1 uname aname nuname 266594
     >>> (0x8055650) Rattach tag 0 qid (0000000000000002 48513969 'd')
     <<< (0x8055650) Twalk tag 0 fid 1 newfid 3 nwname 1 'test'
     >>> (0x8055650) Rwalk tag 0 nwqid 1 (000000000000401a 48613b9d 'd')
     <<< (0x8055650) Tstat tag 0 fid 3
     >>> (0x8055650) Rstat tag 0 'test' 'ericvh' 'root' '' q (000000000000401a 48513b9d 'd') m d777 at 1213278479 mt 1213283229 l 0 t
        0 d 0 ext ''
     <<< (0x8055650) Twalk tag 0 fid 3 newfid 4 nwname 1 'hello.txt'
     >>> (0x8055650) Rwalk tag 0 nwqid 1 (000000000000401b 4851379d '')
     <<< (0x8055650) Tstat tag 0 fid 4
     >>> (0x8055650) Rstat tag 0 'hello.txt' 'ericvh' 'ericvh' '' q (000000000000401b 4851379d '') m 644 at 1213283229 mt 1213283229 l
        12 t 0 d 0 ext ''
     <<< (0x8055650) Twalk tag 0 fid 4 newfid 5 nwname 0
     >>> (0x8055650) Rwalk tag 0 nwqid 0
     <<< (0x8055650) Topen tag 0 fid 5 mode 0
     >>> (0x8055650) Ropen tag 0 (000000000000401b 4851379d '') iounit 0
     <<< (0x8055650) Tstat tag 0 fid 4
     >>> (0x8055650) Rstat tag 0 'hello.txt' 'ericvh' 'ericvh' '' q (000000000000401b 4851379d '') m 644 at 1213283229 mt 1213283229 l
        12 t 0 d 0 ext ''
     <<< (0x8055650) Tread tag 0 fid 5 offset 0 count 8192
     >>> (0x8055650) Rread tag 0 count 12 data 68656c6c 6f20776f 726c640a

     <<< (0x8055650) Tread tag 0 fid 5 offset 12 count 8192
     >>> (0x8055650) Rread tag 0 count 0 data

     <<< (0x8055650) Tclunk tag 0 fid 5
     >>> (0x8055650) Rclunk tag 0
     <<< (0x8055650) Tclunk tag 0 fid 4
     >>> (0x8055650) Rclunk tag 0
     <<< (0x8055650) Tclunk tag 0 fid 3
     >>> (0x8055650) Rclunk tag 0


24          Paravirtualized File Systems – KVM Forum 2008                                                             © 2008 IBM Corporation

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Paravirtualized File Systems

