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ECOLOGICAL
PROFILE
PROVINCE OF ILOCOS NORTE
Prepared and Consolidated by:
OFFICE OF THE PLANNING AND
DEVELOPMENT COORDINATOR
2023
TABLE OF CONTENTS
PART 1 :
THE DAWN OF ILOCOS NORTE
A. The Land of Ilocos Region . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1
B. History of Ilocos . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1
C. The Provinces . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3
D. Cultural Background . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3
E. Historical Personalities . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5
F. Brief History of Ilocos Norte . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6
G. Cultural Background of Ilocos Norte . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7
PART 2 :
GEO-PHYSICAL ENVIRONMENT
A. Geographical Location . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19
B. Topography . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22
C. Geology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24
D. Climate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25
E. Hazard Profile . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28
PART 3 :
NATURAL RESOURCES & ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT
A. Land Resources . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31
B. Mineral Resources . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33
C. Forestry Resources
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36
D. Fishing and Aquatic Resources . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39
E. Environmental Management . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42
PART 4 :
POPULATION & SOCIAL PROFILE
A. Demography . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50
B. Education . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 85
C. Health and Welfare . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 108
D. Agriculture . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 132
E. Labor and Employment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 142
F. Human Development Index . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 152
G. Construction and Housing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 162
H. Public Order and Safety . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 176
I. Tourism . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 186
PART 5 :
LOCAL ECONOMY
A. Investment Potentials . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 198
B. Investment Incentives for Doing Business . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 202
C. Trade and Industry . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 203
D. Income and Expenditure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 206
PART 6 :
INFRASTRUCTURE & UTILITIES
A. Roads and Bridges . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 209
B. Airport and Seaport . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 212
C. Communication . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 218
D. Water . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 219
E. Sanitation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 232
F. Power . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 234
G. Drainage/Flood Control
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 237
H. Solid Waste Management . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 237
PART 7 :
ADMINISTRATIVE SYSTEM & RELATED LOCAL INSTITUTIONS
A. Organization and Management . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 240
B. Local Administration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 259
C. Government Support Organizations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 267
D. Non-Government Organizations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 270
E. Local Budget Performance and Financial
Statements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 276
F. Revenue Classifications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 309
G. Financial Institutions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 310
Disclaimer: Tables, maps and other information contained in this document are from various sources and are consolidated for general information
purposes only and are not intended for use as source of any advice such as legal, medical, accounting and the likes.
Ecological Profile: PROVINCE OF ILOCOS NORTE Part 1: THE DAWN OF ILOCOS NORTE 1
A.THE LAND OF ILOCOS REGION
It is collectively known as
Ilocandia – this
northwestern part of
Luzon which would have
remained a wasteland,
were it not for the tough,
headstrong, ingenious
and spirited inhabitants
who were determined to
overcome a hostile
environment.
Ilocandia is about two-
thirds mountain range.
The Cordilleras run all
along its eastern side. Off its western side is the China Sea. Between sea and
mountain is a corridor so narrow that in some places mountain and sea almost
meet.
Originally there was only one province of the Ilocos, which even in pre-Spanish
times was among the most thickly populated areas in the country. A burgeoning
population made imperative the creation of different provinces: Pangasinan in
1611, Ilocos Norte and
Ilocos Sur in 1818, Abra
in 1846, La Union in
1854, Mountain Province
in 1908 (by the
Americans) and Benguet
in 1966 (Republic Act
4695).
B. HISTORY OF
ILOCOS
The Ilocos Region was
originally inhabited by
Negritos who were later
driven to the mountains
by the immigrating
Malays. The early Malay settlers were probably of three different groups: the
Isneg, the Tinguian and the Ilocano. Though they spoke the same language and
shared the same customs, they came as separate clans and stayed separate.
Part 1: THE DAWN OF ILOCOS NORTE
The PAOAY CHURCH, one of the four Baroque Churches in the Philippines
has been registered in 1993 as a universal Cultural Heritage in accordance
with the 1972 UNESCO Convention.
Disclaimer: Tables, maps and other information contained in this document are from various sources and are consolidated for general information
purposes only and are not intended for use as source of any advice such as legal, medical, accounting and the likes.
Ecological Profile: PROVINCE OF ILOCOS NORTE Part 1: THE DAWN OF ILOCOS NORTE 2
The Ilocano proved to be the most aggressive and dominant. The entire seacoast
gradually became exclusively Ilocano turf. The Isneg and the Tinguian were
pushed into the interior. There they developed a dialect and culture that became
more and more distinct as they guarded the purity of their highland culture
jealousy from the influence of the lowland folk, those settlers who built villages
near small bays or coves (called looc, or loco in the native dialect) and who were
therefore referred to as “Ilocano”.
Before the coming of the Spaniards, the coastal plains in the northeastern
extreme of Luzon were known as a progressive region rich in gold. An expedition
led by Salcedo in 1572 explored the Ilocos region, landing on the coastal area and
settling on the shore of a river called Bigan. There he occupied a town settlement,
also called Bigan (now Vigan) and christened it Villa Fernandina, in honor of
Prince Ferdinand, son of King Philip II of Spain. Laoag also fell to the Spaniards,
but not without resistance from the natives.
The Spaniards found the Ilocano settlers relatively peaceful, orderly and
prosperous. They lived in large villages and sheltered coves and bays, as well as
along the mouths and banks of big rivers and streams. Each village was under
one headman, but there was certainly no tribal grouping. They had trade relations
with other people from the neighboring areas. They were also occasionally
engaged in foreign trade, especially with the Japanese and Chinese.
The Ilocano settlers were soon called upon to render tribute and voluntary service
to the colonizers, either to man the boats or to work in construction projects. This
and oppressive taxes were primary sources of grievances which led to many
minor revolts that were easily crushed but which caused many people to leave
their homes and move elsewhere.
Peasant revolts which took place in the rural areas of the country including the
Ilocos region during the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries varied in cause, in
leadership and in magnitude. However, they revolved around a common theme:
protest against compulsory labor, unfair taxation, suppression of local practices,
and abuses of the Spaniards.
The coming of the Americans in 1898 and their aggressive “pacification”
campaigns met with stiff resistance from the Ilocano peasants. It was only in 1901
after a long, bloody war that peace and order were restored and local
development began to take place with the construction and opening of public
schools, hospitals, roads and bridges. The administration of local government
was entrusted to Filipino officials and more and more educated Ilocano men
became national leaders.
The ensuing years were periods of growth and development until the outbreak of
World War II in the Philippines in December 1941 and the subsequent Japanese
occupation for four years. The defeat of the Japanese in 1945 restored peace
and order.
Disclaimer: Tables, maps and other information contained in this document are from various sources and are consolidated for general information
purposes only and are not intended for use as source of any advice such as legal, medical, accounting and the likes.
Ecological Profile: PROVINCE OF ILOCOS NORTE Part 1: THE DAWN OF ILOCOS NORTE 3
The Ilocos region today continues its development with the same tenacity of
purpose, hard work and perseverance on the part of its people who had sustained
it for centuries. Sometimes the placid peasant life is disturbed by tremors of
violence when political tempers run high and the Ilocano is allowed to go
unrestrained. Nevertheless, the drive to improve his lot does not allow such
conflicts to affect his social mobility, his striving for wider participation in the
national scene. The Ilocano rides the crest of conflict and makes it work for him
rather than succumb to its consequences.
C. THE PROVINCES
One enters the region through Pangasinan which occupies the northern portion of
the vast central plain of Luzon. Seaward is Lingayen Gulf, with its rich resources
of fish and other forms of marine life. The sprawling rice fields and other
cultivated areas are fertile lands enriched by the Agno River and are considered
among the best agricultural lands in the country.
Northward beyond the Pangasinan plain lies La Union, the commercial tourism
and administrative government center of the region. It is narrow and hilly,
squeezed in between mountain and sea, but boasting of beautiful beaches along
its irregular coastline.
Beyond La Union are the two Ilocos provinces – Ilocos Norte and Ilocos Sur, the
twin hearts of Ilocano culture. Much of Ilocos Norte is rugged and rocky, its
narrow plains also hemmed in by the mountains and the sea. Ilocos Sur lies at the
northeastern portion of Luzon, bounded by the China Sea on the eastern part and
by mountain ranges on the southwestern part.
Abra is an interior province carved out of huge chunks of Ilocos Sur and Ilocos
Norte. It is almost all upland, except for the fertile Abra River valley at its heart.
The valley is nourished and drained by the Abra River which cuts the province into
north and south halves and makes Abra the richest province in the region in terms
of water resources.
Benguet is the gateway to the Mountain Province, the seat of Igorot culture.
Mountainous and hilly, broken by several narrow valleys and high plateaus, much
of the province is suitable only for forestry, wildlife, and recreation.
The Mountain Province is a block of high and massive mountains, with no level
lands except in small river valleys that lie at the foot of its towering mountains.
Shut off from the lowlands by rugged peaks, the people of this province have
preserved their indigenous culture and way of life up to this day.
D.CULTURAL BACKGROUND OF ILOCOS REGION
Ilocandia today has a rich culture reminiscent of colonial times. Vigan, the
colonial metropolis which was the administrative capital of the undivided Ilocos
Province and the ecclesiastical center of the Archdiocese of Nueva Segovia, still
Disclaimer: Tables, maps and other information contained in this document are from various sources and are consolidated for general information
purposes only and are not intended for use as source of any advice such as legal, medical, accounting and the likes.
Ecological Profile: PROVINCE OF ILOCOS NORTE Part 1: THE DAWN OF ILOCOS NORTE 4
retains the Castilian colonial architecture of the time. Lined along its narrow and
cobblestone streets are old Spanish-type houses (commonly called Vigan House)
most of which are now empty. These stately homes have huge high-pitched
roofs, large arched doorways, cavernous-looking, entresuelos, a flight of sweeping
staircases, large rectangular living rooms with life size mirrors, old wooden
furniture and ornate Vienna sets. The more affluent homes boast of multicolored
Chinese ceramic pedestals standing in pairs before doorways and bultos – small
ivory statues of Mary, Joseph and Infant Jesus and other saints. The churches of
the Ilocos region are the enduring symbol of the triumphal transformation of the
Ilocano from animistic paganism to theistic Christianity.
Probably the most impressive are the Vigan Cathedral in Ilocos Sur with its
massive hand-carved images of the Via Crucis; that of Magsingal with its
centuries-old wooden altar, thirty feet high and also hand carved; the Paoay
Church, the largest and one of the oldest churches in the region. Its massive
buttresses measure two meters thick and eleven meters high.
The Laoag Church has a tower patterned after the famous campanile in northern
Italy. Once the tallest in the archipelago, it has slowly sunk to the ground such
that its original gate which was spacious enough for a man on horseback to enter
has now become so low that only boys can pass through.
The Bacarra Church has a bell tower that looks like a monk on his knees on
prayer. Its leaning tower which was damaged by a strong earthquake is likened to
the tower of Pisa in Italy.
Still dotting the shores are centuries-old watchtowers built during the early part of
the Spanish rule when Moro pirates frequently raided the coastal villages of the
Ilocos and Cagayan.
Cape Bojeador, the tallest lighthouse in the country and perhaps in Asia and
located in the town of Burgos, Ilocos Norte, was originally an observation post
used to warn the people of impending naval attacks. It serves as a guide to ships
plying the dangerous eddies of Point Lacay-lacay.
Although the clannish Ilocano people are conserving and traditional in their ways,
the inroads of change and progress into their lives are evident. Modern
supermarkets have risen over the older public markets and coastal towns have
sprouted beach resorts, parks and subdivisions. Factories, banks, sports,
complexes, schools, colleges and universities have now become part of Ilocano
communities like San Fernando (La Union), the regional capital; Vigan (Ilocos
Sur); Laoag City (Ilocos Norte) and Bangued (Abra) – all bustling industrial,
commercial and educational centers. Paredes Air Base in Sapat, Pasuquin,
Ilocos Norte is the radar station of the Philippine Air Force. Malacañang ti
Amianan in Suba, Paoay, Ilocos Norte is the “Malacanang of the North” where the
President of the Republic sometimes meets with his Cabinet. The modern
national highway circumscribing northern Luzon connects all the Ilocos provinces
and the Cagayan Valley.
Disclaimer: Tables, maps and other information contained in this document are from various sources and are consolidated for general information
purposes only and are not intended for use as source of any advice such as legal, medical, accounting and the likes.
Ecological Profile: PROVINCE OF ILOCOS NORTE Part 1: THE DAWN OF ILOCOS NORTE 5
Juan N. Luna
(October 23, 1857 to
December 7, 1899)
Antonio N. Luna
(October 29, 1866 to
June 5, 1899)
The earliest estimate of the population based on encomienda lists of tribute
payers was 80,000. By 1887 – about the end of Spanish colonial rule – the
population had soared to almost 500,000. As population grew unabated, Ilocano
families migrated to the Cagayan Valley, Pangasinan, Nueva Ecija, Tarlac,
Zambales and Manila; then to the islands of Mindoro, Palawan and Mindanao.
The historic “Ilocano Movement” was not limited to the archipelago. As early as
the 1920’s Ilocano men were working in the plantations of Hawaii, the orchards of
California, the American bases in Guam, the canneries of Alaska. Today they
constitute a large part of the Filipino work force in the deserts and oil fields of
Saudi Arabia.
E. HISTORICAL PERSONALITIES
From the region came many of our national heroes, especially in our revolutionary
struggles against Spanish and American domination.
In Badoc, Ilocos Norte, was born
Juan Luna, a painter and a patriot.
His brother Antonio, a general under
Emilio Aguinaldo, was born in Manila,
but the Luna family came from the
Ilocos; their mother was from
Namacpacan, a town in La Union,
where the ancestral house has been
converted into museum.
Batac, Ilocos Norte, has contributed,
among others, the person of Gregorio
Aglipay, patriot-priest. Ordained a Catholic priest, he was later excommunicated.
In August 1901 he announced a plan to found a Filipino independent church. This
was formally established on August 3, 1902, as the Iglesia Filipina Independiente.
The movement quickly gained adherents in numbers beyond the imagination of
the American colonial administrators. Patriotism, more than religion, was the
reason for its phenomenal growth. Many adherents declared themselves openly
against the United States and advocated independence. Isabelo de los Reyes,
himself an Ilocano, later to champion workers’ rights, was an active Aglipayan
church leader. Artemio Ricarte, the general who refused to surrender to the
Americans, was also from Batac.
From Paoay came Agaton Evangelista, whose son, General Edilberto
Evangelista, became known in Philippine history as the hero of Zapote (Las Pinas
Bridge. Evangelista’s engineering skills were put to valuable use during the
Philippine revolution in building trenches in Cavite that helped the Filipinos repel
Spanish attacks.
Disclaimer: Tables, maps and other information contained in this document are from various sources and are consolidated for general information
purposes only and are not intended for use as source of any advice such as legal, medical, accounting and the likes.
Ecological Profile: PROVINCE OF ILOCOS NORTE Part 1: THE DAWN OF ILOCOS NORTE 6
Josefa Llanes Escoda
(September 20, 1898 to
January 6, 1945)
Pres. Ferdinand E. Marcos
(September 11, 1917 to
September 28, 1989)
An Ilocos regional
landmark that figured
in the Filipino-Spanish
and Filipino-American
wars is Tirad Pass in
Ilocos Sur, where
Gregorio del Pilar and
fifty-two of his men
heroically held off the
Americans so General
Aguinaldo could make
a strategic retreat.
A World War II heroine
was Josefa Llanes Escoda, born in Dingras, Ilocos Norte, on September 20, 1898.
She was called the “Florence Nightingale of the Philippines,” in recognition of her
lifework as a social worker for the Red Cross.
Two presidents are native sons of the Ilocos provinces. Elpidio Quirino, the
second President of the Philippine Republic was born in Vigan, Ilocos Sur. The
town of Sarrat, Ilocos Norte, is the birthplace and hometown of Ferdinand E.
Marcos, the sixth President of the Republic.
F. BRIEF HISTORY OF ILOCOS NORTE
Long before the coming of the Spaniards, there already existed an extensive
region consisting of the present provinces of Ilocos Norte, Ilocos Sur, Abra and La
Union) renowned for its gold mines. Merchants from Japan and China would
often visit the area to trade gold with beads, ceramics and silk. The inhabitants of
the region, believed to be of Malay origin, called their place “samtoy”, from “sao mi
toy, which literally meant “our language”.
In 1571, when the Spanish conquistadors had Manila more or less under their
control, they began looking for new sites to conquer. Legaspi’s grandson, Juan
de Salcedo, volunteered to lead one of these expeditions. Together with 8 armed
boats and 45 men, the 22-year-old voyager headed north.
On June 13, 1572, Salcedo and his men landed in Vigan and then proceeded
towards Laoag, Currimao and Badoc. As they sailed along the coast, they were
surprised to see numerous sheltered coves (“looc”) where the locals lived in
harmony. As a result, they named the region “Ylocos” and its people “Ylocanos”.
As the Christianization of the region grew, so did the landscape of the area. Vast
tracks of land were utilized for churches and bell towers in line with the Spanish
mission of “bajo las campanas”. In the town plaza, it was not uncommon to see
garrisons under the church bells. The colonization process was slowly being
carried out.
Disclaimer: Tables, maps and other information contained in this document are from various sources and are consolidated for general information
purposes only and are not intended for use as source of any advice such as legal, medical, accounting and the likes.
Ecological Profile: PROVINCE OF ILOCOS NORTE Part 1: THE DAWN OF ILOCOS NORTE 7
The Spanish colonization of the region, however, was never completely
successful. Owing to the abusive practices of many Augustinian friars, a number
of Ilocanos revolted against their colonizers. Noteworthy of these were the
Dingras uprising (1589) and Pedro Almasan revolt (San Nicolas, 1660). In 1762,
Diego Silang led a series of battles aimed at freeing the Ilocanos from the Spanish
yoke. When he died from an assassin’s bullet, his widow Gabriela continued the
cause. Unfortunately, she too was captured and hanged. In 1807, the sugar
cane (“basi”) brewers of Piddig rose up in arms to protest the government’s
monopoly of the wine industry. In 1898, the church excommunicated Gregorio
Aglipay for refusing to cut off ties with the revolutionary forces of Gen. Emilio
Aguinaldo. Unperturbed, he established the “Iglesia Filipina Independiente”.
Aglipay’s movement and the national sentiment it espoused helped restore the
self-respect of many Filipinos.
“The great increase in population from 1,715 to 1,818 from 18,980 to 282,845
made the administration of the province very difficult. Due to the excessive
monopolies and forced labor, there were several uprisings: first by the people of
Dingras in 1589; one that was led by Pedro Almazan in 1616; the revolt of Diego
Silang in 1762-1763; by Ambaristo in 1788; by Pedro Mateo in 1808 and uprising
of Sarrat in 1815. For this reason, the division of the Ilocos into two provinces was
recommended by the local authorities. On February 2, 1818, a Spanish Royal
Decree was promulgated dividing the Province of Ilocos Norte from Ilocos Sur.
Laoag City, which was then the biggest center of population, was made the capital
of Ilocos Norte.”
G.CULTURAL BACKGROUND OF ILOCOS NORTE
1. ETHNIC ORIGIN OF THE PEOPLE
The first inhabitants of the province were the Apayaos, Igorots, Itnegs and
Tinguians. Invasions by groups with superior weapons and a number of men
drove these natives into the mountains wherein they still thrive until today. People
from the neighboring provinces as well as from other countries reach the province
through business activities or trading. Intermarriage was also a factor for the
The magnificent Provincial Capitol of Ilocos Norte in modest elegance and confidence that symbolizes a strong
fortress of the province and a hearty home of Ilocanos situated at the heart of Laoag City.
Disclaimer: Tables, maps and other information contained in this document are from various sources and are consolidated for general information
purposes only and are not intended for use as source of any advice such as legal, medical, accounting and the likes.
Ecological Profile: PROVINCE OF ILOCOS NORTE Part 1: THE DAWN OF ILOCOS NORTE 8
growing number of Tagalogs, Visayanos, Bicolanos, Pampagueños, Chinese and
Bombays.