  • 1. IBM Research Paravirtualized File Systems Eric Van Hensbergen IBM Austin Research Lab (bergevan@us.ibm.com) KVM Forum 2008 © 2008 IBM Corporation
  • 2. IBM Research Agenda Motivation: Why File Systems? Overview of Approach (9P over Virtio) 9P Basics Using 9P/virtio with KVM Preliminary Performance Future Work 2 Paravirtualized File Systems – KVM Forum 2008 © 2008 IBM Corporation
  • 3. IBM Research Traditional Storage Options Virtual Block Devices – Generally best performance – Built-in mechanisms for copy-on-write, snapshots, etc. – Generally exclusive to a guest – No easy way to maintain consistency between two guests sharing a block device read/write – Can be somewhat cumbersome to manage content out of guest Network File System – Provide mechanisms for consistency (mostly) so enable sharing – Can be used with special servers or stackable file systems (ie. Unionfs) to provide copy-on-write, snapshots, etc. – Incurs extra management and performance overhead – NFS (and many others) are quite latency sensitive and don't seem to do well over virtualized networks 3 Paravirtualized File Systems – KVM Forum 2008 © 2008 IBM Corporation
  • 4. IBM Research Goal Provide a direct file system proxy mechanism built on top of the native host<->guest I/O transport – Avoid unnecessary network and device overhead – Opportunity to optimize sharing and management Use cases – Access to host provided file hierarchy for consistent sharing with host and/or other guests – Access to transitive mount on host to traditional distributed or parallel file system – Use as an alternative to virtual disk for root file system so that content can be managed more effectively on the host – Use as a front-end to a file-system based content addressable storage system (such as Venti) 4 Paravirtualized File Systems – KVM Forum 2008 © 2008 IBM Corporation
  • 5. IBM Research 9P Basics: Overview Pure request/response RPC model Transport Independent – only requires reliable, in order delivery mechanism – can be secured with authentication, encryption, & digesting By default, requests are synchronous in nature avoiding coherence problems and race conditions Design stresses keeping things simple resulting in small and efficient client and servers 5 Paravirtualized File Systems – KVM Forum 2008 © 2008 IBM Corporation
  • 6. IBM Research 9P in the Linux Kernel Since 2.6.14 Small Client Code Base – fs/9p: VFS Interface ~1500 lines of code – net/9p – Core: Protocol Handling ~2500 lines of code – FD Transport (sockets, etc.): ~1100 lines of code – Virtio Transport: ~300 lines of code Small Server Code Base – Spfs (standard userspace server): ~7500 lines of code – Current KVM-qemu patch: ~1500 lines 6 Paravirtualized File Systems – KVM Forum 2008 © 2008 IBM Corporation
  • 7. IBM Research 9P Basics: Protocol Overview size op tag ... Numeric pointer to a path element or open file size Twrite tag fid offset count data size Rwrite tag count Protocol Specification Available: http://v9fs.sf.net/rfc 7 Paravirtualized File Systems – KVM Forum 2008 © 2008 IBM Corporation
  • 8. IBM Research Session Management 9P Basics: Operations – Version: protocol version and Metadata Management capabilities negotiation – Stat: retrieve file metadata – Attach: user identification and session – Wstat: write file metadata option negotiation File I/O – Auth: user authentication enablement – Create: atomic create/open – Walk: hierarchy traversal and transaction management – Open, Read, Write, Close Error Management – Directory read packaged w/read operation (Reads stat information – Error: a pending request triggered an with file list) error – Remove – Flush: cancel a pending request 8 Paravirtualized File Systems – KVM Forum 2008 © 2008 IBM Corporation
  • 9. IBM Research 9P Basics: Unix Extensions Existing Support: – UID/GID support – Error ID support – Stat mapping – Permissions mapping – Symbolic and Hard Links – Device Files Limitations which need to be overcome – File locking – Extended Attributes – Writable mmap – ioctl(?) 9 Paravirtualized File Systems – KVM Forum 2008 © 2008 IBM Corporation
  • 10. IBM Research 9P/Virtio: Overview New transport module built for 9P which uses virtio 9P packet buffers are marshaled into 4k chunks and shoved into ring buffers Client can handle multiple outstanding transactions, but server is currently single threaded Server is implemented within kvm-qemu (thanks to Anthony) and handles service of requests. Multiple channels supported, but currently no way of specifying which channel you want Lguest virtio also supported, but lguest server gateways packets from virtio to tcp/ip connection to server 10 Paravirtualized File Systems – KVM Forum 2008 © 2008 IBM Corporation
  • 11. IBM Research 9P/Virtio: Basic Usage Make sure your guest kernel has: –9p, 9pnet and 9pnet_virtio kernel modules Patch kvm-qemu w/Anthony's patch Use -share argument to specify directory hierarchy to export when starting kvm-qemu Once guest is started: –mount -t 9p nodev /mnt -o trans=virtio Another Option: –Use 9P/virtio to provide root file system 11 Paravirtualized File Systems – KVM Forum 2008 © 2008 IBM Corporation
  • 12. IBM Research Preliminary Performance Running on my Thinkpad T60p – 2.16 GHz Core Duo Host Kernel: Ubuntu 2.6.24-18-generic KVM Userspace: kvm-69 Guest Kernel: Ubuntu 2.6.24-18-generic w/patched virtio drivers KVM Initialized w/1 CPU and 128MB Memory qemu-system-x86_64 -share / -drive "file=/images/kvm- 8.04.img,if=virtio,boot=on" -append "console=ttyS0" -serial stdio - nographic -net nic,module=virtio -net tap,script=/etc/kvm/qemu-ifup 12 Paravirtualized File Systems – KVM Forum 2008 © 2008 IBM Corporation