2. ETHNIC GROUPS
Table 1-1. Household Population by Ethnicity by Sex, Ilocos Norte, 2010
Ethnicity Total %
Ilocos Norte 608,508 100.0000
Abelling/Aberling 4 0.0007
Aeta 37 0.0061
Aeta/Ayta 32 0.0053
Aeta/Ayta-Sambal 4 0.0007
Afghan 15 0.0025
Agta 3 0.0005
Agta-Taboy 7 0.0012
Agutaynen 9 0.0015
American 60 0.0099
Applai 3 0.0005
Aromanen-Manobo/Dibabeen 6 0.0010
Aromanen-Manobo/Ilianen 2 0.0003
Aromanen-Manobo -Lahitanen 1 0.0002
Australian 8 0.0013
Blaan 4 0.0007
Badjao 83 0.0136
Bago 15 0.0025
Bajau 6 0.0010
Balangao 1 0.0002
Balangao-Lias 12 0.0020
Baliwon 9 0.0015
Batak 7 0.0012
Batangan 63 0.0104
Bikol/Bicol 1,756 0.2886
Bisaya/ Binisaya 3,909 0.6424
Boholano 119 0.0196
Bontok 50 0.0082
Disclaimer: Tables, maps and other information contained in this document are from various sources and are consolidated for general information
purposes only and are not intended for use as source of any advice such as legal, medical, accounting and the likes.
Ecological Profile: PROVINCE OF ILOCOS NORTE Part 1: THE DAWN OF ILOCOS NORTE 9
Ethnicity Total %
Bontok-Majukayong 1 0.0002
British 18 0.0030
Bugkalot/ Ilongot/ Egongot 1 0.0002
Bukidnon 8 0.0013
Bukidnon-Akeanon 4 0.0007
Bukidnon-Magahat 4 0.0007
Bukidnon-Pan-Anayon 4 0.0007
Cagayanen 45 0.0074
Calinga 3 0.0005
Canadian 8 0.0013
Capizeño 18 0.0030
Caviteño 50 0.0082
Caviteño-Chavacano 41 0.0067
Cebuano 644 0.1058
Chinese 227 0.0373
Cotabateño 9 0.0015
Cotabateño-Chavacano 16 0.0026
Cuyonen/Cuyunon 4 0.0007
Davao-Chavacano 22 0.0036
Davaweño 79 0.0130
Dumagat 38 0.0062
Dumagat- Edimala 8 0.0013
French 4 0.0007
Gaddang 9 0.0015
German 11 0.0018
Guiangan 63 0.0104
Higaonon/Higa-onon 43 0.0071
Higaonon-Tagoloanon 18 0.0030
Ibaloy 39 0.0064
Ibanag 500 0.0822
Ibatan 32 0.0053
Ibukid 52 0.0085
Disclaimer: Tables, maps and other information contained in this document are from various sources and are consolidated for general information
purposes only and are not intended for use as source of any advice such as legal, medical, accounting and the likes.
Ecological Profile: PROVINCE OF ILOCOS NORTE Part 1: THE DAWN OF ILOCOS NORTE 10
Ethnicity Total %
Ifugao 126 0.0207
Itneg/Tinguian-Illaud 40 0.0066
Ilocano 570,849 93.8113
Ilonggo 882 0.1449
Imalawa 727 0.1195
Indian 129 0.0212
Indonesian 2 0.0003
Iranun/Iraynun 9 0.0015
Isinai 8 0.0013
Isnag 1,459 0.2398
Isneg 1,226 0.2015
Isneg/Isnag 67 0.0110
Italian 1 0.0002
Itawes 96 0.0158
Itneg 435 0.0715
Itneg/Tinguian 4,100 0.6738
Itneg/Tinguian-Adasen 108 0.0177
Itneg/Tinguian-Gubang 3 0.0005
Itneg/Tinguian-Inlaud 280 0.0460
Itneg/Tinguian-Mabaka 2 0.0003
Itneg/Tinguian-Maeng 3 0.0005
Ivatan 8 0.0013
Japanese 7 0.0012
Kabihug 1 0.0002
Kabihug/Manide 5 0.0008
Kalanguya 8 0.0013
Kalinga 22 0.0036
Kalinga-Ab-abaan 17 0.0028
Kalinga-Ammacian 1 0.0002
Kalinga- Bangad 3 0.0005
Kalinga- Buaya 1 0.0002
Disclaimer: Tables, maps and other information contained in this document are from various sources and are consolidated for general information
purposes only and are not intended for use as source of any advice such as legal, medical, accounting and the likes.
Ecological Profile: PROVINCE OF ILOCOS NORTE Part 1: THE DAWN OF ILOCOS NORTE 11
Ethnicity Total %
Kalinga- Culminga 1 0.0002
Kalinga- Dallac 1 0.0002
Kalinga-Dao-Angan 5 0.0008
Kalinga-Gaddang 5 0.0008
Kalinga-Mangali 3 0.0005
Kalinga-Tobog 8 0.0013
Kalinga-Tongrayan 38 0.0062
Kalinga-Tulgao 7 0.0012
Kankanaey 1,153 0.1895
Kankanaey-Hak'ki 3 0.0005
Kapampangan 771 0.1267
Karay-a 24 0.0039
South Korean 10 0.0016
Langilan 1 0.0002
Magahats 9 0.0015
Maguindanao 42 0.0069
Malaueg 9 0.0015
Mangyan 19 0.0031
Gubatnon Mangyan 1 0.0002
Manobo 25 0.0041
Manobo-Aromanon 155 0.0255
Manobo-Ata 15 0.0025
Manobo-Kirenteken 7 0.0012
Manobo-Pulanguihon 1 0.0002
Mansaka 1 0.0002
Maranao 1,097 0.1803
Masbateño/Masbatenon 49 0.0081
Palawani 70 0.0115
Palawan-o 11 0.0018
Palawan-O-Ken-ey 4 0.0007
Palawan-O-Tao't-Bato 1 0.0002
Disclaimer: Tables, maps and other information contained in this document are from various sources and are consolidated for general information
purposes only and are not intended for use as source of any advice such as legal, medical, accounting and the likes.
Ecological Profile: PROVINCE OF ILOCOS NORTE Part 1: THE DAWN OF ILOCOS NORTE 12
Ethnicity Total %
Pan-Ayanon 4 0.0007
Pangasinan 1,156 0.1900
Romblomanon 7 0.0012
Sama/Samal 2 0.0003
Sama Badjao 4 0.0007
Sangir/Sangil 9 0.0015
Singaporean 4 0.0007
Spanish 5 0.0008
Subanen/Subanon 25 0.0041
Surigaonon 31 0.0051
Swiss 4 0.0007
T'boli/Tboli 1 0.0002
T'duray/Teduray 6 0.0010
Tagalog 9,415 1.5472
Tagbanua 1 0.0002
Taiwanese 6 0.0010
Talaingod 2 0.0003
Tausog/Tausug 78 0.0128
Tingguian 1,315 0.2161
Turkish 1 0.0002
Tuwali 5 0.0008
Ubo Monuvu/Manobo-Ubo 2 0.0003
Waray 795 0.1306
Yakan 4 0.0007
Yapayao 2,949 0.4846
Zamboangeño 86 0.0141
Other Local Ethnicity 105 0.0173
Other Foreign Ethnicity 66 0.0108
Not Reported 1 0.0002
Note: No disaggregation of data by sex.
Source: 2020 Census of Population and Housing, Philippine Statistics Authority
Disclaimer: Tables, maps and other information contained in this document are from various sources and are consolidated for general information purposes only and are not intended for use as source of any advice such as legal, medical, accounting
and the likes.
Ecological Profile: PROVINCE OF ILOCOS NORTE Part 1: THE DAWN OF ILOCOS NORTE 13
Table 1-2. Number of Ethnic Groups by Zone/Barangay, by Municipality, 2022-2023
City/
Municipalities
Sitio/ Barangay Ethnicity IP
Population
Year of
Census
Indigenous Peoples Organization Leader/s Representative/s
ADAMS Adams Yapayao 1,395 2023 Adams Tribal Council Quirino Barriga Quirino Barriga
PAGUDPUD Dampig, Tarrag Yapayao, Kankanaey 105 2023
Yapayao Ka Saliksik Indigenous
Peoples Organization
Audimar Garvida Bonifacio Aguinaldo
Pancian, Pasaleng Yapayao, Kankanaey 397 2023
Iyapayao Tribal Council and San
Agustin Tribal Council
Audimar Garvida Bonifacio Aguinaldo
Caunayan, Subec,
Caparispisan, Balaoi
Yapayao, Kankanaey 312 2023 Tribo Ogayam Council Benny Aguinaldo Benny Aguinaldo
Saguigui, Baduang Yapayao, Kankanaey 302 2023
Saguigui Indigenous Peoples
Organization
Emilio Rabago Maera Luis
DUMALNEG Cabaritan Yapayao 222 2023 Dumalneg Tribal Council Gregorio Tomas Estefanio Tomas
Kalaw 356 2023 Dumalneg Tribal Council Victor Lazo Lorenzo Padama Sr.
Guibel 782 2023 Dumalneg Tribal Council Salvador Marugay Pascual Aguinaldo
BANGUI Masamuyao Yapayao 159 2023
Masamuyao Grupo na Isneg
Yapayao
Loie G. Raval Loie G. Raval
Bacsil, Payac Yapayao 126 2023
Bacsil Indigenous Peoples
Organization
Leticia Dizol Leticia Dizol
VINTAR Canaam Isnag/Imalawa 466 2023
Imalawa Panauwan Indigenous
Peoples Organization/Imalawa
Indigenous Peoples Organization
Bert Agbayani Raymundo Santos
Isic-isic Isnag/Imalawa 341 2023
Imalawa Panauwan Indigenous
Peoples Organization/Imalawa
Indigenous Peoples Organization
Macario Gudayan Walden Carlos
CARASI barbaquezo Isnag 875 2022
Federation of Carasi Indigenous
Peoples Organization
Victorino Boday Clayvie Laguisad
virbira
Isnag 2022 Federation of Carasi Indigenous
Peoples Organization
Renato Dalere Jane Garcia
Angset
Isnag 2022 Federation of Carasi Indigenous
Peoples Organization
Roberto Alubin Teresa Juan
MARCOS Cacafean Isnag 463 2022 Cacafean Tribal Council Ancheto Pugyao No IPMR
Disclaimer: Tables, maps and other information contained in this document are from various sources and are consolidated for general information purposes only and are not intended for use as source of any advice such as legal, medical, accounting
and the likes.
Ecological Profile: PROVINCE OF ILOCOS NORTE Part 1: THE DAWN OF ILOCOS NORTE 14
City/
Municipalities
Sitio/ Barangay Ethnicity
IP
Population
Year of
Census
Indigenous Peoples Organization Leader/s Representative/s
DINGRAS San marcelino Isnag 201 2022 Nalasin Tribal Council Danny Magno No IPMR
SOLSONA Manalpac Isnag 398 2022
Manalpac Indigenous Peoples
Organization
Rhealyn May
Banglay
Hector Bucac
Maananteng Isnag 152 2022
Maananteng Indigenous Peoples
Organization
NELIE BAGO Nelie Bago
NUEVA ERA Poblacion Tingguian 1,762 2022 Rancheria Paor Patoc
Vice Mayor
Caroline Garvida
Rebecca Mangoagui
Acnam Tingguian 58 2022 Rancheria Paor-Patoc-Acnam Erick Casigay Erick Casigay
Marqueza Labasan
Sony Marangen
Dario Mablay
Roberto Bunagan
Caray Tingguian 30 2022
Rancheria Paor-Patoc-Caray Marqueza
Labasan
Barikir Tingguian 213 2022 Rancheria Paor-Patoc-Barikir Sony Marangen
Sto.nino Tingguian 803 2022 Rancheria Padsan Irinio Pongin
Bugayong Tingguian 655 2022 Rancheria Bugayong Oscar Quezada
Cabattauran Tingguian 554 2022 Rancheria Cabittaoran Ofelia Maligos Maricris Riofrio
Naguilian Tingguian 837 2022 Rancheria Padpadon Adriano Panabang Diosdado Armida
Garnaden Tingguian 213 2022 Rancheria Garnaden Laureano Belisario Reynaldo Garcia
Barangobong Tingguian 288 2022
Rancheria Tibangran Cesario
Mangoagui
Erminio Bangsil
Uguis Tingguian 736 2022 Rancheria Uguis Magellan Perlas Willy Calube
TOTAL 13,800
Source: National Commission on Indigenous People, Ilocos Norte Provincial Office
Disclaimer: Tables, maps and other information contained in this document are from various sources and are consolidated for general information
purposes only and are not intended for use as source of any advice such as legal, medical, accounting and the likes.
Ecological Profile: PROVINCE OF ILOCOS NORTE Part 1: THE DAWN OF ILOCOS NORTE 15
3. ETHNIC SONGS AND DANCES
Ilocos Norte has various native dances which mostly depict the customs, beliefs
and practices of an Ilocano. Its native songs are expressions of the
characteristics, aspirations and occupations of its music-loving and industrious
people. “Ilocos Norte – Gem of the Northern Plains,” authored by Ernesto Ma.
Cadiz, Bella C. Curameng and Mary Editha Y. Dy enumerates and describes the
worth mentioning dances and songs of the province:
“Osi-osi” portrays the traditional ways of courtship. “Binigan-bigat” (Every Morning)
is a courtship dance depicting a boy who is in love with a girl from whom he asks
pity. “Sileledda-ang” (Grief-stricken or Laden with Sorrow) is a courtship dance
showing the lover’s fondness for each other. “Manang Biday”, another courtship
dance usually performed by young people. “Sabunganay” (Banana Blossom)
symbolizes a young lady who is still too young to be courted and “Pandanggo
Laoagueña” is a courtship dance performed by the young and old.”
“Vintareña” maybe performed by one to any number of pairs in any social
gathering such as baptismal, wedding, birthday or thanksgiving parties. “Kuratsa
Pasuquiña” is a dance during birthday parties and festivities. Depicting merriment
are La Jota Zapatilla, Barbarukong (Breast Out), La Jota Laoagueña and Kuratsa
Paoayeña which are also presented during social gatherings. Another dance
shown during wedding and baptismal celebrations are “Sagamantica” and
“Arikenken”. “Chotis Dingreña” is a dance for the elite and is performed during
social functions. “Pandanggo” is one of the favorite dances of the old people.
“Guling-Guling” is a dance for Ash Wednesday. “Tambora” is usually shown on
the Eve of Christmas.
“Ilocana a Nasudi (Chaste Ilocana), a dance depicting a chaste and virtuous
Ilocana, may be performed by four pairs, while Surtido Norte (Assorted Dances
from the North) is a combination of different Ilocano dance steps manifesting thrift
as a trait of the people.”
“In Rabong (Bamboo Shoot), a dance glorifying the bamboo shoot as a delicacy of
the Ilocanos, the participants sing the lyrics themselves. Some occupational
dances are Asin and Dinaklisan, salt-making and fishing, respectively, are two
occupations of the people living near the seacoast; Agabel, which represents cloth
weaving, and Agdamili, which shows the rustic life of those in the pottery industry.”
“Some of the songs have been collected and analyzed for their educational
values. Ayat ti Ina (Love of a Mother) expresses how a mother loves and takes
care of her child. The narrative song, Napateg a Bin-i (cherished Seed), utilizes
metaphor in comparing a woman to a ’bin-i’ or seed. Pamulinawen (Hardened
Heart) is the most popular Ilocano love song which equates the heart of a girl, who
does not heed the pleading of her lover, to a hardened flint. Duayya ni Ayat
(Love’s Lullaby) expresses a man’s tender loving care for his ladylove to be
careful in changing her mind and choosing another man. Siasino ti Agayat Kenka
(Who is in love with you?) expresses an insistent love. No Duaduaem Pay (If You
Still Doubt) gives the idea that the lover feels that his loved one doubts him, so he
asks for understanding and also reiterates his love. Teng-nga ti Rabii (Midnight)
tells of a lover who sees the image of his loved one in the middle of the night and
is awakened by her voice.
Disclaimer: Tables, maps and other information contained in this document are from various sources and are consolidated for general information
purposes only and are not intended for use as source of any advice such as legal, medical, accounting and the likes.
Ecological Profile: PROVINCE OF ILOCOS NORTE Part 1: THE DAWN OF ILOCOS NORTE 16
A patriotic song, Dinak Kad Dildillawen (Do Not Criticize Me), conveys service to
love of country, while Kasasaad ti Kinabalasang (The life of a Maiden) is an
advice for the young maidens to consider carefully their plans of getting married,
because marriage is a risky venture. Agdamdamili (Pot Making) is an occupational
song, while Kanaganan is a birthday song.”
4. LANGUAGES/DIALECTS
Widely spoken by the people of Ilocos Norte is Iloko, one of the major dialects in
the country and which is proudly used by every Ilocano as for as the foreign
countries. The dialect serves as index of determining the place of residence of an
Ilocano because intonation varies from town to town. One can pinpoint a person’s
origin by just listening to the way he/she talks, because intonation varies from
town to town.
5. RELIGIOUS AFFILIATION
The population of the province is predominantly Roman Catholic, while several
others adhere to other religious affiliations in this area. Of these, the most notable
is the Aglipayan Church, founded by Batac native Gregorio Aglipay. Others
belonged to other Christian denominations, such as Iglesia ni Cristo and the like.
Table 1-3. Household Population by Religious Affiliation, 2020
Religious Affiliation
Household
Population
%
TOTAL 608,508 100
Roman Catholic, excluding Catholic Charismatics 353,263 58.054
Aglipay 75,914 12.475
Iglesia Filipina Independiente 50,970 8.376
Iglesia ni Cristo 30,678 5.042
Pentecostal Church of God Asia Mission 11,577 1.903
Other Religious Affliations 10,893 1.790
Church of Christ 7,217 1.186
Bible Baptist Church 5,327 0.875
United Church of Christ in the Philippines 5,194 0.854
United Penetecostal Church (Philippines),Inc. 4,957 0.815
Church of the Foursquare Gospel in the Philippines, Incorporated 4,403 0.724
Jehovah’s Witness 4,148 0.682
Assemblies of God 4,051 0.666
Crusaders of the Divine Church of Christ, Incorporated 4,047 0.665
Church of Jesus Christ of the Latter Day Saints 3,983 0.655
Seventh Day Adventist 3,038 0.499
Jesus is Lord Church 2,956 0.486
Other Protestants 2,245 0.369
Filipino Assemblies of the First Born, Incorporated 2,214 0.364
Baptist Conference of the Philippines 1,980 0.325
Way of Salvation 1,969 0.324
Other Baptists 1,906 0.313
Union Espiritista Cristiana de Filipinas, Incorporated 1,815 0.298
Church of God World Missions in the Philippines 1,557 0.256
Islam 1,489 0.245
Other Evangelical Churches 1,137 0.187
Disclaimer: Tables, maps and other information contained in this document are from various sources and are consolidated for general information
purposes only and are not intended for use as source of any advice such as legal, medical, accounting and the likes.
Ecological Profile: PROVINCE OF ILOCOS NORTE Part 1: THE DAWN OF ILOCOS NORTE 17
Religious Affiliation
Household
Population
%
Philippine Pentecostal Holiness Church 903 0.148
Miracle Revival Church of the Philippines 605 0.099
Universal Pentecostal Church 591 0.097
Jesus is Alive Community 533 0.088
Christian Missions in the Philippines 420 0.069
Victory Christian Fellowship of the Philippines, Inc. 399 0.066
Charismatic Full Gospel Ministries 351 0.058
United Methodists Church 319 0.052
Lutheran Church of the Philippines 316 0.052
Episcopal Church in the Philippines 285 0.047
Association of Fundametal Baptist Churches in the Philippines 264 0.043
Fundamental Grace Gospel Church of the Christ in the Philippines, Inc. 263 0.043
Salvation Army Philippines 224 0.037
Victory Chapel Christian Fellowship 209 0.034
Jesus Reigns Ministries 189 0.031
Evangelical Christian Outreach Foundation 180 0.030
Wesleyan Church 162 0.027
Independent Baptist Churches of the Philippines 158 0.026
Other Mathodists 153 0.025
Faith Baptist Church 134 0.022
Philippine Evangelical Holiness Church 123 0.020
None 110 0.018
Christian and Missionary Alliance Church of the Philippines 109 0.018
Jesus the Anointed One Church 108 0.018
Philippines General Council of the Assemblies of God 104 0.017
United Evangelical Church of the Philippines (Chinese) 96 0.016
Bethany Church of the Philippines 94 0.015
Philippine Missionary Fellowship 89 0.015
Zion Christian Community Church 87 0.014
I Am Redeemer and Master Evangelical Church, Inc. 86 0.014
Jesus Christ Saves Global Outreach 78 0.013
Christian Brethren International Pilipinas, Inc. 74 0.012
F.R.E.E. Mission Philippines, Inc. 74 0.012
Potter’s House Christian Center 70 0.012
Buddhist 68 0.111
Evangelical Free Church of the Philippines 67 0.011
Cathedral of Praise, Incorporated 65 0.011
General Baptist Churches of the Philippines 65 0.011
Catholic Charismatic 62 0.010
Tribal Religion 62 0.010
Iglesia sa Dios Espiritu Santo, Incorporated 61 0.010
Christian Reformed Church in the Philippines, Incorporated 59 0.010
Christ’s Commission Fellowship 57 0.009
Convention of the Philippine Baptist Church 55 0.009
Missionary Baptist Churches of the Philippines 55 0.009
Bible Centered Fellowship 51 0.008
Alliance of Bible Christian Communities of the Philippines 50 0.008
Love of Christ International Ministries 46 0.008
Christ the Living Stone Fellowship 43 0.007
River of God Church, Inc. 40 0.007
Free Methodist Church 37 0.006
Disclaimer: Tables, maps and other information contained in this document are from various sources and are consolidated for general information
purposes only and are not intended for use as source of any advice such as legal, medical, accounting and the likes.
Ecological Profile: PROVINCE OF ILOCOS NORTE Part 1: THE DAWN OF ILOCOS NORTE 18
Religious Affiliation
Household
Population
%
Harvest Christian Fellowship 35 0.006
Worldwide Church of God 35 0.006
International Baptist Missionary Fellowship 34 0.006
Jesus First Christian Ministries, Incorporated 34 0.006
Asia Evangelistic Fellowship Philippines, Inc. 33 0.005
Ambassadors for Christ Philippine Evangelism, Inc. 29 0.005
Apostolic Catholic Church, Inc. 29 0.005
Philippine Evangelical Mission 26 0.004
Philippine Independent Catholic Church 26 0.004
Christ Faith Fellowship Philippines, Inc. 25 0.004
Iglesia Evangelista Methodista en Las Islas Filipinas (IEMELIF) 25 0.004
Most Holy Church of God in Christ Jesus 25 0.004
Bread of Life Ministries 21 0.003
Take the Nation for Jesus Global Ministries (Corpus Christi) 21 0.003
And Iglesia Metodista sa Pilipinas, Inc. 20 0.003
Good News Christian Churches 19 0.003
Lord Jesus Our Redeemer Church Foundation International, Inc. 19 0.003
Miracle Life Fellowship International 18 0.003
Southern Baptist Church 17 0.003
Iglesia Evangelical Unida de Cristo 16 0.003
Higher Ground Baptist Mission of the Philippines Inc. 15 0.002
Jesus Loves You Ministries, Inc. 12 0.002
Free Believers in Christ Fellowship 11 0.002
Church Body of Christ Filipinista 11 0.002
National Council of Christian Community Churches (NCCCC), Inc. 11 0.002
Philippine Ecumenical Christian Church 10 0.002
Evangelical Presbyterian Church 9 0.001
Oblates of Mary Immaculate, Incorporated 9 0.001
Unida Evangelical Church 9 0.001
Things to Come 8 0.001
Word for the World 8 0.001
Association of Baptist Churches in Luzon, Visayas and Mindanao 6 0.001
Christ to the Philippines, Inc. 6 0.001
Philippine Benevolent Missionaries Association 6 0.001
Conservative Baptist Association in the Philippines 5 0.001
Lord of the Nations, Inc. 5 0.001
Don Stewart Ministries Miracle Revivals, Inc. 4 0.001
March of Faith Church Sole, Inc. 4 0.001
Not Reported 4 0.001
Light of the World Christian Center, Inc. 3 0.000
Presbyterian Church in the Philippines 3 0.000
World Missionary Evangelism 3 0.000
Church of the Nazarene 2 0.000
Door of Faith 2 0.000
FIFCOP Mission, Inc. 2 0.000
Good News Worldwide Mission, Inc. 1 0.000
International One Way Outreach 1 0.000
Source: Philippine Statistics Authority, 2020 Census of Population and Housing
Disclaimer: Tables, maps and other information contained in this document are from various sources and are consolidated for general information
purposes only and are not intended for use as source of any advice such as legal, medical, accounting and the likes.
Ecological Profile: PROVINCE OF ILOCOS NORTE Part 2: GEO-PHYSICAL ENVIRONMENT 19
MAP OF REGION I
A. GEOGRAPHICAL LOCATION
1. GEOGRAPHY
1.1. LOCATION
Ilocos Norte is located in the northwestern part of Luzon and is geographically
situated between 170 - 43’ and 180-29’ north latitudes and 1200-25’ and 1200-58’
east longitudes. It is bounded in
the east by Cagayan and
Apayao, in the southeast by
Abra, in the south by Ilocos Sur
and in the west by the West
Philippine Sea. Laoag City is
the seat of the Provincial
Government and is about 487
kilometers north-northwest of
Manila.
2. AREA
Ilocos Norte has a total land
area of 3,622.91 sq. kms (as
per PPFP). It is rugged and
rocky and has mountains which run northwest in the
Cordilleras in the east. There are thirteen (13)
mountains in the area, most of which are located in
the southeastern portion.
2.1. LAND CAPABILITY CLASSIFICATION
Table 2-1. Land Capability Classification
Source: Ilocos Norte Environment and Natural Resources Office
Classification
Area
Square
Kilometers
(Sq.Kms.)
Hectares
(Has.)
Lowland/Upland/Irrigated 247.30 24,730
Upland & Rolling 47.29 4,729
Rolling & Mountains 2,785.46 278,546
Land for Wildlife (Forest) 218.82 21,882
Lowland/Upland 324.04 32,404
Total 3,622.91 362,291
Part 2: GEO-PHYSICAL ENVIRONMENT
Disclaimer: Tables, maps and other information contained in this document are from various sources and are consolidated for general information
purposes only and are not intended for use as source of any advice such as legal, medical, accounting and the likes.
Ecological Profile: PROVINCE OF ILOCOS NORTE Part 2: GEO-PHYSICAL ENVIRONMENT 20
BATAC CITY
3. POLITICAL SUBDIVISION
3.1. CITIES AND MUNICIPALITIES
Ilocos Norte has two (2) congressional districts comprising twenty-one (21)
municipalities and two (2) component cities. The province has a total of five hundred
fifty-nine (559) barangays. This is to include the eighty (80) barangays of Laoag City
and the forty-three (43) barangays of Batac City.
CITY & MUNICIPAL SUBDIVISIONS OF
ILOCOS NORTE
Disclaimer: Tables, maps and other information contained in this document are from various sources and are consolidated for general information
purposes only and are not intended for use as source of any advice such as legal, medical, accounting and the likes.
Ecological Profile: PROVINCE OF ILOCOS NORTE Part 2: GEO-PHYSICAL ENVIRONMENT 21
The table below shows the number of barangays, land area, and distance of
municipalities from Laoag City and from Manila.
Table 2-2. Number of Barangays, Land Area and Distance of Municipalities from
Laoag City and Manila.
Municipality/ City
Number of
Barangay
Land Area
(sq. kms.)
Distance from
Laoag City (kms.)
Distance from
Manila (kms.)
Adams 1 159.31 96.0 597.29
Bacarra 43 66.07 8.36 495.65
Badoc 31 66.41 37.6 449.60
Bangui 14 163.59 65.9 553.29
Banna 20 97.68 31.9 519.20
Batac City 43 161.06 15.3 471.97
Burgos 11 128.9 49.5 536.87
Carasi 3 157.38 20.7 508.61
Currimao 23 33.08 23.0 464.20
Dingras 31 96.00 15.7 503.00
Dumalneg1 4 88.48 73.1 560.39
Laoag City 80 101.88 - 487.29
Marcos 13 226.38 25.8 513.10
Nueva Era 11 515.02 39.8 527.16
Pagudpud 16 194.9 74.6 561.90
Paoay 31 76.24 16.3 470.90
Pasuquin 33 189.39 18.5 505.83
Piddig 23 121.33 18.3 505.64
Pinili 25 89.48 29.6 457.62
San Nicolas 24 40.18 2.55 484.16
Sarrat 24 57.39 7.75 495.04
Solsona 22 167.91 24.9 512.20
Vintar 33 624.85 8.43 495.72
Total 559 3,622.91
Sources: Provincial Development and Physical Framework Plan
Note: 1 Transferred 1 barangay from Bangui under Supreme Court Decision in G. R. 198655.
1 Subdivision of Barangay Dumalneg into 3 barangays through the MR No. 2003-02
Disclaimer: Tables, maps and other information contained in this document are from various sources and are consolidated for general information
purposes only and are not intended for use as source of any advice such as legal, medical, accounting and the likes.
Ecological Profile: PROVINCE OF ILOCOS NORTE Part 2: GEO-PHYSICAL ENVIRONMENT 22
B. TOPOGRAPHY
1. MOUNTAIN RANGES
Located in the Northwestern part of Luzon, Ilocos Norte settles on a wide plain
between the foothills of the Central Cordillera ranges on the east and the China Sea
on the west. The winding and rugged mountain ranges extend to Abra in the South.
Its backbone angles steeply toward the southwest and wedges through Ilocos Sur.
Table 2-3. List of Mountains in Ilocos Norte
Name
Highest Point (Elevation Above Sea Level
in Meters)
1. Mt. Sicapoo 2,360
2. Mt. Burnay 1,952
3. Mt. Nagbudabudan 1,876
4. Mt. Aganmala 1,780
5. Mt. Mukmokoroya 1,668
6. Mt. Agamomata 1,554
7. Mt. Casama 1,538
8. Mt. Linao 1,475
9. Mt. Pico De Loro 1,294
10. Mt. Pao 1,200
11. Mt. Quebrada 1,020
12. Mt. Naltoot 1,026
13. Mt. Simminublan 1,472
2. SLOPE
Table 2-4. Slope Classification
Slope Classification Area (sq.kms.)
0-8% 989.47
8.1-18% 416.36
18.1-30% 1,056.26
Over 30% 1,160.82
Total 3,622.91
3. WATER BODIES
The provincial coastline, an extension of the beaches of Pangasinan, La Union and
Ilocos Sur, is dotted with numerous coves and tide-rivers. Its further cuts into the
foremost coastal configuration of Bangui and Pasaleng Bays. The coast of Pasaleng
Bay is shared with Cagayan Province. The province has a coastline stretching from
Badoc up to Pagudpud with a total length of 155.37 kilometers. Other major water
bodies include the following:
Disclaimer: Tables, maps and other information contained in this document are from various sources and are consolidated for general information
purposes only and are not intended for use as source of any advice such as legal, medical, accounting and the likes.
Ecological Profile: PROVINCE OF ILOCOS NORTE Part 2: GEO-PHYSICAL ENVIRONMENT 23
ELEVATION MAP OF ILOCOS NORTE
Table 2-5. Main Stream Length and Drainage Area of Major Rivers/Basins
River Length (kms.) Drainage Area (Sq.kms.)
Laoag River 33.15 1,343,96
Badoc and Madupayas Rivers 27.30 237.03
Tamdagan River 29.25 276.09
Bolo River 37.20 255.43
Quiaoit River 31.40 185.80
Bacarra-Vintar Rivers 54.30 369.46
Sources: Land Resources Evaluation Project of Ilocos Norte, Bureau of Soils and Department of Agriculture
Disclaimer: Tables, maps and other information contained in this document are from various sources and are consolidated for general information
purposes only and are not intended for use as source of any advice such as legal, medical, accounting and the likes.
Ecological Profile: PROVINCE OF ILOCOS NORTE Part 2: GEO-PHYSICAL ENVIRONMENT 24
C. GEOLOGY
1. SOIL CLASSIFICATION
1.1. SOILS OF THE PLAINS AND VALLEYS
They were formed mainly from alluvial deposits or sediments land by water.
Their colors range from very pale brown to black while the textures of their
surface soils vary from sand to clay. External drainage is generally fair while
internal drainage is poor to good. These level areas are the most productive
soils in the province. They are usually found in patches along the course of
rivers and creeks. The total area covered is estimated at 1,250.54 sq. kms.
Soils belonging to this group are the Bantog, Maligaya, San Fernando and San
Manuel series.
1.2 SOILS OF THE UPLANDS, HILLS AND MOUNTAINS
These soils are derived through the weathering of various igneous rocks, shale,
calcareous sandstone and textured soils (loam to clay) and exhibit a wide
range of colors-mostly brown, reddish brown, red and black. Relief varies from
gently sloping, rolling to hilly and mountainous.
The soil series belonging to this group are Annam, Bantay, Bolinao, Cervantes,
Faraon, Luisiana, and Tadao series. On account of their unfavorable relief, only
limited areas of these soils are cultivated to crops. They have combined area of
approximately 1,974.60 square kilometers.
1.3 MISCELLANEOUS LAND TYPES
Areas without any soil cover or those covered by soil materials but exhibit no
profile development are grouped under miscellaneous land types. Those
places where the relief, drainage, accessibility, etc. which are not favorable for
agriculture, also fall under this group. The different miscellaneous land types
found in Ilocos Norte are the dune land, mountain soil, undifferentiated;
riverwash; rockland; sand and coral bed. They occupy about a total of 140.72
square kilometers.
Reference: Comprehensive Land Use Plans (City/Municipality)
Disclaimer: Tables, maps and other information contained in this document are from various sources and are consolidated for general information
purposes only and are not intended for use as source of any advice such as legal, medical, accounting and the likes.
Ecological Profile: PROVINCE OF ILOCOS NORTE Part 2: GEO-PHYSICAL ENVIRONMENT 25
D.CLIMATE
1. TYPE
Ilocos Norte belongs to Climate Type I based on
the Modified Corona’s Classification. This is
characterized by two pronounced seasons:
Dry Season - November to April
Wet Season - May to October
Wind Direction - N
Temperature (1989 – 2021)
Coolest Temperature - 13o
C (Jan. 26, 1992 &
Feb. 10, 1996)
Hottest Temperature - 39.5 o
C (May 10, 2003)
Average Temperature - 23 - 30 o
C
Maximum rain period coincides with the peak of the southwest monsoon (July to
September). The province occasionally visited by tropical cyclones and storms
during the southwest monsoon season (May to October). It is most dominant during
the month of July.
Source: DOST, Philippine Atmospheric, Geophysical and Astronomical Services Administration (PAGASA), Laoag City
2. WEATHER CONDITION
2.1. AVERAGE/EXTREME WEATHER CONDITION FROM 1989 TO 2023
Table 2-6. Temperature and Relative Humidity
Month
Temperature (ºC)
Average Maximum Minimum
Dry
Bulb
Wet Bulb
Relative
Humidity
Day-Year Day-Year
January 24.7 21.3 74 35.7 22-2008 13.0 26-1992
February 25.3 21.9 74 35.9 28-2009 13.0 10-1996
March 27.0 23.3 73 37.7 28-1999 14.7 10-1989
April 28.5 25.0 75 37.8 26-2007 16.3 14-2015
May 29.1 25.9 72 39.5 10-2003 20.4 08-2000
June 28.6 26.1 82 38.0 22-2008 20.8 04-1993
July 28.0 25.9 84 36.8 18-2003 19.9 03-1989
August 27.5 25.7 86 35.5 28-2010 21.4 15-1994
September 27.5 25.5 85 36.2 30-2010 20.0 26-1994
October 27.5 24.7 80 37.0 12-1998 17.5 29-1989
November 27.0 24.0 78 36.6 12-2004 14.3 30-2007
December 25.7 22.3 74 35.2 03-1998 14.0 03-1989
Source: DOST, Philippine Atmospheric, Geophysical and Astronomical Services Administration (PAGASA), Laoag City
Disclaimer: Tables, maps and other information contained in this document are from various sources and are consolidated for general information
purposes only and are not intended for use as source of any advice such as legal, medical, accounting and the likes.
Ecological Profile: PROVINCE OF ILOCOS NORTE Part 2: GEO-PHYSICAL ENVIRONMENT 26
Table 2-7. Rainfall
Month
Rainfall (millimeter)
Average
Highest
Daily
Day-Year
Weather
Phenomena
Amount
Number of
Rainy Days
January 8.9 1 64.6 29-2022 Frontal System
February 2.7 1 18.0 20-1994 TECF
March 4.6 1 28.0 09-2000 TECF
April 19.2 1 94.2 06-2013 TECF
May 182.3 9 181.3 23-1990 Localized TSTM
June 287.0 14 393.6 28-2012 TS Dindo
July 479.6 18 483.9 15-2008 TS Helen
August 598.5 20 478.1 23-2019 STS Ineng
September 423.8 16 446.8 10-1994 TD Weling
October 124.4 8 402.6 04-2009 T Pepeng
November 31.3 4 114.6 04-2019 FS / Trough of TD Quiel
December 5.5 2 28.5 17-2013 NE Monsoon
Source: Philippine Atmospheric, Geophysical and Astronomical Services Administration (PAGASA), Laoag City
Table 2-8. Wind, Thunderstorm and Tropical Cyclone
Month
Wind
(meter per second)
Thunder
storm
Tropical
Cyclone
Prevailing
Wind
Velocity
Speed /
Direction
Maximum
Velocity
Speed /
Direction
Weather
Phenomena
Day-
Year
Average
No. of
Days
Average
Number
Of
Occurrence
January 3-North 20-N NE Monsoon 17-2021 0 0
February 3-North 17-N NE Monsoon 09-2004 0 0
March 3-North 18-NNE NE Monsoon 05-2005 1 0
April 2-NNW 18-NNE NE Surface windflow 07-2018 4 0
May 2-W 20-NW
Localized
thunderstorm 22-2010 17 0
June 3-SW 34-W T. Igme 30-2004 20 1
July 2-SW 43-SW T. Feria 04-2001 20 2
August 3-SW 30-SW T. Karen 22-2008 17 2
September 2-SW 27-NNE T. Ompong 15-2018 15 2
October 3-NE 35-NNW T. Trining 27-1991 5 1
November 3-NE 23-N T. Mina 26-2007 1 1
December 3-NE 23-SSW T. Yoyong 03-2004 0 0
Legends:
T – Typhoon E - East
TS – Tropical Storm W - West
TD – Tropical Depression TECF - Tail End of a Cold Front
N – North Ave - Average
S – South TSTM - Thunderstorm
Source: DOST, Philippine Atmospheric, Geophysical and Astronomical Services Administration (PAGASA), Laoag City
Disclaimer: Tables, maps and other information contained in this document are from various sources and are consolidated for general information purposes only and are not intended for use as source of any advice such as legal, medical, accounting
and the likes.