  • 13. IBM Research Preliminary Performance: Dbench 1000 100 As y nc Sy nc 10 1 Virtio Dis k NFS 9P/v irtio 13 Paravirtualized File Systems – KVM Forum 2008 © 2008 IBM Corporation
  • 14. IBM Research Preliminary Performance: Postmark 1000 100 Disk NFS 9P 10 1 Create Create/Mix Read Append Delete Delete/Mix 14 Paravirtualized File Systems – KVM Forum 2008 © 2008 IBM Corporation
  • 15. IBM Research Preliminary Performance: Bonnie (256MB) 1000000 100000 10000 Virtio Dis k 1000 NFS 9P 100 10 1 Output Rewrite Input Seek 15 Paravirtualized File Systems – KVM Forum 2008 © 2008 IBM Corporation
  • 16. IBM Research Future Work: Optimization Existing KVM server solution is synchronous – Use thread pools – Use async i/o – Use some combination of both More aggressive zero-copy support (2.6.27 merge window) – Current zero-copy only when cache is enabled – No write-cache support, so writes aren't zero-copy In-kernel server (2.6.28 merge window) – Should allow more aggressive zero-copy on the server side – Opens up potential for tricks such as guests sharing the server's page cache 16 Paravirtualized File Systems – KVM Forum 2008 © 2008 IBM Corporation
  • 17. IBM Research Future Work: Cache Mechanisms Linux/9P currently supports a loose read cache –No read-based coherence, any write-through invalidates the entire file's cache Write-cache alternatives (2.6.27 merge window) –Support write-back as well as write-through caching Lease based coherent caching part of a parallel project road map 17 Paravirtualized File Systems – KVM Forum 2008 © 2008 IBM Corporation
  • 18. IBM Research Future Work: .L extension series The 9P protocol is a network mapping of the Plan 9 file system API Many mismatches with Linux/POSIX Existing .U extension model is clunky Developing a more direct mapping to Linux VFS – New opcodes which match VFS API – Linux native data formats (stat, permissions, etc.) – Direct support of extended attributes, locking, etc. Should be able to co-exist with legacy 9P and 9P2000.u protocols and servers. 18 Paravirtualized File Systems – KVM Forum 2008 © 2008 IBM Corporation
  • 19. IBM Research Future Work Support multiple 9P connections with string-identifier based lookup Support guest to guest direct networking Use 9P as transport for other devices (block, network, audio, graphics) Native UID/GID mapping mechanisms Better packaging for server and utilities Kernel based built-in extensions – Composable exportable name space – Copy-on-write support & snapshot support Bridge based server support – Allow gateway of 9P from virtio to network based server 19 Paravirtualized File Systems – KVM Forum 2008 © 2008 IBM Corporation
  • 20. IBM Research Related Work Power Virtualization 9P Support Xen 9P support (currently orphaned) Lguest 9P support (virtio gateway to spfs) Envoy: Hierarchical Cache for Xen (Cambridge) Kvmfs: synthetic file system to control kvm (LANL) Plan 9 Kernel KVM and Lguest Support (Sandia) Foundation: Venti for storage content-addressable backend for vmware (MIT) 20 Paravirtualized File Systems – KVM Forum 2008 © 2008 IBM Corporation
  • 21. IBM Research Thanks Virtio development now part of mainline v9fs development repository –kernel.org: /pub/scm/linux/kernel/git/ericvh/v9fs.git#v9fs-devel Lguest and KVM server patches have been posted to mailing list – http://www.kernel.org/~ericvh/virtio Thanks to Anthony Ligouri for providing KVM server Thanks to Lucho Ionkov (LANL) for contributions to 9P Linux client, providing the server infrastructure, and early work on PCI-based 9P client for KVM 21 Paravirtualized File Systems – KVM Forum 2008 © 2008 IBM Corporation
  • 22. IBM Research Backup Slides 22 Paravirtualized File Systems – KVM Forum 2008 © 2008 IBM Corporation
  • 23. IBM Research 9P Client/Server Support Comprehensive list: http://9p.cat- v.org/implementations C, C#, Python, Ruby, Java, Python, TCL, Limbo, Lisp, OCAML, Scheme, PHP and Javascript FUSE Clients (for Linux, BSD, and Mac) Native Kernel Support for OpenBSD Windows support via Rangboom proprietary client 23 Paravirtualized File Systems – KVM Forum 2008 © 2008 IBM Corporation
  • 24. IBM Research 9P Packet Trace <<< (0x8055650) Tattach tag 0 fid 2 afid -1 uname aname nuname 266594 >>> (0x8055650) Rattach tag 0 qid (0000000000000002 48513969 'd') <<< (0x8055650) Twalk tag 0 fid 1 newfid 3 nwname 1 'test' >>> (0x8055650) Rwalk tag 0 nwqid 1 (000000000000401a 48613b9d 'd') <<< (0x8055650) Tstat tag 0 fid 3 >>> (0x8055650) Rstat tag 0 'test' 'ericvh' 'root' '' q (000000000000401a 48513b9d 'd') m d777 at 1213278479 mt 1213283229 l 0 t 0 d 0 ext '' <<< (0x8055650) Twalk tag 0 fid 3 newfid 4 nwname 1 'hello.txt' >>> (0x8055650) Rwalk tag 0 nwqid 1 (000000000000401b 4851379d '') <<< (0x8055650) Tstat tag 0 fid 4 >>> (0x8055650) Rstat tag 0 'hello.txt' 'ericvh' 'ericvh' '' q (000000000000401b 4851379d '') m 644 at 1213283229 mt 1213283229 l 12 t 0 d 0 ext '' <<< (0x8055650) Twalk tag 0 fid 4 newfid 5 nwname 0 >>> (0x8055650) Rwalk tag 0 nwqid 0 <<< (0x8055650) Topen tag 0 fid 5 mode 0 >>> (0x8055650) Ropen tag 0 (000000000000401b 4851379d '') iounit 0 <<< (0x8055650) Tstat tag 0 fid 4 >>> (0x8055650) Rstat tag 0 'hello.txt' 'ericvh' 'ericvh' '' q (000000000000401b 4851379d '') m 644 at 1213283229 mt 1213283229 l 12 t 0 d 0 ext '' <<< (0x8055650) Tread tag 0 fid 5 offset 0 count 8192 >>> (0x8055650) Rread tag 0 count 12 data 68656c6c 6f20776f 726c640a <<< (0x8055650) Tread tag 0 fid 5 offset 12 count 8192 >>> (0x8055650) Rread tag 0 count 0 data <<< (0x8055650) Tclunk tag 0 fid 5 >>> (0x8055650) Rclunk tag 0 <<< (0x8055650) Tclunk tag 0 fid 4 >>> (0x8055650) Rclunk tag 0 <<< (0x8055650) Tclunk tag 0 fid 3 >>> (0x8055650) Rclunk tag 0 24 Paravirtualized File Systems – KVM Forum 2008 © 2008 IBM Corporation