Ecological Profile: PROVINCE OF ILOCOS NORTE Part 2: GEO-PHYSICAL ENVIRONMENT 27
Table 2-9. Monthly Mean Weather Condition Recorded and Observed at Laoag PAGASA Station, 2023
Month
Prevailing
Wind
(mps)
Maximum
Wind
(mps)
Temperature
Average
Dry Bulb/Wet
Bulb
(°Celsius)
Relative
Humidity
(%)
Temperature
Maximum/
Minimum
(°Celsius)
Mean Sea
Level
Pressure
(hPa)
Rainfall/ Rainy
Days
(millimeters)
Weather Causing Phenomena
Days with
Thunder-
storms /
Lightning
January 3-NE 15-N 25.7 / 21.2 67 33.8 / 16.8 1012.6 5.0/1
NE Monsoon, Localized thunderstorm,
Shearline, Frontal System
2/1
February 4-NE 16-NNE 25.5 / 21.9 73 33.4 / 17.2 1012.8 trace/0 Northeast Monsoon 0/0
March 3-NNW 12-NNE 26.5 / 22.2 73 36.6 / 17.6 1012.7 0.0/0 Northeast Monsoon 1/0
April 3-NNW 13-N 28.6 / 24.5 71 35.2 / 21.0 1009.7 trace/0 Localized thunderstorms 0/0
May 2 – W 13-N 30.2/26.0 72 35.6/24.5 1008.7 29.2/6 Localized thunderstorms, STY Betty 10/11
June 3 – ESE 18-SW 28.8/26.2 81 33.4/24.2 1008.2 278.6/19
Southwest Monsoon, Localized
thunderstorms, TY Chedeng
28/21
July 3 – E 27-SW 28.6/26.1 82 34.9/23.4 1006.4 773.1/13
Southwest Monsoon, Localized
thunderstorms TD Dodong #1, STY Egay
#1-4
14/7
August 4 – SW 21-SSW 28.5/26.2 83 33.5/24.2 1006.9 752.6/18
Southwest Monsoon, Localized
thunderstorms TY Falcon, Trough of TY.
Goring, TY Goring #1-2
14/10
September 3 – ESE 14-SW 28.3/26.2 85 33.6/23.6 1008.2 277.4/16
Southwest Monsoon enhanced by TY
Hanna, Southwest Monsoon, Localized
thunderstorms
20/25
October 3 – E 10-SW 28.3/25.4 79 35.2/23.0 1010.8 166.3/12
Localized Thunderstorms, TY Jenny,
Southwest Monsoon, Northeast Monsoon
11/10
November 3 – NE 14-NNE 28.0/23.8 70 35.5/19.5 1012.2 1.0/1 Northeast Monsoon 3/0
December 3 - NE 14-NNE 27.5/23.8 73 34.6/21.6 1013.2 trace/0 Northeast Monsoon 0/0
Source: DOST, Philippine Atmospheric, Geophysical and Astronomical Services Administration (PAGASA), Laoag International Airport, Laoag City
Disclaimer: Tables, maps and other information contained in this document are from various sources and are consolidated for general information
purposes only and are not intended for use as source of any advice such as legal, medical, accounting and the likes.
Ecological Profile: PROVINCE OF ILOCOS NORTE Part 2: GEO-PHYSICAL ENVIRONMENT 28
E. HAZARD PROFILE
1. HAZARD PROFILE
The proximity of the province to the northern tip of the country which is usually the
exit point of Tropical Cyclones coming from the eastern seaboard and the
presence of two (2) Active Faults – the Bangui Fault System and the West
Ilocos Fault System, makes Ilocos Norte vulnerable to Hydrometeorological
and Geologic hazards.
1.1. HYDROMETEOROLOGIC HAZARDS
The Philippine archipelago is situated in a typhoon belt that is why it is hit by
numerous typhoons and storms starting from the month of July through October.
Due to Climate Change, typhoons continue to hit our area at an extended time up
to November and December. With these tropical cyclones passing, possible
hazards are: rain-induced landslide, flood and storm surge.
Flood. Based on historical disaster records gathered, the type of hazard
that is usually occurring in the Province is flooding. Events like these
were usually triggered by various tropical cyclones that pass through the
Province considering that the Philippines lies within the Typhoon Belt of
the Western Pacific. Places frequently hit by typhoons are the Northern
and Eastern Luzon and the Bicol and Eastern Visayas Region. An
average of 25 typhoons visits the Philippines each year. Ilocos Norte is
struck by typhoons at an average of 3 typhoons annually that are usually
causing floods.
The weather systems that affected the province in 2023 were the
Southwest (SW) monsoon, localized thunderstorms, low-pressure areas
(LPAs). Throughout the year, the province experienced the passage of
Typhoon “BETTY”, Typhoon “CHEDENG”, Tropical Depression (TD)
“DODONG”, Super Typhoon (STY) “EGAY”, Typhoon “FALCON”,
Typhoon (TY) “GORING”, Southwest monsoon enhanced by Typhoon
“HANNA”, and Typhoon Typhoon “JENNY” that brought heavy to
torrential rains in areas along its path, that led to flooding, flashfloods,
and rain-induced landslides. Moreover, STY “EGAY” brought strong
winds and torrential rains that caused tremendous damages to
infrastructure and agriculture over Regions I in July 2023. Likewise,
rainfall accumulated from these TCs and enhanced SW monsoon have
significantly contributed to the rise in the water level.
Storm Surge. With the effect of tropical Cyclones, storm surge was
recorded in affecting nine (9) coastal municipalities of the province.
Disclaimer: Tables, maps and other information contained in this document are from various sources and are consolidated for general information
purposes only and are not intended for use as source of any advice such as legal, medical, accounting and the likes.
Ecological Profile: PROVINCE OF ILOCOS NORTE Part 2: GEO-PHYSICAL ENVIRONMENT 29
Rain-Induced Landslide. In November 2020, a major rain-induced
landslide due to TC “Ulysses” occurred in Pancian, Pagudpud resulting
to the temporary isolation of said barangay including Pasaleng and the
whole municipality of Adams. Major and minor landslide thereafter to the
present.
1.2. GEOLOGIC HAZARDS
Our country is
located within the
"Ring of Fire", also
called the Circum-
Pacific Belt, which is
the zone of
earthquakes
surrounding the
Pacific Ocean.
About 90% of the
world's earthquakes
occur there. With
this geographical
setting, and the
presence of the 2 active faults, incidents of Earthquake – and related hazards like
ground shaking, liquefaction, EIL and tsunami, are inevitable.
Earthquake. Historically, the most significant disaster and considered
the most damaging hazard event that happened in Ilocos Norte is the
August 17, 1983 Earthquake causing the total collapse of at least four
(4) buildings leading to the death of 16 individuals and injuring 47 others.
However, the strongest earthquake to have hit the province occurred in
March 19, 1931 with a magnitude of VII-IX on the Rossi-Forel Scale.
Ground shaking. Next to flooding, that is frequently affecting the
Province, is ground shaking.
Tsunami. So far, the Province has no historical events of Tsunami
except for Alert Level II cautioned last March 11, 2011 caused by the 8.8
magnitude earthquake in Japan creating extremely destructive Tsunami
in Northeastern Japan.
Disclaimer: Tables, maps and other information contained in this document are from various sources and are consolidated for general information
purposes only and are not intended for use as source of any advice such as legal, medical, accounting and the likes.
Ecological Profile: PROVINCE OF ILOCOS NORTE Part 2: GEO-PHYSICAL ENVIRONMENT 30
FAULT LINES
Table 2-10. Distribution of Faults in Ilocos Norte
Province Type of Fault Direction
30 kms. Southeast of Badoc to
15 kms. /East of Vintar
Normal N 20 E
Marcos Reverse N 30 E to NS
Nueva Era to Maan-anteng,
Solsona
Normal N 30 E
Parparoroc Vintar Normal N 35 E
Lubnac, Vintar to 10 kms.
Northwest of Dumalneg
Thrust N 20 W to N 40 E
Pansian Pagudpud to Adams Thrust N 10 E
8 kms. South of Adams Left Lateral N 25 W
7 kms. West of Carasi Left Lateral N 20 E
Tadao, Pasuquin Thrust N 20 W
Caruan, Pasuquin Thrust N 25 E to N 60 E
South of Badoc Normal East – West
4 kms. East of Dumalneg Undetermined North – South
10 kms. East of Pasuquin Undetermined North 20o East towards Bangui
7 Kms. Southeast of Agaga,
Burgos
Right Literal N 30 E
Source: DOST, Philippine Institute of Volcanology and Seismology (PHIVOLCS)
Disclaimer: Tables, maps and other information contained in this document are from various sources and are consolidated for general information
purposes only and are not intended for use as source of any advice such as legal, medical, accounting and the likes.
Ecological Profile: PROVINCE OF ILOCOS NORTE Part 3: NATURAL RESOURCES & ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT 31
A. LAND RESOURCES
1. LAND USE
The Ilocos Province has a total existing land use area of 3,622.91 km2, primarily
Agricultural (1,054.18 km2) and Forest Areas (2,164.52 km). Each municipality
categorized the existing land use into Build-up Areas, Forest Areas, and other
uses such as industrial, bodies of water, roads, and bare land areas.
Table 3-1. Existing Land Use
Source: Comprehensive Land Use Plan, Province of Ilocos Norte
2. STATUS OF LAND AREA CLASSIFICATION
Table 3-2. Status of Land Area Classification
Classification
Area
Square Kilometers (Sq.Kms.) Hectares (Has.)
Total 3,622.91 362,291
Alienable and Disposable 1,458.39 145,839
Forest Land 2,164.52 216,452
Source: Comprehensive Land Use Plan, Province of Ilocos Norte
Land Use
Area
Square Kilometers (Sq.Kms.) Hectares (Has.)
Total 3,622.91 362,291
Built-up-Areas 170.44 17,044
Agricultural 1,054.18 120,999
Forest Areas 2,164.52 216,452
Industrial Areas 25.92 2,592
Bodies of Water 83.76 8,376
Tourism Areas 24.62 2,462
Roads & Bridges 37.90 3,790
Open Space/Playground 8.86 886
Mineral Land 33.65 3,365
Cemetery 2.01 201
Dumpsite 0.44 44
Bareland Areas 16.61 1,661
Part 3: NATURAL RESOURCES & ENVIRONMENTAL
MANAGEMENT
Disclaimer: Tables, maps and other information contained in this document are from various sources and are consolidated for general information
purposes only and are not intended for use as source of any advice such as legal, medical, accounting and the likes.
Ecological Profile: PROVINCE OF ILOCOS NORTE Part 3: NATURAL RESOURCES & ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT 32
Table 3-3. Status of Land Area Classification by Municipality (in Hectares)
A & D Forest Land Total
Within CENRO-Bangui:
1. Adams 788.25 11,505.81 12,294.06
2. Bangui 3,956.90 6,800.03 10,756.93
3. Burgos 5,562.60 7,327.57 12,890.17
4. Dumalneg 530.05 4,145.84 4,675.89
5. Pagudpud 6,522.79 12,186.40 18,709.19
6. Pasuquin 8,449.98 9,472.06 17,922.04
7. Vintar 10,805.83 46,493.17 57,299.00
Within CENRO-Laoag:
1. Laoag City* 11,854.94 291.60 12,146.54
2. Bacarra* 3,750.85 - 3,750.85
3. Badoc 6,768.46 1,729.48 8,497.94
4. Banna 8,850.83 1,184.01 10,034.84
5. Batac City 11,138.93 2,454.55 13,593.48
6. Carasi* 7,663.93 6,967.77 14,631.70
7. Currimao 4,120.95 232.80 4,353.75
8. Dingras 5,372.91 1,924.00 7,296.91
9. Marcos 5,616.21 1,364.83 6,981.04
10. Nueva Era 5,007.34 52,487.42 57,494.76
11. Paoay 6,309.76 1,166.92 7,476.68
12. Piddig* 9,426.77 9,342.67 18,769.44
13. Pinili 3,210.80 2,089.11 5,299.91
14. San Nicolas 3,929.11 - 3,929.11
15. Sarrat 6,896.08 1,987.84 8,883.92
16. Solsona 8,187.16 7,373.00 15,560.16
* Falls under District 1
Source: Provincial Environment and Natural Resources Office, Ilocos Norte
Department of Environment and Natural Resources Office, Region I
Based on 2014 Statistical Profile
Disclaimer: Tables, maps and other information contained in this document are from various sources and are consolidated for general information
purposes only and are not intended for use as source of any advice such as legal, medical, accounting and the likes.
Ecological Profile: PROVINCE OF ILOCOS NORTE Part 3: NATURAL RESOURCES & ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT 33
B. MINERAL RESOURCES
Source: Provincial Environment and Natural Resources Office, Ilocos Norte
Disclaimer: Tables, maps and other information contained in this document are from various sources and are consolidated for general information
purposes only and are not intended for use as source of any advice such as legal, medical, accounting and the likes.
Ecological Profile: PROVINCE OF ILOCOS NORTE Part 3: NATURAL RESOURCES & ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT 34
Source: Provincial Environment and Natural Resources Office, Ilocos Norte
Disclaimer: Tables, maps and other information contained in this document are from various sources and are consolidated for general information
purposes only and are not intended for use as source of any advice such as legal, medical, accounting and the likes.
Ecological Profile: PROVINCE OF ILOCOS NORTE Part 3: NATURAL RESOURCES & ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT 35
Source: Provincial Environment and Natural Resources Office, Ilocos Norte
Disclaimer: Tables, maps and other information contained in this document are from various sources and are consolidated for general information
purposes only and are not intended for use as source of any advice such as legal, medical, accounting and the likes.
Ecological Profile: PROVINCE OF ILOCOS NORTE Part 3: NATURAL RESOURCES & ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT 36
C. FORESTRY RESOURCES
1. FOREST LAND AREA
Table 3-5. Forest Land Area and Other Related Data, 2019-2022
2019 2020
1. Total Forest Land Area (has) 189,545.26 189,545.26
Dipterocarp (old and residual)
Pine (old and young)
Submarginal
Mossy
Brushland
Other Land Use
2. Reforestation Project
Area Covered (has) 40,448.53 42, 393.53
Status of Development Planted Planted
CEP (including aquatic & terrestrial land area)
3. Effective Forest Cover 40,448.53 42,398.53
4. Forest Area To Be Protected 71,791.68 71,791.68
5. Forest To Be Protected
6. Upland Development Project (UDP 2009-2010)
7. National Greening Program (NGP 2011-2015)
Yr 2011 (has) 1,749.59
Yr 2012 (has) 3,732.67
Yr 2013 (has) 5,238.55
Yr 2014 (has) 7,526.77
Yr 2015 (has) 9,621.33
8. National Greening Program (NGP 2016-2018)
Yr 2016 (has) 2,089.93
Yr 2017 (has) 4,654.69
Yr 2018 (has) 4,467.00
9. National Greening Program (NGP 2019-2020) has 1,368 1,950
10. National Greening Program (NGP 2021-2022) has 915 2,197
11. List of CBFMA Monitored in Ilocos Norte
2019 2020
Carasi Upland Agro Forest Association Inc.
(CUAFAI)
Saranay Multi-purpose
Cooperative
Black Mountain Upland Forestry Association
Incorporated (BMUFAI)
Indigenous Support for Natures Growth Association
Inc. (ISNAG)
Sto. Nino Watershed Rehabilitation and Developers
Organization (SMWaRDO)
Pari-ir Forest Savers Association, Inc
Saranay Ti Imelda Farmers Association, Inc.
Lumba-ao Multi-Planters Association, In.
Cabittauran Upland Farmers Association
Incorporated
Esperanza Multi-Purpose Cooperative
Dipilat DIBBOA Upland Farmers Association, Inc.
Disclaimer: Tables, maps and other information contained in this document are from various sources and are consolidated for general information
purposes only and are not intended for use as source of any advice such as legal, medical, accounting and the likes.
Ecological Profile: PROVINCE OF ILOCOS NORTE Part 3: NATURAL RESOURCES & ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT 37
Table 3-5. continued…
2019 2020
Dimamaga Farmers Association Inc
Tamdagan United Rural Enhanced Developers Inc.
San Jose Farmers Association
Masadsaduel Multi-Purpose Cooperative
Saranay Vintar Multi-Purpose Cooperative
Cabangaran Multi-Purpose Association, Inc.
BDO Consumers Cooperative
Bago-Sitio Sagpat Uplanders Association, Inc
Baguinsoso Protectors and Developers Association
Cabayo MPC
Capan-awan Cabuluan Farmers Association, Inc
Caunayan Multi-Purpose Cooperative
Community Forest Development Organizations, Inc.
Isisc-isic Dasar Community Association Inc.
Federation of Dumalneg Organizations, Inc.
Gubang Tribal Farmers Association
Ilocandia Foresters Farmers and Contractors MPC
Dasar Upland Farmers Association
Upper Canaam Namnama ISF SCF Garmers
Association, Inc.
United Dilavonian Communal Farmers Association,
Inc.
LBN Multi-Purpose Cooperative
Sarsarguelas Multi-Purpose Cooperative
Tungel Multi-Purpose Cooperative
Isic-isic Multi-Purpose Cooperative
Lanao East North Spring Development Association
Malasin Samahang Nayon MPC
Mantapat Calawasan Agro-forest Farmers
Association, Inc.
Saguigui-Subec Upland Farmers Associations, Inc.
Paspasagad Hillside Farmers Associations, Inc.
Tanap Agaga Buduan Associations, Inc.
Zanjera Masadsaduel 4Ps Empowerment Inc.
2021 2022
Isic-isic Multi-Purpose Cooperative Masadsaduel Farmers
Association Inc.
2023
Malasin Samahang Nayon
Lanao East North Spring Development Association
Tamdagan United Rural Enhanced Developers, Inc.
Cabangaran Multi-Purpose Association Inc.
Upper Canaan Namnama ISF SCF Farmers
Association Inc.
Gubang Tribal Farmers Association
Dasar Upland Farmers Association
LBN Multi-Purpose Cooperative
Disclaimer: Tables, maps and other information contained in this document are from various sources and are consolidated for general information
purposes only and are not intended for use as source of any advice such as legal, medical, accounting and the likes.
Ecological Profile: PROVINCE OF ILOCOS NORTE Part 3: NATURAL RESOURCES & ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT 38
Table 3-5. continued…
2023
Malasin Samahang Nayon
Lanao East North Spring Development Association
Tamdagan United Rural Enhanced Developers, Inc.
Cabangaran Multi-Purpose Association Inc.
Upper Canaan Namnama ISF SCF Farmers
Association Inc.
Gubang Tribal Farmers Association
Dasar Upland Farmers Association
10. List of Protected Areas in Ilocos Norte
Paoay Lake Natural Park (PLNP) – Brgy. Nanguyudan, Sungadan, Nagbacalan and
Suba, Paoay, Ilocos Norte
Kalbario – Patapat Natural Park (KPNP) – Adams, Adams Pancian, Pasaleng,
Maligligay, Pagudpud
Tanap Watershed Forest Reserve (TWFR) – Tanap, Burgos
Metropolitan Watershed Forest Reserve (MINWFR) – Sulbec, Sapat, Tadao,
Pasuquin
Source : Provincial Environnent & Natural Ressources Office, Ilocos Norte
2. MAJOR FOREST PRODUCTS
• Rattan
• Tanguile
• Firewood
• Bamboo
• Pine
• Wildlife
• Timber
• Poles
Disclaimer: Tables, maps and other information contained in this document are from various sources and are consolidated for general information
purposes only and are not intended for use as source of any advice such as legal, medical, accounting and the likes.
Ecological Profile: PROVINCE OF ILOCOS NORTE Part 3: NATURAL RESOURCES & ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT 39
D. FISHING AND AQUATIC RESOURCES
Table 3-6. Production and Area of Fishpond by Type of Fishing/Source, 2023
Source/Type of Fishing Area (has.) No. of Banca Production (MT)
Aquaculture Projects:
Fishponds 40.38** - 391.54**
Fish Cages 5.81** - 280.73**
Small Farm Reservoir 110.82** - 410.53**
Rice-Fish Culture 21.15** - 117.73**
Riverine - -
Communal Waters:
SWIPs/Dams 180.52** - 18.76**
Rivers 673.50** - 371.09**
Creeks
Lakes
318.00**
524.00**
-
336.00**
83.13**
Municipal Fisheries:
Motorized Bancas - 1,809
16,181.56 (total for
motorized & non-
motorized)
Non-Motorized Bancas - 638
Flatboat - 50* 1,200.00
Raft - 500* 330.00
Payao - 0 0
Inland Production:
Lakes - - 34.00
SWIPs - - 14.60
DDs - - 9.90
Rivers/Creeks - - 90.00
- Brackishwater
Note: *Available data is 2019. ** Available data is 2022.
Source: Provincial Agriculture Office, Ilocos Norte
Disclaimer: Tables, maps and other information contained in this document are from various sources and are consolidated for general information
purposes only and are not intended for use as source of any advice such as legal, medical, accounting and the likes.
Ecological Profile: PROVINCE OF ILOCOS NORTE Part 3: NATURAL RESOURCES & ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT 40
Table 3-7. Potential Areas of Fishing and Aquatic Resources by Municipality, 2019
Municipality/City
Potential Areas (Hectares)
Lakes Fishponds Rivers Dams Creeks SWIP
Adams - - 2.30 - - -
Bacarra - - 4.50 - - 0.50
Badoc - - 0.50 - 0.64 0.50
Bangui - - - - - -
Banna - - 10.00 - - -
Batac City 0.50 - - - - 1.80
Burgos - - 8.00 - 1.05 2.25
Carasi - - 0.40 - 0.20 -
Currimao - - - - 0.30 -
Dingras - - 2.40 - 2.50 -
Dumalneg - - - - - -
Laoag City - - 5.00 - 10 -
Marcos - - 1.00 - - 0.06
Nueva Era 0.50 - 2.00 - - 0.60
Pagudpud - - 2.00 - 3.50 5.00
Paoay - - 0.50 - 0.25 0.20
Pasuquin - - 3.61 - 15.51 -
Piddig - - 2.31 - 4.30 1.31
Pinili - - 1.97 0.80 - 0.38
San Nicolas - - - - - 3.50
Sarrat - - 1.00 - - 1.30
Solsona - - 8.00 - 1 0.02
Vintar - - 3.35 - 2.16 -
Total 1.00 58.84 0.80 41.41 17.41
Source: Provincial Agriculture Office, Ilocos Norte
Disclaimer: Tables, maps and other information contained in this document are from various sources and are consolidated for general information
purposes only and are not intended for use as source of any advice such as legal, medical, accounting and the likes.
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Table 3-8. Length of Coastline by City/Municipality
City/Municipality Length of Coastline (Kilometers)
Bacarra 7.00
Badoc 15.00
Bangui 7.00
Burgos 19.00
Currimao 16.50
Laoag City 12.00
Pagudpud 43.37
Paoay 10.00
Pasuquin 25.50
Total 155.37
Source: Provincial Agriculture Office, Ilocos Norte
Table 3-9. Number of Fishermen by Municipality/City, 2019
Municipality
Number of Fishermen
Inland Coastal Total
Adams 315 - 315
Bacarra 161 121 282
Badoc 117 696 813
Bangui 207 558 765
Banna 102 - 102
Batac City 1,687 - 1,687
Burgos 425 950 1,375
Carasi 65 - 65
Currimao 42 804 846
Dingras 675 - 675
Dumalneg 136 - 136
Laoag City 202 812 1,014
Marcos 197 - 197
Nueva Era 246 - 246
Pagudpud 1,430 1,288 2,718
Paoay 417 88 505
Pasuquin 1,000 814 1,814
Piddig 450 - 450
Pinili 45 - 45
San Nicolas 520 - 520
Sarrat 648 - 648
Solsona 90 - 90
Vintar 568 - 568
Total 9,745 6,131 15,876
Source: Provincial Agriculture Office, Ilocos Norte
Disclaimer: Tables, maps and other information contained in this document are from various sources and are consolidated for general information
purposes only and are not intended for use as source of any advice such as legal, medical, accounting and the likes.
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E. ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT
1. PRIME GUIDELINE: THE ILOCOS NORTE ENVIRONMENT CODE OF 2007
1.1. COVERAGE
• Land Use and Land Management
• Forest Resources
• Mineral Resources
• Water Resources
• Coastal Resources
• Integrated Waste Management
• Air and Noise Pollution Management
• Eco-Tourism Management
• Environmental Impact Assessment
• Environmental Information and Education
2. ENVIRONMENTAL ADMINISTRATION AND MANAGEMENT
2.1. POWERS AND FUNCTIONS OF THE ILOCOS NORTE ENVIRONMENT
AND NATURAL RESOURCES OFFICE (INENRO)
• Formulate and implement comprehensive plan on environment and natural
resources in the province, pursuant to the provisions of the Environment
Code and national laws, rules and regulations. The plan shall contain
programs, strategies, activities and policy guidelines on the sustainable
management of forest resources, fisheries (inland and marine) and aquatic
resources, water resources, mineral resources, ecological tourism, waste
management, land use management and pollution control and mitigation;
• Provide assistance to the municipalities, city, barangays, and other
government agencies and private organizations in the implementation of
their respective programs and projects, such as, but not limited to,
protection, conservation, and management of forest resources, fisheries
(inland and marine) and aquatic resources, water resources, mineral
resources, ecological tourism, waste management, land use management
and pollution control and mitigation;
• Implement programs on information, education and communication,
community organization and capacity-building and training and provide
assistance to municipalities, city, barangay, and other government and
private organizations in the implementation of similar activities in their
respective areas;
Disclaimer: Tables, maps and other information contained in this document are from various sources and are consolidated for general information
purposes only and are not intended for use as source of any advice such as legal, medical, accounting and the likes.
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• Recommend to the Sanggunian concerned and advise the Governor and
the Mayors, as the case may be, on matters relative to the protection,
conservation and utilization of the environment and natural resources;
• Maintain an information center that will serve as a venue for showcasing
excellence on environment and natural resources management practices;
• Maintain and update resource management databases such as, but not
limited to, the Municipal Coastal Database, for planning, monitoring and
evaluation purposes;
• Coordinate with other Provincial Government offices in the implementation
of its mandate;
• Enforce pertinent environment and natural resource laws, rules and
regulations and provide assistance to the municipalities, city and barangays
in the implementation such laws, rules and regulations. The Office shall
also encourage clustering of municipalities and city in addressing law
enforcement and other related concerns such as, but not limited to, the
management of fishing area contiguous to two or more municipalities,
protection of watershed, and riverine system and pollution control and
mitigation;
• Establish linkage with local and national organizations for purposes of fund-
sourcing, network building, research, information, data-banking, policy
advocacy and livelihood development. The Office shall also assist the
municipalities and city in establishing linkages with other local and
international organizations;
• Cause and initiate the convening of the Provincial Environmental Summit to
be held in June of every year;
• Install and maintain a one-stop-shop and quick response desk that will be
manned by a multi-sectoral and inter-agency team tasked to facilitate calls
for fact-finding mission and monitoring, control and surveillance;
• Coordinate with the national government agencies such as, but not limited
to, the Department of Environment and Natural Resources, Department of
Agriculture, Department of the Interior and Local Government, Philippine
National Police, Philippine Coast Guard, Department of Trade and Industry,
Department of Tourism, Philippine Tourism Authority, Department of
Transportation and Communication, and Department of Justice in the
implementation of its mandate as provided in this Code; and
• Perform such other functions that are necessary in the implementation of
the Environment Code as may be delegated by the Governor or the
Sangguniang Panlalawigan.
Disclaimer: Tables, maps and other information contained in this document are from various sources and are consolidated for general information
purposes only and are not intended for use as source of any advice such as legal, medical, accounting and the likes.
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3. SUPPORT PROGRAMS, PROJECTS, ACTIVITIES, POLICIES AND
MANDATED ROLES AND RESPONSIBILITIES
3.1. ON WATER RESOURCES
• Water Conservation
The extraction of fresh water in coastal areas is limited to the extent
where intrusion of saline waters into the freshwater table would result.
Likewise, extraction of freshwater in inland areas and in shallow aquifers
must be controlled to prevent land subsidence.
• Management of Watersheds
Cooperative-based groups shall be given priority to undertake the
development of capabilities for the management of watersheds.
• Protection and Conservation of Mangroves
For the purpose of protecting the livelihood and well-being of the
artisanal fishing population, the sustained productivity of coastal habitats of
marine flora and fauna shall be secured through the provision of assistance
to municipal governments in establishing adequate safeguards and controls
on human activities within declared mangrove forest reserves, marine
parks and fish sanctuaries, such as, but not limited to, the formulation of a
provincial coastal resource management framework.
3.2. ON FOREST RESOURCES
• Enforcement of Forestry Laws in community-based forestry projects, small
watershed areas and communal forests such as:
oPrevention of forest fires, illegal cutting of trees and making of
kaingins;
oPrevention of smuggling of natural resources products and of
endangered species of flora and fauna and other unlawful activities;
oApprehension of violators of forest laws, rules and regulations;
oConfiscation of forest products illegally extracted on site: from the
community based-forestry project areas, small watersheds and
communal forests;
oConfiscation, forfeiture and disposition of conveyances, equipment
and other implements used in the commission of offenses in the
community-based areas, small watershed areas, and communal
forests which are penalized under PD 705, as amended by EO 277
series of 1987 and other forestry laws, rules and regulations;
oProvide extension services to beneficiaries of forest development
projects and render technical and infrastructure assistance for
natural-resource related conservation and utilization activities
consistent with ecological balance;
oManage and maintain seed banks and produce seedlings for forest
and tree parks;
oSeek CENRO assistance in formulating plans and programs on
devolved functions and projects to forest management and protected
areas and wildlife; and
Disclaimer: Tables, maps and other information contained in this document are from various sources and are consolidated for general information
purposes only and are not intended for use as source of any advice such as legal, medical, accounting and the likes.
Ecological Profile: PROVINCE OF ILOCOS NORTE Part 3: NATURAL RESOURCES & ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT 45
oImplementation of Community-Based Forest Management Projects
which are funded out of regular appropriations under necessary
provisions involving policies and administrative arrangements.
• Reforestation Projects
Tree planting and reforestation shall be a continuing priority project of
the provincial government. Priority areas shall include but not limited to the
following:
oResidual Forests
oWatersheds
oAirsheds
oAreas of high bio-diversity levels
oEroded slopes
oAll open spaces within the territorial jurisdiction of Ilocos Norte
3.3. ON MINERAL RESOURCES
• Adoption of adequate measures to safeguard and conserve mineral
resources:
oStrictly enforce Republic Act No. 7076 (the Small-Scale Mining Law
of 1991) and Presidential Decree Number 1899 (Individual
Application for Small Scale Mining);
oEnforce Batas Pambansa 265 and Section 92 of RA 8550 banning
the quarrying of beach sands in all small islands, atolls, reefs and
other similar areas in all water bodies within the Province of Ilocos
Norte;
oThe province hereby reiterate that Batas Pambansa 265 and Section
92 of RA 8550 also ban the quarrying of beach sands even for
construction projects classified as Item: Special by the DPWH Blue
Book;
oIssue permit for guano collection pursuant to Section 3.4(b), DAO
30, series of 1992 and extraction of quarry resources on privately
owned lands and/or public lands for building and construction
materials pursuant to Section 43, RA 7942 and Section 138, RA
7160;
oVerify and adjudicate conflicts and collect fees and charges for
guano collection and quarry resources extraction such as but not
limited to sand, and gravel; and
oPromote the use of renewable energy.
3.4. ON COASTAL RESOURCES
• Assistance to the FARMCs, fishermen cooperatives and other collective
organizations as well as the transfer of technology.
• Enforcement of community-based (mangrove) forest management laws
and other laws on the protection of the environment.
Disclaimer: Tables, maps and other information contained in this document are from various sources and are consolidated for general information
purposes only and are not intended for use as source of any advice such as legal, medical, accounting and the likes.
Ecological Profile: PROVINCE OF ILOCOS NORTE Part 3: NATURAL RESOURCES & ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT 46
• Coastal tourism development and promotion programs.
3.5. ON INTEGRATED WASTE MANAGEMENT
• Role of the Province
The Provincial Government shall promote the practice of waste
segregation and waste minimization at source. Specifically, it shall perform
the following functions:
oAssist municipal governments in the preparation of a multiyear IWM
program, including information, education, and communication
materials;
oFacilitate establishment of supportive linkages between municipal
government units and other government and private sector
organizations;
oAssist municipalities who may decide to group themselves,
consolidate or coordinate their efforts, services, and resources for
the purpose of establishing a common IWM system or facilities;
oIn coordination with the Presidential Task Force for Waste
Management, DENR, NGOs, and the League of Municipalities,
facilitate the establishment of a model municipal unit that
demonstrates an effective and efficient IWM system;
oTrain provincial personnel to provide technical assistance services,
particularly in IWM and EIA (Environmental Impact Assessment) to
city and municipal governments; and
oInstall an operational monitoring system to ensure sustainability of
IWM programs.
• Role of Cities, Municipalities and Barangays
Pursuant to Section 17, RA 7160, the city, municipality and barangay
shall be responsible in providing services related to waste and garbage
disposal. The city and municipal governments shall consider the following
processes for the establishment of their own IWM system:
oEstablish waste stream through the conduct of a baseline survey on
current WM practices;
oConduct consensus building with communities in order to generate
support and participation from the private sector;
oPrepare an IWM program based on the review of options identified
with the community;
oPromulgate an IWM Ordinance. The ordinance shall contain the
following parts, namely: Definition of Terms, Waste Generation and
Storage, Waste Processing and Resource Recovery, Collection and
Transportation of Waste, Disposal of Solid Wastes, User Fees for
Waste Management Services, Violation and Penalty and Penal
Provisions. The city or municipality may refer to the Generic
City/Municipal Ordinance for waste management prepared by the
Presidential Task Force for Waste Management; and
Disclaimer: Tables, maps and other information contained in this document are from various sources and are consolidated for general information
purposes only and are not intended for use as source of any advice such as legal, medical, accounting and the likes.
Ecological Profile: PROVINCE OF ILOCOS NORTE Part 3: NATURAL RESOURCES & ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT 47
oAppoint an IWM manager/coordinator to oversee integrated
approach versus the conventional collection and disposal effort.
3.6. ON AIR AND NOISE POLLUTION MANAGEMENT
• Comprehensive Air Quality Management Program/Plan
The role of PENRO is to:
o Prepare comprehensive air quality management programs, plans
and strategies within the limits set forth in Republic Act No. 7160
and R.A. No. 8749 otherwise known as the “Philippine Clean Air Act
of 1999" which shall be implemented within the territorial jurisdiction
of Ilocos Norte upon the approval of the Sanggunian;
o Take the lead in all efforts concerning air quality protection and
rehabilitation; and
o Coordinate with other government agencies and non-governmental
organizations in the implementation of measures to prevent and
control air pollution.
• Noise Reduction
To protect the general welfare and public health against nuisance
caused by excessive noise, the following measures shall be implemented:
o Building construction, digging equipment, stationary engines,
factories are hereby prohibited to create unnecessary noise which
would result in ambient noise level higher than the ambient
standards;
o Restaurants, pub houses, karaoke’s, are also prohibited to create
unnecessary noise which would result in ambient noise level higher
than the ambient standards; and
o Wanton firing of guns and other noise creating gadgets.
3.7. ON ECO-TOURISM MANAGEMENT
• Eco-Tourism Development Plan
In line to the Environment Code, the province and in coordination to
concerned city/municipal LGUs, national government agencies/offices, non-
governmental organizations, and private sector representatives, the
Provincial Eco-tourism Development Framework shall be formulated to:
o Regulate and control the growth of ecotourism activities in the
province through the formulation and implementation of framework
plans;
o Identify and prioritize tourism zones and areas for development in
consideration of the ecology, market potential, infrastructure
investment requirement, economic viability, strategic position for
expansion and community participation. Determination of such areas
shall be subject to the recommendation of the Sangguniang Bayan
concerned, after consultation with the affected barangay, and
Disclaimer: Tables, maps and other information contained in this document are from various sources and are consolidated for general information
purposes only and are not intended for use as source of any advice such as legal, medical, accounting and the likes.
Ecological Profile: PROVINCE OF ILOCOS NORTE Part 3: NATURAL RESOURCES & ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT 48
approval of the Governor, who, in turn, shall issue directive for the
purpose;
o Preserve places, sites, or areas of archeological, cultural, and/or
historical value or importance;
o Develop, rehabilitate, conserve and monitor operations of beaches,
coastal forests and sanctuary parks for fish or migratory birds or
indigenous birds, including native flora and fauna;
o Establish a government friendly tourism business atmosphere in
order to further encourage tourism investments such as, but not
limited to, granting fiscal incentives, awards for delivery of excellent
hospitality services, and encouragement or subsidy for small-scale
enterprises in support of eco-tourism;
o Encourage educational awareness as to the importance of ecology
and sustainable development vis-à-vis tourism development and
undertakings through information drive, study tours, and in-bound
and out-bound tourism mission; provided, that in the case of the out-
bound tourism mission, said activity shall be subject to the
recommendation of the Provincial Tourism Office and approval of the
Sangguniang Panlalawigan;
o Establish and maintain Visitors Information Assistance Center;
o Establish and maintain a Provincial Tourism Display Center to
showcase locally produced products;
o Encourage holding of tourism activities provided that the activities
shall be environment-friendly and economically sustainable, and
o Encourage use of indigenous materials and Ilocano architectural
design to harmonize design of exterior buildings or edifices with the
architectural style of site and to enhance natural asset and ambiance.
3.8. ON ENVIRONMENTAL INFORMATION AND EDUCATION
• Management Direction
The underlying purpose of the enactment of measures to protect the
environment, seen in its broadest socio-political sense, is to enable people
to critically understand the problems and to mobilize local efforts towards
the desired objectives of rules and regulations. Environmental legislation
should not be limited to the direct curtailment of activities and processes
that are inimical to the preservation of environment, but more importantly, it
should educate the people and enable them to react to and comply with the
purpose of the legislative measure.
The objective of a continuing community education program is to
cultivate environment-friendly lifestyles and concretize sustainable use
practices among individuals and industries alike.
• Role of INENRO
The Ilocos Norte Environment and Natural Resource Office (INENRO),
through its Administrative and Support Services shall:
o Disseminate information on the state of the environment and the
impacts of human activities on their sustainability as part of its local
Disclaimer: Tables, maps and other information contained in this document are from various sources and are consolidated for general information
purposes only and are not intended for use as source of any advice such as legal, medical, accounting and the likes.
Ecological Profile: PROVINCE OF ILOCOS NORTE Part 3: NATURAL RESOURCES & ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT 49
environmental education program through various media such as
print, radio, TV, cultural shows, and public dialogues;
o Establish Environment Information Center in coordination with the
Ilocos Norte Provincial Library and Information Center;
o Conduct seminars on subjects such as but not limited to global
warming, ozone depletion, coastal resource and fisheries
management systems, Community-based Fishery Law Enforcement,
Air Pollution, Red Tide Phenomena, Sustainable Agriculture and Safe
Use of Pesticides, Tourism Management, Water Management
Program, and other pertinent topics on the effects of the use of
hazardous on the environment;
o Seek the services of NGOs, POs and other advocacy groups on the
dissemination of information and the conduct of lectures;
o Work closely with local religious groups to design a catechism
module focused on the environment;
o Coordinate with the Department of Education, TESDA and
Commission on Higher Education to develop a concise curriculum on
environment highlighting the unique features of Ilocos Norte’s
ecosystem;
o Tap the services of specialists in government agencies such as the
DOST, DENR and DA as well as those in the academe for the
conduct of more comprehensive seminars on the environment;
o Establish a network for information and collection and feedback
linking NGOs, government agencies and people’s organizations for
reporting violations, outbreaks, destructive resource-use practices
and to conduct systematic observation on pollution and
environmental impacts of human activities. To this end, investments
in radio communication equipment, computers and other tools for
surveillance should be facilitated; and
o Prescribe guidelines to encourage billboard advertisers to use at
least one fourth (1/4) of their paid space for pictures of and facts
about endangered flora and fauna to heighten people’s awareness in
promoting their conservation and protection.
• Role of Local Governments
Local Governments, through inter-municipal cooperation, and with the
support of national agencies, shall embark on a human resources
development and capacity building to:
o Expand multidisciplinary education, training and research on
sustainable management of land, water and air resources;
o Create training opportunities for members of the community, NGOs,
POs and the industry to encourage environment-friendly lifestyles;
o Develop and strengthen, where the need arises, institutions capable
of conducting research, monitoring and implementing the objectives
and activities related to environmental legislation and resources
conservation; and
o Develop local planning capabilities particularly using the population
and development planning method.
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2023 Ecological Profile of Ilocos Norte.pdf
2023 Ecological Profile of Ilocos Norte.pdf
2023 Ecological Profile of Ilocos Norte.pdf
2023 Ecological Profile of Ilocos Norte.pdf
2023 Ecological Profile of Ilocos Norte.pdf
2023 Ecological Profile of Ilocos Norte.pdf
2023 Ecological Profile of Ilocos Norte.pdf
2023 Ecological Profile of Ilocos Norte.pdf
2023 Ecological Profile of Ilocos Norte.pdf
2023 Ecological Profile of Ilocos Norte.pdf
2023 Ecological Profile of Ilocos Norte.pdf
2023 Ecological Profile of Ilocos Norte.pdf
2023 Ecological Profile of Ilocos Norte.pdf
2023 Ecological Profile of Ilocos Norte.pdf
2023 Ecological Profile of Ilocos Norte.pdf
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2023 Ecological Profile of Ilocos Norte.pdf
2023 Ecological Profile of Ilocos Norte.pdf
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2023 Ecological Profile of Ilocos Norte.pdf

  • 1. ECOLOGICAL PROFILE PROVINCE OF ILOCOS NORTE Prepared and Consolidated by: OFFICE OF THE PLANNING AND DEVELOPMENT COORDINATOR 2023
  • 2. TABLE OF CONTENTS PART 1 : THE DAWN OF ILOCOS NORTE A. The Land of Ilocos Region . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 B. History of Ilocos . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 C. The Provinces . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 D. Cultural Background . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 E. Historical Personalities . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 F. Brief History of Ilocos Norte . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 G. Cultural Background of Ilocos Norte . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 PART 2 : GEO-PHYSICAL ENVIRONMENT A. Geographical Location . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19 B. Topography . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22 C. Geology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24 D. Climate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25 E. Hazard Profile . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28 PART 3 : NATURAL RESOURCES & ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT A. Land Resources . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31 B. Mineral Resources . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33 C. Forestry Resources . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36 D. Fishing and Aquatic Resources . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39 E. Environmental Management . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42
  • 3. PART 4 : POPULATION & SOCIAL PROFILE A. Demography . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50 B. Education . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 85 C. Health and Welfare . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 108 D. Agriculture . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 132 E. Labor and Employment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 142 F. Human Development Index . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 152 G. Construction and Housing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 162 H. Public Order and Safety . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 176 I. Tourism . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 186 PART 5 : LOCAL ECONOMY A. Investment Potentials . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 198 B. Investment Incentives for Doing Business . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 202 C. Trade and Industry . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 203 D. Income and Expenditure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 206 PART 6 : INFRASTRUCTURE & UTILITIES A. Roads and Bridges . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 209 B. Airport and Seaport . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 212 C. Communication . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 218 D. Water . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 219 E. Sanitation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 232 F. Power . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 234 G. Drainage/Flood Control . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 237 H. Solid Waste Management . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 237
  • 4. PART 7 : ADMINISTRATIVE SYSTEM & RELATED LOCAL INSTITUTIONS A. Organization and Management . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 240 B. Local Administration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 259 C. Government Support Organizations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 267 D. Non-Government Organizations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 270 E. Local Budget Performance and Financial Statements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 276 F. Revenue Classifications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 309 G. Financial Institutions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 310
  • 5. Disclaimer: Tables, maps and other information contained in this document are from various sources and are consolidated for general information purposes only and are not intended for use as source of any advice such as legal, medical, accounting and the likes. Ecological Profile: PROVINCE OF ILOCOS NORTE Part 1: THE DAWN OF ILOCOS NORTE 1 A.THE LAND OF ILOCOS REGION It is collectively known as Ilocandia – this northwestern part of Luzon which would have remained a wasteland, were it not for the tough, headstrong, ingenious and spirited inhabitants who were determined to overcome a hostile environment. Ilocandia is about two- thirds mountain range. The Cordilleras run all along its eastern side. Off its western side is the China Sea. Between sea and mountain is a corridor so narrow that in some places mountain and sea almost meet. Originally there was only one province of the Ilocos, which even in pre-Spanish times was among the most thickly populated areas in the country. A burgeoning population made imperative the creation of different provinces: Pangasinan in 1611, Ilocos Norte and Ilocos Sur in 1818, Abra in 1846, La Union in 1854, Mountain Province in 1908 (by the Americans) and Benguet in 1966 (Republic Act 4695). B. HISTORY OF ILOCOS The Ilocos Region was originally inhabited by Negritos who were later driven to the mountains by the immigrating Malays. The early Malay settlers were probably of three different groups: the Isneg, the Tinguian and the Ilocano. Though they spoke the same language and shared the same customs, they came as separate clans and stayed separate. Part 1: THE DAWN OF ILOCOS NORTE The PAOAY CHURCH, one of the four Baroque Churches in the Philippines has been registered in 1993 as a universal Cultural Heritage in accordance with the 1972 UNESCO Convention.
  • 6. Disclaimer: Tables, maps and other information contained in this document are from various sources and are consolidated for general information purposes only and are not intended for use as source of any advice such as legal, medical, accounting and the likes. Ecological Profile: PROVINCE OF ILOCOS NORTE Part 1: THE DAWN OF ILOCOS NORTE 2 The Ilocano proved to be the most aggressive and dominant. The entire seacoast gradually became exclusively Ilocano turf. The Isneg and the Tinguian were pushed into the interior. There they developed a dialect and culture that became more and more distinct as they guarded the purity of their highland culture jealousy from the influence of the lowland folk, those settlers who built villages near small bays or coves (called looc, or loco in the native dialect) and who were therefore referred to as “Ilocano”. Before the coming of the Spaniards, the coastal plains in the northeastern extreme of Luzon were known as a progressive region rich in gold. An expedition led by Salcedo in 1572 explored the Ilocos region, landing on the coastal area and settling on the shore of a river called Bigan. There he occupied a town settlement, also called Bigan (now Vigan) and christened it Villa Fernandina, in honor of Prince Ferdinand, son of King Philip II of Spain. Laoag also fell to the Spaniards, but not without resistance from the natives. The Spaniards found the Ilocano settlers relatively peaceful, orderly and prosperous. They lived in large villages and sheltered coves and bays, as well as along the mouths and banks of big rivers and streams. Each village was under one headman, but there was certainly no tribal grouping. They had trade relations with other people from the neighboring areas. They were also occasionally engaged in foreign trade, especially with the Japanese and Chinese. The Ilocano settlers were soon called upon to render tribute and voluntary service to the colonizers, either to man the boats or to work in construction projects. This and oppressive taxes were primary sources of grievances which led to many minor revolts that were easily crushed but which caused many people to leave their homes and move elsewhere. Peasant revolts which took place in the rural areas of the country including the Ilocos region during the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries varied in cause, in leadership and in magnitude. However, they revolved around a common theme: protest against compulsory labor, unfair taxation, suppression of local practices, and abuses of the Spaniards. The coming of the Americans in 1898 and their aggressive “pacification” campaigns met with stiff resistance from the Ilocano peasants. It was only in 1901 after a long, bloody war that peace and order were restored and local development began to take place with the construction and opening of public schools, hospitals, roads and bridges. The administration of local government was entrusted to Filipino officials and more and more educated Ilocano men became national leaders. The ensuing years were periods of growth and development until the outbreak of World War II in the Philippines in December 1941 and the subsequent Japanese occupation for four years. The defeat of the Japanese in 1945 restored peace and order.
  • 7. Disclaimer: Tables, maps and other information contained in this document are from various sources and are consolidated for general information purposes only and are not intended for use as source of any advice such as legal, medical, accounting and the likes. Ecological Profile: PROVINCE OF ILOCOS NORTE Part 1: THE DAWN OF ILOCOS NORTE 3 The Ilocos region today continues its development with the same tenacity of purpose, hard work and perseverance on the part of its people who had sustained it for centuries. Sometimes the placid peasant life is disturbed by tremors of violence when political tempers run high and the Ilocano is allowed to go unrestrained. Nevertheless, the drive to improve his lot does not allow such conflicts to affect his social mobility, his striving for wider participation in the national scene. The Ilocano rides the crest of conflict and makes it work for him rather than succumb to its consequences. C. THE PROVINCES One enters the region through Pangasinan which occupies the northern portion of the vast central plain of Luzon. Seaward is Lingayen Gulf, with its rich resources of fish and other forms of marine life. The sprawling rice fields and other cultivated areas are fertile lands enriched by the Agno River and are considered among the best agricultural lands in the country. Northward beyond the Pangasinan plain lies La Union, the commercial tourism and administrative government center of the region. It is narrow and hilly, squeezed in between mountain and sea, but boasting of beautiful beaches along its irregular coastline. Beyond La Union are the two Ilocos provinces – Ilocos Norte and Ilocos Sur, the twin hearts of Ilocano culture. Much of Ilocos Norte is rugged and rocky, its narrow plains also hemmed in by the mountains and the sea. Ilocos Sur lies at the northeastern portion of Luzon, bounded by the China Sea on the eastern part and by mountain ranges on the southwestern part. Abra is an interior province carved out of huge chunks of Ilocos Sur and Ilocos Norte. It is almost all upland, except for the fertile Abra River valley at its heart. The valley is nourished and drained by the Abra River which cuts the province into north and south halves and makes Abra the richest province in the region in terms of water resources. Benguet is the gateway to the Mountain Province, the seat of Igorot culture. Mountainous and hilly, broken by several narrow valleys and high plateaus, much of the province is suitable only for forestry, wildlife, and recreation. The Mountain Province is a block of high and massive mountains, with no level lands except in small river valleys that lie at the foot of its towering mountains. Shut off from the lowlands by rugged peaks, the people of this province have preserved their indigenous culture and way of life up to this day. D.CULTURAL BACKGROUND OF ILOCOS REGION Ilocandia today has a rich culture reminiscent of colonial times. Vigan, the colonial metropolis which was the administrative capital of the undivided Ilocos Province and the ecclesiastical center of the Archdiocese of Nueva Segovia, still
  • 8. Disclaimer: Tables, maps and other information contained in this document are from various sources and are consolidated for general information purposes only and are not intended for use as source of any advice such as legal, medical, accounting and the likes. Ecological Profile: PROVINCE OF ILOCOS NORTE Part 1: THE DAWN OF ILOCOS NORTE 4 retains the Castilian colonial architecture of the time. Lined along its narrow and cobblestone streets are old Spanish-type houses (commonly called Vigan House) most of which are now empty. These stately homes have huge high-pitched roofs, large arched doorways, cavernous-looking, entresuelos, a flight of sweeping staircases, large rectangular living rooms with life size mirrors, old wooden furniture and ornate Vienna sets. The more affluent homes boast of multicolored Chinese ceramic pedestals standing in pairs before doorways and bultos – small ivory statues of Mary, Joseph and Infant Jesus and other saints. The churches of the Ilocos region are the enduring symbol of the triumphal transformation of the Ilocano from animistic paganism to theistic Christianity. Probably the most impressive are the Vigan Cathedral in Ilocos Sur with its massive hand-carved images of the Via Crucis; that of Magsingal with its centuries-old wooden altar, thirty feet high and also hand carved; the Paoay Church, the largest and one of the oldest churches in the region. Its massive buttresses measure two meters thick and eleven meters high. The Laoag Church has a tower patterned after the famous campanile in northern Italy. Once the tallest in the archipelago, it has slowly sunk to the ground such that its original gate which was spacious enough for a man on horseback to enter has now become so low that only boys can pass through. The Bacarra Church has a bell tower that looks like a monk on his knees on prayer. Its leaning tower which was damaged by a strong earthquake is likened to the tower of Pisa in Italy. Still dotting the shores are centuries-old watchtowers built during the early part of the Spanish rule when Moro pirates frequently raided the coastal villages of the Ilocos and Cagayan. Cape Bojeador, the tallest lighthouse in the country and perhaps in Asia and located in the town of Burgos, Ilocos Norte, was originally an observation post used to warn the people of impending naval attacks. It serves as a guide to ships plying the dangerous eddies of Point Lacay-lacay. Although the clannish Ilocano people are conserving and traditional in their ways, the inroads of change and progress into their lives are evident. Modern supermarkets have risen over the older public markets and coastal towns have sprouted beach resorts, parks and subdivisions. Factories, banks, sports, complexes, schools, colleges and universities have now become part of Ilocano communities like San Fernando (La Union), the regional capital; Vigan (Ilocos Sur); Laoag City (Ilocos Norte) and Bangued (Abra) – all bustling industrial, commercial and educational centers. Paredes Air Base in Sapat, Pasuquin, Ilocos Norte is the radar station of the Philippine Air Force. Malacañang ti Amianan in Suba, Paoay, Ilocos Norte is the “Malacanang of the North” where the President of the Republic sometimes meets with his Cabinet. The modern national highway circumscribing northern Luzon connects all the Ilocos provinces and the Cagayan Valley.
  • 9. Disclaimer: Tables, maps and other information contained in this document are from various sources and are consolidated for general information purposes only and are not intended for use as source of any advice such as legal, medical, accounting and the likes. Ecological Profile: PROVINCE OF ILOCOS NORTE Part 1: THE DAWN OF ILOCOS NORTE 5 Juan N. Luna (October 23, 1857 to December 7, 1899) Antonio N. Luna (October 29, 1866 to June 5, 1899) The earliest estimate of the population based on encomienda lists of tribute payers was 80,000. By 1887 – about the end of Spanish colonial rule – the population had soared to almost 500,000. As population grew unabated, Ilocano families migrated to the Cagayan Valley, Pangasinan, Nueva Ecija, Tarlac, Zambales and Manila; then to the islands of Mindoro, Palawan and Mindanao. The historic “Ilocano Movement” was not limited to the archipelago. As early as the 1920’s Ilocano men were working in the plantations of Hawaii, the orchards of California, the American bases in Guam, the canneries of Alaska. Today they constitute a large part of the Filipino work force in the deserts and oil fields of Saudi Arabia. E. HISTORICAL PERSONALITIES From the region came many of our national heroes, especially in our revolutionary struggles against Spanish and American domination. In Badoc, Ilocos Norte, was born Juan Luna, a painter and a patriot. His brother Antonio, a general under Emilio Aguinaldo, was born in Manila, but the Luna family came from the Ilocos; their mother was from Namacpacan, a town in La Union, where the ancestral house has been converted into museum. Batac, Ilocos Norte, has contributed, among others, the person of Gregorio Aglipay, patriot-priest. Ordained a Catholic priest, he was later excommunicated. In August 1901 he announced a plan to found a Filipino independent church. This was formally established on August 3, 1902, as the Iglesia Filipina Independiente. The movement quickly gained adherents in numbers beyond the imagination of the American colonial administrators. Patriotism, more than religion, was the reason for its phenomenal growth. Many adherents declared themselves openly against the United States and advocated independence. Isabelo de los Reyes, himself an Ilocano, later to champion workers’ rights, was an active Aglipayan church leader. Artemio Ricarte, the general who refused to surrender to the Americans, was also from Batac. From Paoay came Agaton Evangelista, whose son, General Edilberto Evangelista, became known in Philippine history as the hero of Zapote (Las Pinas Bridge. Evangelista’s engineering skills were put to valuable use during the Philippine revolution in building trenches in Cavite that helped the Filipinos repel Spanish attacks.
  • 10. Disclaimer: Tables, maps and other information contained in this document are from various sources and are consolidated for general information purposes only and are not intended for use as source of any advice such as legal, medical, accounting and the likes. Ecological Profile: PROVINCE OF ILOCOS NORTE Part 1: THE DAWN OF ILOCOS NORTE 6 Josefa Llanes Escoda (September 20, 1898 to January 6, 1945) Pres. Ferdinand E. Marcos (September 11, 1917 to September 28, 1989) An Ilocos regional landmark that figured in the Filipino-Spanish and Filipino-American wars is Tirad Pass in Ilocos Sur, where Gregorio del Pilar and fifty-two of his men heroically held off the Americans so General Aguinaldo could make a strategic retreat. A World War II heroine was Josefa Llanes Escoda, born in Dingras, Ilocos Norte, on September 20, 1898. She was called the “Florence Nightingale of the Philippines,” in recognition of her lifework as a social worker for the Red Cross. Two presidents are native sons of the Ilocos provinces. Elpidio Quirino, the second President of the Philippine Republic was born in Vigan, Ilocos Sur. The town of Sarrat, Ilocos Norte, is the birthplace and hometown of Ferdinand E. Marcos, the sixth President of the Republic. F. BRIEF HISTORY OF ILOCOS NORTE Long before the coming of the Spaniards, there already existed an extensive region consisting of the present provinces of Ilocos Norte, Ilocos Sur, Abra and La Union) renowned for its gold mines. Merchants from Japan and China would often visit the area to trade gold with beads, ceramics and silk. The inhabitants of the region, believed to be of Malay origin, called their place “samtoy”, from “sao mi toy, which literally meant “our language”. In 1571, when the Spanish conquistadors had Manila more or less under their control, they began looking for new sites to conquer. Legaspi’s grandson, Juan de Salcedo, volunteered to lead one of these expeditions. Together with 8 armed boats and 45 men, the 22-year-old voyager headed north. On June 13, 1572, Salcedo and his men landed in Vigan and then proceeded towards Laoag, Currimao and Badoc. As they sailed along the coast, they were surprised to see numerous sheltered coves (“looc”) where the locals lived in harmony. As a result, they named the region “Ylocos” and its people “Ylocanos”. As the Christianization of the region grew, so did the landscape of the area. Vast tracks of land were utilized for churches and bell towers in line with the Spanish mission of “bajo las campanas”. In the town plaza, it was not uncommon to see garrisons under the church bells. The colonization process was slowly being carried out.
  • 11. Disclaimer: Tables, maps and other information contained in this document are from various sources and are consolidated for general information purposes only and are not intended for use as source of any advice such as legal, medical, accounting and the likes. Ecological Profile: PROVINCE OF ILOCOS NORTE Part 1: THE DAWN OF ILOCOS NORTE 7 The Spanish colonization of the region, however, was never completely successful. Owing to the abusive practices of many Augustinian friars, a number of Ilocanos revolted against their colonizers. Noteworthy of these were the Dingras uprising (1589) and Pedro Almasan revolt (San Nicolas, 1660). In 1762, Diego Silang led a series of battles aimed at freeing the Ilocanos from the Spanish yoke. When he died from an assassin’s bullet, his widow Gabriela continued the cause. Unfortunately, she too was captured and hanged. In 1807, the sugar cane (“basi”) brewers of Piddig rose up in arms to protest the government’s monopoly of the wine industry. In 1898, the church excommunicated Gregorio Aglipay for refusing to cut off ties with the revolutionary forces of Gen. Emilio Aguinaldo. Unperturbed, he established the “Iglesia Filipina Independiente”. Aglipay’s movement and the national sentiment it espoused helped restore the self-respect of many Filipinos. “The great increase in population from 1,715 to 1,818 from 18,980 to 282,845 made the administration of the province very difficult. Due to the excessive monopolies and forced labor, there were several uprisings: first by the people of Dingras in 1589; one that was led by Pedro Almazan in 1616; the revolt of Diego Silang in 1762-1763; by Ambaristo in 1788; by Pedro Mateo in 1808 and uprising of Sarrat in 1815. For this reason, the division of the Ilocos into two provinces was recommended by the local authorities. On February 2, 1818, a Spanish Royal Decree was promulgated dividing the Province of Ilocos Norte from Ilocos Sur. Laoag City, which was then the biggest center of population, was made the capital of Ilocos Norte.” G.CULTURAL BACKGROUND OF ILOCOS NORTE 1. ETHNIC ORIGIN OF THE PEOPLE The first inhabitants of the province were the Apayaos, Igorots, Itnegs and Tinguians. Invasions by groups with superior weapons and a number of men drove these natives into the mountains wherein they still thrive until today. People from the neighboring provinces as well as from other countries reach the province through business activities or trading. Intermarriage was also a factor for the The magnificent Provincial Capitol of Ilocos Norte in modest elegance and confidence that symbolizes a strong fortress of the province and a hearty home of Ilocanos situated at the heart of Laoag City.
  • 12. Disclaimer: Tables, maps and other information contained in this document are from various sources and are consolidated for general information purposes only and are not intended for use as source of any advice such as legal, medical, accounting and the likes. Ecological Profile: PROVINCE OF ILOCOS NORTE Part 1: THE DAWN OF ILOCOS NORTE 8 growing number of Tagalogs, Visayanos, Bicolanos, Pampagueños, Chinese and Bombays. 2. ETHNIC GROUPS Table 1-1. Household Population by Ethnicity by Sex, Ilocos Norte, 2010 Ethnicity Total % Ilocos Norte 608,508 100.0000 Abelling/Aberling 4 0.0007 Aeta 37 0.0061 Aeta/Ayta 32 0.0053 Aeta/Ayta-Sambal 4 0.0007 Afghan 15 0.0025 Agta 3 0.0005 Agta-Taboy 7 0.0012 Agutaynen 9 0.0015 American 60 0.0099 Applai 3 0.0005 Aromanen-Manobo/Dibabeen 6 0.0010 Aromanen-Manobo/Ilianen 2 0.0003 Aromanen-Manobo -Lahitanen 1 0.0002 Australian 8 0.0013 Blaan 4 0.0007 Badjao 83 0.0136 Bago 15 0.0025 Bajau 6 0.0010 Balangao 1 0.0002 Balangao-Lias 12 0.0020 Baliwon 9 0.0015 Batak 7 0.0012 Batangan 63 0.0104 Bikol/Bicol 1,756 0.2886 Bisaya/ Binisaya 3,909 0.6424 Boholano 119 0.0196 Bontok 50 0.0082
  • 13. Disclaimer: Tables, maps and other information contained in this document are from various sources and are consolidated for general information purposes only and are not intended for use as source of any advice such as legal, medical, accounting and the likes. Ecological Profile: PROVINCE OF ILOCOS NORTE Part 1: THE DAWN OF ILOCOS NORTE 9 Ethnicity Total % Bontok-Majukayong 1 0.0002 British 18 0.0030 Bugkalot/ Ilongot/ Egongot 1 0.0002 Bukidnon 8 0.0013 Bukidnon-Akeanon 4 0.0007 Bukidnon-Magahat 4 0.0007 Bukidnon-Pan-Anayon 4 0.0007 Cagayanen 45 0.0074 Calinga 3 0.0005 Canadian 8 0.0013 Capizeño 18 0.0030 Caviteño 50 0.0082 Caviteño-Chavacano 41 0.0067 Cebuano 644 0.1058 Chinese 227 0.0373 Cotabateño 9 0.0015 Cotabateño-Chavacano 16 0.0026 Cuyonen/Cuyunon 4 0.0007 Davao-Chavacano 22 0.0036 Davaweño 79 0.0130 Dumagat 38 0.0062 Dumagat- Edimala 8 0.0013 French 4 0.0007 Gaddang 9 0.0015 German 11 0.0018 Guiangan 63 0.0104 Higaonon/Higa-onon 43 0.0071 Higaonon-Tagoloanon 18 0.0030 Ibaloy 39 0.0064 Ibanag 500 0.0822 Ibatan 32 0.0053 Ibukid 52 0.0085
  • 14. Disclaimer: Tables, maps and other information contained in this document are from various sources and are consolidated for general information purposes only and are not intended for use as source of any advice such as legal, medical, accounting and the likes. Ecological Profile: PROVINCE OF ILOCOS NORTE Part 1: THE DAWN OF ILOCOS NORTE 10 Ethnicity Total % Ifugao 126 0.0207 Itneg/Tinguian-Illaud 40 0.0066 Ilocano 570,849 93.8113 Ilonggo 882 0.1449 Imalawa 727 0.1195 Indian 129 0.0212 Indonesian 2 0.0003 Iranun/Iraynun 9 0.0015 Isinai 8 0.0013 Isnag 1,459 0.2398 Isneg 1,226 0.2015 Isneg/Isnag 67 0.0110 Italian 1 0.0002 Itawes 96 0.0158 Itneg 435 0.0715 Itneg/Tinguian 4,100 0.6738 Itneg/Tinguian-Adasen 108 0.0177 Itneg/Tinguian-Gubang 3 0.0005 Itneg/Tinguian-Inlaud 280 0.0460 Itneg/Tinguian-Mabaka 2 0.0003 Itneg/Tinguian-Maeng 3 0.0005 Ivatan 8 0.0013 Japanese 7 0.0012 Kabihug 1 0.0002 Kabihug/Manide 5 0.0008 Kalanguya 8 0.0013 Kalinga 22 0.0036 Kalinga-Ab-abaan 17 0.0028 Kalinga-Ammacian 1 0.0002 Kalinga- Bangad 3 0.0005 Kalinga- Buaya 1 0.0002
  • 15. Disclaimer: Tables, maps and other information contained in this document are from various sources and are consolidated for general information purposes only and are not intended for use as source of any advice such as legal, medical, accounting and the likes. Ecological Profile: PROVINCE OF ILOCOS NORTE Part 1: THE DAWN OF ILOCOS NORTE 11 Ethnicity Total % Kalinga- Culminga 1 0.0002 Kalinga- Dallac 1 0.0002 Kalinga-Dao-Angan 5 0.0008 Kalinga-Gaddang 5 0.0008 Kalinga-Mangali 3 0.0005 Kalinga-Tobog 8 0.0013 Kalinga-Tongrayan 38 0.0062 Kalinga-Tulgao 7 0.0012 Kankanaey 1,153 0.1895 Kankanaey-Hak'ki 3 0.0005 Kapampangan 771 0.1267 Karay-a 24 0.0039 South Korean 10 0.0016 Langilan 1 0.0002 Magahats 9 0.0015 Maguindanao 42 0.0069 Malaueg 9 0.0015 Mangyan 19 0.0031 Gubatnon Mangyan 1 0.0002 Manobo 25 0.0041 Manobo-Aromanon 155 0.0255 Manobo-Ata 15 0.0025 Manobo-Kirenteken 7 0.0012 Manobo-Pulanguihon 1 0.0002 Mansaka 1 0.0002 Maranao 1,097 0.1803 Masbateño/Masbatenon 49 0.0081 Palawani 70 0.0115 Palawan-o 11 0.0018 Palawan-O-Ken-ey 4 0.0007 Palawan-O-Tao't-Bato 1 0.0002
  • 16. Disclaimer: Tables, maps and other information contained in this document are from various sources and are consolidated for general information purposes only and are not intended for use as source of any advice such as legal, medical, accounting and the likes. Ecological Profile: PROVINCE OF ILOCOS NORTE Part 1: THE DAWN OF ILOCOS NORTE 12 Ethnicity Total % Pan-Ayanon 4 0.0007 Pangasinan 1,156 0.1900 Romblomanon 7 0.0012 Sama/Samal 2 0.0003 Sama Badjao 4 0.0007 Sangir/Sangil 9 0.0015 Singaporean 4 0.0007 Spanish 5 0.0008 Subanen/Subanon 25 0.0041 Surigaonon 31 0.0051 Swiss 4 0.0007 T'boli/Tboli 1 0.0002 T'duray/Teduray 6 0.0010 Tagalog 9,415 1.5472 Tagbanua 1 0.0002 Taiwanese 6 0.0010 Talaingod 2 0.0003 Tausog/Tausug 78 0.0128 Tingguian 1,315 0.2161 Turkish 1 0.0002 Tuwali 5 0.0008 Ubo Monuvu/Manobo-Ubo 2 0.0003 Waray 795 0.1306 Yakan 4 0.0007 Yapayao 2,949 0.4846 Zamboangeño 86 0.0141 Other Local Ethnicity 105 0.0173 Other Foreign Ethnicity 66 0.0108 Not Reported 1 0.0002 Note: No disaggregation of data by sex. Source: 2020 Census of Population and Housing, Philippine Statistics Authority
  • 17. Disclaimer: Tables, maps and other information contained in this document are from various sources and are consolidated for general information purposes only and are not intended for use as source of any advice such as legal, medical, accounting and the likes. Ecological Profile: PROVINCE OF ILOCOS NORTE Part 1: THE DAWN OF ILOCOS NORTE 13 Table 1-2. Number of Ethnic Groups by Zone/Barangay, by Municipality, 2022-2023 City/ Municipalities Sitio/ Barangay Ethnicity IP Population Year of Census Indigenous Peoples Organization Leader/s Representative/s ADAMS Adams Yapayao 1,395 2023 Adams Tribal Council Quirino Barriga Quirino Barriga PAGUDPUD Dampig, Tarrag Yapayao, Kankanaey 105 2023 Yapayao Ka Saliksik Indigenous Peoples Organization Audimar Garvida Bonifacio Aguinaldo Pancian, Pasaleng Yapayao, Kankanaey 397 2023 Iyapayao Tribal Council and San Agustin Tribal Council Audimar Garvida Bonifacio Aguinaldo Caunayan, Subec, Caparispisan, Balaoi Yapayao, Kankanaey 312 2023 Tribo Ogayam Council Benny Aguinaldo Benny Aguinaldo Saguigui, Baduang Yapayao, Kankanaey 302 2023 Saguigui Indigenous Peoples Organization Emilio Rabago Maera Luis DUMALNEG Cabaritan Yapayao 222 2023 Dumalneg Tribal Council Gregorio Tomas Estefanio Tomas Kalaw 356 2023 Dumalneg Tribal Council Victor Lazo Lorenzo Padama Sr. Guibel 782 2023 Dumalneg Tribal Council Salvador Marugay Pascual Aguinaldo BANGUI Masamuyao Yapayao 159 2023 Masamuyao Grupo na Isneg Yapayao Loie G. Raval Loie G. Raval Bacsil, Payac Yapayao 126 2023 Bacsil Indigenous Peoples Organization Leticia Dizol Leticia Dizol VINTAR Canaam Isnag/Imalawa 466 2023 Imalawa Panauwan Indigenous Peoples Organization/Imalawa Indigenous Peoples Organization Bert Agbayani Raymundo Santos Isic-isic Isnag/Imalawa 341 2023 Imalawa Panauwan Indigenous Peoples Organization/Imalawa Indigenous Peoples Organization Macario Gudayan Walden Carlos CARASI barbaquezo Isnag 875 2022 Federation of Carasi Indigenous Peoples Organization Victorino Boday Clayvie Laguisad virbira Isnag 2022 Federation of Carasi Indigenous Peoples Organization Renato Dalere Jane Garcia Angset Isnag 2022 Federation of Carasi Indigenous Peoples Organization Roberto Alubin Teresa Juan MARCOS Cacafean Isnag 463 2022 Cacafean Tribal Council Ancheto Pugyao No IPMR
  • 18. Disclaimer: Tables, maps and other information contained in this document are from various sources and are consolidated for general information purposes only and are not intended for use as source of any advice such as legal, medical, accounting and the likes. Ecological Profile: PROVINCE OF ILOCOS NORTE Part 1: THE DAWN OF ILOCOS NORTE 14 City/ Municipalities Sitio/ Barangay Ethnicity IP Population Year of Census Indigenous Peoples Organization Leader/s Representative/s DINGRAS San marcelino Isnag 201 2022 Nalasin Tribal Council Danny Magno No IPMR SOLSONA Manalpac Isnag 398 2022 Manalpac Indigenous Peoples Organization Rhealyn May Banglay Hector Bucac Maananteng Isnag 152 2022 Maananteng Indigenous Peoples Organization NELIE BAGO Nelie Bago NUEVA ERA Poblacion Tingguian 1,762 2022 Rancheria Paor Patoc Vice Mayor Caroline Garvida Rebecca Mangoagui Acnam Tingguian 58 2022 Rancheria Paor-Patoc-Acnam Erick Casigay Erick Casigay Marqueza Labasan Sony Marangen Dario Mablay Roberto Bunagan Caray Tingguian 30 2022 Rancheria Paor-Patoc-Caray Marqueza Labasan Barikir Tingguian 213 2022 Rancheria Paor-Patoc-Barikir Sony Marangen Sto.nino Tingguian 803 2022 Rancheria Padsan Irinio Pongin Bugayong Tingguian 655 2022 Rancheria Bugayong Oscar Quezada Cabattauran Tingguian 554 2022 Rancheria Cabittaoran Ofelia Maligos Maricris Riofrio Naguilian Tingguian 837 2022 Rancheria Padpadon Adriano Panabang Diosdado Armida Garnaden Tingguian 213 2022 Rancheria Garnaden Laureano Belisario Reynaldo Garcia Barangobong Tingguian 288 2022 Rancheria Tibangran Cesario Mangoagui Erminio Bangsil Uguis Tingguian 736 2022 Rancheria Uguis Magellan Perlas Willy Calube TOTAL 13,800 Source: National Commission on Indigenous People, Ilocos Norte Provincial Office
  • 19. Disclaimer: Tables, maps and other information contained in this document are from various sources and are consolidated for general information purposes only and are not intended for use as source of any advice such as legal, medical, accounting and the likes. Ecological Profile: PROVINCE OF ILOCOS NORTE Part 1: THE DAWN OF ILOCOS NORTE 15 3. ETHNIC SONGS AND DANCES Ilocos Norte has various native dances which mostly depict the customs, beliefs and practices of an Ilocano. Its native songs are expressions of the characteristics, aspirations and occupations of its music-loving and industrious people. “Ilocos Norte – Gem of the Northern Plains,” authored by Ernesto Ma. Cadiz, Bella C. Curameng and Mary Editha Y. Dy enumerates and describes the worth mentioning dances and songs of the province: “Osi-osi” portrays the traditional ways of courtship. “Binigan-bigat” (Every Morning) is a courtship dance depicting a boy who is in love with a girl from whom he asks pity. “Sileledda-ang” (Grief-stricken or Laden with Sorrow) is a courtship dance showing the lover’s fondness for each other. “Manang Biday”, another courtship dance usually performed by young people. “Sabunganay” (Banana Blossom) symbolizes a young lady who is still too young to be courted and “Pandanggo Laoagueña” is a courtship dance performed by the young and old.” “Vintareña” maybe performed by one to any number of pairs in any social gathering such as baptismal, wedding, birthday or thanksgiving parties. “Kuratsa Pasuquiña” is a dance during birthday parties and festivities. Depicting merriment are La Jota Zapatilla, Barbarukong (Breast Out), La Jota Laoagueña and Kuratsa Paoayeña which are also presented during social gatherings. Another dance shown during wedding and baptismal celebrations are “Sagamantica” and “Arikenken”. “Chotis Dingreña” is a dance for the elite and is performed during social functions. “Pandanggo” is one of the favorite dances of the old people. “Guling-Guling” is a dance for Ash Wednesday. “Tambora” is usually shown on the Eve of Christmas. “Ilocana a Nasudi (Chaste Ilocana), a dance depicting a chaste and virtuous Ilocana, may be performed by four pairs, while Surtido Norte (Assorted Dances from the North) is a combination of different Ilocano dance steps manifesting thrift as a trait of the people.” “In Rabong (Bamboo Shoot), a dance glorifying the bamboo shoot as a delicacy of the Ilocanos, the participants sing the lyrics themselves. Some occupational dances are Asin and Dinaklisan, salt-making and fishing, respectively, are two occupations of the people living near the seacoast; Agabel, which represents cloth weaving, and Agdamili, which shows the rustic life of those in the pottery industry.” “Some of the songs have been collected and analyzed for their educational values. Ayat ti Ina (Love of a Mother) expresses how a mother loves and takes care of her child. The narrative song, Napateg a Bin-i (cherished Seed), utilizes metaphor in comparing a woman to a ’bin-i’ or seed. Pamulinawen (Hardened Heart) is the most popular Ilocano love song which equates the heart of a girl, who does not heed the pleading of her lover, to a hardened flint. Duayya ni Ayat (Love’s Lullaby) expresses a man’s tender loving care for his ladylove to be careful in changing her mind and choosing another man. Siasino ti Agayat Kenka (Who is in love with you?) expresses an insistent love. No Duaduaem Pay (If You Still Doubt) gives the idea that the lover feels that his loved one doubts him, so he asks for understanding and also reiterates his love. Teng-nga ti Rabii (Midnight) tells of a lover who sees the image of his loved one in the middle of the night and is awakened by her voice.
  • 20. Disclaimer: Tables, maps and other information contained in this document are from various sources and are consolidated for general information purposes only and are not intended for use as source of any advice such as legal, medical, accounting and the likes. Ecological Profile: PROVINCE OF ILOCOS NORTE Part 1: THE DAWN OF ILOCOS NORTE 16 A patriotic song, Dinak Kad Dildillawen (Do Not Criticize Me), conveys service to love of country, while Kasasaad ti Kinabalasang (The life of a Maiden) is an advice for the young maidens to consider carefully their plans of getting married, because marriage is a risky venture. Agdamdamili (Pot Making) is an occupational song, while Kanaganan is a birthday song.” 4. LANGUAGES/DIALECTS Widely spoken by the people of Ilocos Norte is Iloko, one of the major dialects in the country and which is proudly used by every Ilocano as for as the foreign countries. The dialect serves as index of determining the place of residence of an Ilocano because intonation varies from town to town. One can pinpoint a person’s origin by just listening to the way he/she talks, because intonation varies from town to town. 5. RELIGIOUS AFFILIATION The population of the province is predominantly Roman Catholic, while several others adhere to other religious affiliations in this area. Of these, the most notable is the Aglipayan Church, founded by Batac native Gregorio Aglipay. Others belonged to other Christian denominations, such as Iglesia ni Cristo and the like. Table 1-3. Household Population by Religious Affiliation, 2020 Religious Affiliation Household Population % TOTAL 608,508 100 Roman Catholic, excluding Catholic Charismatics 353,263 58.054 Aglipay 75,914 12.475 Iglesia Filipina Independiente 50,970 8.376 Iglesia ni Cristo 30,678 5.042 Pentecostal Church of God Asia Mission 11,577 1.903 Other Religious Affliations 10,893 1.790 Church of Christ 7,217 1.186 Bible Baptist Church 5,327 0.875 United Church of Christ in the Philippines 5,194 0.854 United Penetecostal Church (Philippines),Inc. 4,957 0.815 Church of the Foursquare Gospel in the Philippines, Incorporated 4,403 0.724 Jehovah’s Witness 4,148 0.682 Assemblies of God 4,051 0.666 Crusaders of the Divine Church of Christ, Incorporated 4,047 0.665 Church of Jesus Christ of the Latter Day Saints 3,983 0.655 Seventh Day Adventist 3,038 0.499 Jesus is Lord Church 2,956 0.486 Other Protestants 2,245 0.369 Filipino Assemblies of the First Born, Incorporated 2,214 0.364 Baptist Conference of the Philippines 1,980 0.325 Way of Salvation 1,969 0.324 Other Baptists 1,906 0.313 Union Espiritista Cristiana de Filipinas, Incorporated 1,815 0.298 Church of God World Missions in the Philippines 1,557 0.256 Islam 1,489 0.245 Other Evangelical Churches 1,137 0.187
  • 21. Disclaimer: Tables, maps and other information contained in this document are from various sources and are consolidated for general information purposes only and are not intended for use as source of any advice such as legal, medical, accounting and the likes. Ecological Profile: PROVINCE OF ILOCOS NORTE Part 1: THE DAWN OF ILOCOS NORTE 17 Religious Affiliation Household Population % Philippine Pentecostal Holiness Church 903 0.148 Miracle Revival Church of the Philippines 605 0.099 Universal Pentecostal Church 591 0.097 Jesus is Alive Community 533 0.088 Christian Missions in the Philippines 420 0.069 Victory Christian Fellowship of the Philippines, Inc. 399 0.066 Charismatic Full Gospel Ministries 351 0.058 United Methodists Church 319 0.052 Lutheran Church of the Philippines 316 0.052 Episcopal Church in the Philippines 285 0.047 Association of Fundametal Baptist Churches in the Philippines 264 0.043 Fundamental Grace Gospel Church of the Christ in the Philippines, Inc. 263 0.043 Salvation Army Philippines 224 0.037 Victory Chapel Christian Fellowship 209 0.034 Jesus Reigns Ministries 189 0.031 Evangelical Christian Outreach Foundation 180 0.030 Wesleyan Church 162 0.027 Independent Baptist Churches of the Philippines 158 0.026 Other Mathodists 153 0.025 Faith Baptist Church 134 0.022 Philippine Evangelical Holiness Church 123 0.020 None 110 0.018 Christian and Missionary Alliance Church of the Philippines 109 0.018 Jesus the Anointed One Church 108 0.018 Philippines General Council of the Assemblies of God 104 0.017 United Evangelical Church of the Philippines (Chinese) 96 0.016 Bethany Church of the Philippines 94 0.015 Philippine Missionary Fellowship 89 0.015 Zion Christian Community Church 87 0.014 I Am Redeemer and Master Evangelical Church, Inc. 86 0.014 Jesus Christ Saves Global Outreach 78 0.013 Christian Brethren International Pilipinas, Inc. 74 0.012 F.R.E.E. Mission Philippines, Inc. 74 0.012 Potter’s House Christian Center 70 0.012 Buddhist 68 0.111 Evangelical Free Church of the Philippines 67 0.011 Cathedral of Praise, Incorporated 65 0.011 General Baptist Churches of the Philippines 65 0.011 Catholic Charismatic 62 0.010 Tribal Religion 62 0.010 Iglesia sa Dios Espiritu Santo, Incorporated 61 0.010 Christian Reformed Church in the Philippines, Incorporated 59 0.010 Christ’s Commission Fellowship 57 0.009 Convention of the Philippine Baptist Church 55 0.009 Missionary Baptist Churches of the Philippines 55 0.009 Bible Centered Fellowship 51 0.008 Alliance of Bible Christian Communities of the Philippines 50 0.008 Love of Christ International Ministries 46 0.008 Christ the Living Stone Fellowship 43 0.007 River of God Church, Inc. 40 0.007 Free Methodist Church 37 0.006
  • 22. Disclaimer: Tables, maps and other information contained in this document are from various sources and are consolidated for general information purposes only and are not intended for use as source of any advice such as legal, medical, accounting and the likes. Ecological Profile: PROVINCE OF ILOCOS NORTE Part 1: THE DAWN OF ILOCOS NORTE 18 Religious Affiliation Household Population % Harvest Christian Fellowship 35 0.006 Worldwide Church of God 35 0.006 International Baptist Missionary Fellowship 34 0.006 Jesus First Christian Ministries, Incorporated 34 0.006 Asia Evangelistic Fellowship Philippines, Inc. 33 0.005 Ambassadors for Christ Philippine Evangelism, Inc. 29 0.005 Apostolic Catholic Church, Inc. 29 0.005 Philippine Evangelical Mission 26 0.004 Philippine Independent Catholic Church 26 0.004 Christ Faith Fellowship Philippines, Inc. 25 0.004 Iglesia Evangelista Methodista en Las Islas Filipinas (IEMELIF) 25 0.004 Most Holy Church of God in Christ Jesus 25 0.004 Bread of Life Ministries 21 0.003 Take the Nation for Jesus Global Ministries (Corpus Christi) 21 0.003 And Iglesia Metodista sa Pilipinas, Inc. 20 0.003 Good News Christian Churches 19 0.003 Lord Jesus Our Redeemer Church Foundation International, Inc. 19 0.003 Miracle Life Fellowship International 18 0.003 Southern Baptist Church 17 0.003 Iglesia Evangelical Unida de Cristo 16 0.003 Higher Ground Baptist Mission of the Philippines Inc. 15 0.002 Jesus Loves You Ministries, Inc. 12 0.002 Free Believers in Christ Fellowship 11 0.002 Church Body of Christ Filipinista 11 0.002 National Council of Christian Community Churches (NCCCC), Inc. 11 0.002 Philippine Ecumenical Christian Church 10 0.002 Evangelical Presbyterian Church 9 0.001 Oblates of Mary Immaculate, Incorporated 9 0.001 Unida Evangelical Church 9 0.001 Things to Come 8 0.001 Word for the World 8 0.001 Association of Baptist Churches in Luzon, Visayas and Mindanao 6 0.001 Christ to the Philippines, Inc. 6 0.001 Philippine Benevolent Missionaries Association 6 0.001 Conservative Baptist Association in the Philippines 5 0.001 Lord of the Nations, Inc. 5 0.001 Don Stewart Ministries Miracle Revivals, Inc. 4 0.001 March of Faith Church Sole, Inc. 4 0.001 Not Reported 4 0.001 Light of the World Christian Center, Inc. 3 0.000 Presbyterian Church in the Philippines 3 0.000 World Missionary Evangelism 3 0.000 Church of the Nazarene 2 0.000 Door of Faith 2 0.000 FIFCOP Mission, Inc. 2 0.000 Good News Worldwide Mission, Inc. 1 0.000 International One Way Outreach 1 0.000 Source: Philippine Statistics Authority, 2020 Census of Population and Housing
  • 23. Disclaimer: Tables, maps and other information contained in this document are from various sources and are consolidated for general information purposes only and are not intended for use as source of any advice such as legal, medical, accounting and the likes. Ecological Profile: PROVINCE OF ILOCOS NORTE Part 2: GEO-PHYSICAL ENVIRONMENT 19 MAP OF REGION I A. GEOGRAPHICAL LOCATION 1. GEOGRAPHY 1.1. LOCATION Ilocos Norte is located in the northwestern part of Luzon and is geographically situated between 170 - 43’ and 180-29’ north latitudes and 1200-25’ and 1200-58’ east longitudes. It is bounded in the east by Cagayan and Apayao, in the southeast by Abra, in the south by Ilocos Sur and in the west by the West Philippine Sea. Laoag City is the seat of the Provincial Government and is about 487 kilometers north-northwest of Manila. 2. AREA Ilocos Norte has a total land area of 3,622.91 sq. kms (as per PPFP). It is rugged and rocky and has mountains which run northwest in the Cordilleras in the east. There are thirteen (13) mountains in the area, most of which are located in the southeastern portion. 2.1. LAND CAPABILITY CLASSIFICATION Table 2-1. Land Capability Classification Source: Ilocos Norte Environment and Natural Resources Office Classification Area Square Kilometers (Sq.Kms.) Hectares (Has.) Lowland/Upland/Irrigated 247.30 24,730 Upland & Rolling 47.29 4,729 Rolling & Mountains 2,785.46 278,546 Land for Wildlife (Forest) 218.82 21,882 Lowland/Upland 324.04 32,404 Total 3,622.91 362,291 Part 2: GEO-PHYSICAL ENVIRONMENT
  • 24. Disclaimer: Tables, maps and other information contained in this document are from various sources and are consolidated for general information purposes only and are not intended for use as source of any advice such as legal, medical, accounting and the likes. Ecological Profile: PROVINCE OF ILOCOS NORTE Part 2: GEO-PHYSICAL ENVIRONMENT 20 BATAC CITY 3. POLITICAL SUBDIVISION 3.1. CITIES AND MUNICIPALITIES Ilocos Norte has two (2) congressional districts comprising twenty-one (21) municipalities and two (2) component cities. The province has a total of five hundred fifty-nine (559) barangays. This is to include the eighty (80) barangays of Laoag City and the forty-three (43) barangays of Batac City. CITY & MUNICIPAL SUBDIVISIONS OF ILOCOS NORTE
  • 25. Disclaimer: Tables, maps and other information contained in this document are from various sources and are consolidated for general information purposes only and are not intended for use as source of any advice such as legal, medical, accounting and the likes. Ecological Profile: PROVINCE OF ILOCOS NORTE Part 2: GEO-PHYSICAL ENVIRONMENT 21 The table below shows the number of barangays, land area, and distance of municipalities from Laoag City and from Manila. Table 2-2. Number of Barangays, Land Area and Distance of Municipalities from Laoag City and Manila. Municipality/ City Number of Barangay Land Area (sq. kms.) Distance from Laoag City (kms.) Distance from Manila (kms.) Adams 1 159.31 96.0 597.29 Bacarra 43 66.07 8.36 495.65 Badoc 31 66.41 37.6 449.60 Bangui 14 163.59 65.9 553.29 Banna 20 97.68 31.9 519.20 Batac City 43 161.06 15.3 471.97 Burgos 11 128.9 49.5 536.87 Carasi 3 157.38 20.7 508.61 Currimao 23 33.08 23.0 464.20 Dingras 31 96.00 15.7 503.00 Dumalneg1 4 88.48 73.1 560.39 Laoag City 80 101.88 - 487.29 Marcos 13 226.38 25.8 513.10 Nueva Era 11 515.02 39.8 527.16 Pagudpud 16 194.9 74.6 561.90 Paoay 31 76.24 16.3 470.90 Pasuquin 33 189.39 18.5 505.83 Piddig 23 121.33 18.3 505.64 Pinili 25 89.48 29.6 457.62 San Nicolas 24 40.18 2.55 484.16 Sarrat 24 57.39 7.75 495.04 Solsona 22 167.91 24.9 512.20 Vintar 33 624.85 8.43 495.72 Total 559 3,622.91 Sources: Provincial Development and Physical Framework Plan Note: 1 Transferred 1 barangay from Bangui under Supreme Court Decision in G. R. 198655. 1 Subdivision of Barangay Dumalneg into 3 barangays through the MR No. 2003-02
  • 26. Disclaimer: Tables, maps and other information contained in this document are from various sources and are consolidated for general information purposes only and are not intended for use as source of any advice such as legal, medical, accounting and the likes. Ecological Profile: PROVINCE OF ILOCOS NORTE Part 2: GEO-PHYSICAL ENVIRONMENT 22 B. TOPOGRAPHY 1. MOUNTAIN RANGES Located in the Northwestern part of Luzon, Ilocos Norte settles on a wide plain between the foothills of the Central Cordillera ranges on the east and the China Sea on the west. The winding and rugged mountain ranges extend to Abra in the South. Its backbone angles steeply toward the southwest and wedges through Ilocos Sur. Table 2-3. List of Mountains in Ilocos Norte Name Highest Point (Elevation Above Sea Level in Meters) 1. Mt. Sicapoo 2,360 2. Mt. Burnay 1,952 3. Mt. Nagbudabudan 1,876 4. Mt. Aganmala 1,780 5. Mt. Mukmokoroya 1,668 6. Mt. Agamomata 1,554 7. Mt. Casama 1,538 8. Mt. Linao 1,475 9. Mt. Pico De Loro 1,294 10. Mt. Pao 1,200 11. Mt. Quebrada 1,020 12. Mt. Naltoot 1,026 13. Mt. Simminublan 1,472 2. SLOPE Table 2-4. Slope Classification Slope Classification Area (sq.kms.) 0-8% 989.47 8.1-18% 416.36 18.1-30% 1,056.26 Over 30% 1,160.82 Total 3,622.91 3. WATER BODIES The provincial coastline, an extension of the beaches of Pangasinan, La Union and Ilocos Sur, is dotted with numerous coves and tide-rivers. Its further cuts into the foremost coastal configuration of Bangui and Pasaleng Bays. The coast of Pasaleng Bay is shared with Cagayan Province. The province has a coastline stretching from Badoc up to Pagudpud with a total length of 155.37 kilometers. Other major water bodies include the following:
  • 27. Disclaimer: Tables, maps and other information contained in this document are from various sources and are consolidated for general information purposes only and are not intended for use as source of any advice such as legal, medical, accounting and the likes. Ecological Profile: PROVINCE OF ILOCOS NORTE Part 2: GEO-PHYSICAL ENVIRONMENT 23 ELEVATION MAP OF ILOCOS NORTE Table 2-5. Main Stream Length and Drainage Area of Major Rivers/Basins River Length (kms.) Drainage Area (Sq.kms.) Laoag River 33.15 1,343,96 Badoc and Madupayas Rivers 27.30 237.03 Tamdagan River 29.25 276.09 Bolo River 37.20 255.43 Quiaoit River 31.40 185.80 Bacarra-Vintar Rivers 54.30 369.46 Sources: Land Resources Evaluation Project of Ilocos Norte, Bureau of Soils and Department of Agriculture
  • 28. Disclaimer: Tables, maps and other information contained in this document are from various sources and are consolidated for general information purposes only and are not intended for use as source of any advice such as legal, medical, accounting and the likes. Ecological Profile: PROVINCE OF ILOCOS NORTE Part 2: GEO-PHYSICAL ENVIRONMENT 24 C. GEOLOGY 1. SOIL CLASSIFICATION 1.1. SOILS OF THE PLAINS AND VALLEYS They were formed mainly from alluvial deposits or sediments land by water. Their colors range from very pale brown to black while the textures of their surface soils vary from sand to clay. External drainage is generally fair while internal drainage is poor to good. These level areas are the most productive soils in the province. They are usually found in patches along the course of rivers and creeks. The total area covered is estimated at 1,250.54 sq. kms. Soils belonging to this group are the Bantog, Maligaya, San Fernando and San Manuel series. 1.2 SOILS OF THE UPLANDS, HILLS AND MOUNTAINS These soils are derived through the weathering of various igneous rocks, shale, calcareous sandstone and textured soils (loam to clay) and exhibit a wide range of colors-mostly brown, reddish brown, red and black. Relief varies from gently sloping, rolling to hilly and mountainous. The soil series belonging to this group are Annam, Bantay, Bolinao, Cervantes, Faraon, Luisiana, and Tadao series. On account of their unfavorable relief, only limited areas of these soils are cultivated to crops. They have combined area of approximately 1,974.60 square kilometers. 1.3 MISCELLANEOUS LAND TYPES Areas without any soil cover or those covered by soil materials but exhibit no profile development are grouped under miscellaneous land types. Those places where the relief, drainage, accessibility, etc. which are not favorable for agriculture, also fall under this group. The different miscellaneous land types found in Ilocos Norte are the dune land, mountain soil, undifferentiated; riverwash; rockland; sand and coral bed. They occupy about a total of 140.72 square kilometers. Reference: Comprehensive Land Use Plans (City/Municipality)
  • 29. Disclaimer: Tables, maps and other information contained in this document are from various sources and are consolidated for general information purposes only and are not intended for use as source of any advice such as legal, medical, accounting and the likes. Ecological Profile: PROVINCE OF ILOCOS NORTE Part 2: GEO-PHYSICAL ENVIRONMENT 25 D.CLIMATE 1. TYPE Ilocos Norte belongs to Climate Type I based on the Modified Corona’s Classification. This is characterized by two pronounced seasons: Dry Season - November to April Wet Season - May to October Wind Direction - N Temperature (1989 – 2021) Coolest Temperature - 13o C (Jan. 26, 1992 & Feb. 10, 1996) Hottest Temperature - 39.5 o C (May 10, 2003) Average Temperature - 23 - 30 o C Maximum rain period coincides with the peak of the southwest monsoon (July to September). The province occasionally visited by tropical cyclones and storms during the southwest monsoon season (May to October). It is most dominant during the month of July. Source: DOST, Philippine Atmospheric, Geophysical and Astronomical Services Administration (PAGASA), Laoag City 2. WEATHER CONDITION 2.1. AVERAGE/EXTREME WEATHER CONDITION FROM 1989 TO 2023 Table 2-6. Temperature and Relative Humidity Month Temperature (ºC) Average Maximum Minimum Dry Bulb Wet Bulb Relative Humidity Day-Year Day-Year January 24.7 21.3 74 35.7 22-2008 13.0 26-1992 February 25.3 21.9 74 35.9 28-2009 13.0 10-1996 March 27.0 23.3 73 37.7 28-1999 14.7 10-1989 April 28.5 25.0 75 37.8 26-2007 16.3 14-2015 May 29.1 25.9 72 39.5 10-2003 20.4 08-2000 June 28.6 26.1 82 38.0 22-2008 20.8 04-1993 July 28.0 25.9 84 36.8 18-2003 19.9 03-1989 August 27.5 25.7 86 35.5 28-2010 21.4 15-1994 September 27.5 25.5 85 36.2 30-2010 20.0 26-1994 October 27.5 24.7 80 37.0 12-1998 17.5 29-1989 November 27.0 24.0 78 36.6 12-2004 14.3 30-2007 December 25.7 22.3 74 35.2 03-1998 14.0 03-1989 Source: DOST, Philippine Atmospheric, Geophysical and Astronomical Services Administration (PAGASA), Laoag City
  • 30. Disclaimer: Tables, maps and other information contained in this document are from various sources and are consolidated for general information purposes only and are not intended for use as source of any advice such as legal, medical, accounting and the likes. Ecological Profile: PROVINCE OF ILOCOS NORTE Part 2: GEO-PHYSICAL ENVIRONMENT 26 Table 2-7. Rainfall Month Rainfall (millimeter) Average Highest Daily Day-Year Weather Phenomena Amount Number of Rainy Days January 8.9 1 64.6 29-2022 Frontal System February 2.7 1 18.0 20-1994 TECF March 4.6 1 28.0 09-2000 TECF April 19.2 1 94.2 06-2013 TECF May 182.3 9 181.3 23-1990 Localized TSTM June 287.0 14 393.6 28-2012 TS Dindo July 479.6 18 483.9 15-2008 TS Helen August 598.5 20 478.1 23-2019 STS Ineng September 423.8 16 446.8 10-1994 TD Weling October 124.4 8 402.6 04-2009 T Pepeng November 31.3 4 114.6 04-2019 FS / Trough of TD Quiel December 5.5 2 28.5 17-2013 NE Monsoon Source: Philippine Atmospheric, Geophysical and Astronomical Services Administration (PAGASA), Laoag City Table 2-8. Wind, Thunderstorm and Tropical Cyclone Month Wind (meter per second) Thunder storm Tropical Cyclone Prevailing Wind Velocity Speed / Direction Maximum Velocity Speed / Direction Weather Phenomena Day- Year Average No. of Days Average Number Of Occurrence January 3-North 20-N NE Monsoon 17-2021 0 0 February 3-North 17-N NE Monsoon 09-2004 0 0 March 3-North 18-NNE NE Monsoon 05-2005 1 0 April 2-NNW 18-NNE NE Surface windflow 07-2018 4 0 May 2-W 20-NW Localized thunderstorm 22-2010 17 0 June 3-SW 34-W T. Igme 30-2004 20 1 July 2-SW 43-SW T. Feria 04-2001 20 2 August 3-SW 30-SW T. Karen 22-2008 17 2 September 2-SW 27-NNE T. Ompong 15-2018 15 2 October 3-NE 35-NNW T. Trining 27-1991 5 1 November 3-NE 23-N T. Mina 26-2007 1 1 December 3-NE 23-SSW T. Yoyong 03-2004 0 0 Legends: T – Typhoon E - East TS – Tropical Storm W - West TD – Tropical Depression TECF - Tail End of a Cold Front N – North Ave - Average S – South TSTM - Thunderstorm Source: DOST, Philippine Atmospheric, Geophysical and Astronomical Services Administration (PAGASA), Laoag City
  • 31. Disclaimer: Tables, maps and other information contained in this document are from various sources and are consolidated for general information purposes only and are not intended for use as source of any advice such as legal, medical, accounting and the likes. Ecological Profile: PROVINCE OF ILOCOS NORTE Part 2: GEO-PHYSICAL ENVIRONMENT 27 Table 2-9. Monthly Mean Weather Condition Recorded and Observed at Laoag PAGASA Station, 2023 Month Prevailing Wind (mps) Maximum Wind (mps) Temperature Average Dry Bulb/Wet Bulb (°Celsius) Relative Humidity (%) Temperature Maximum/ Minimum (°Celsius) Mean Sea Level Pressure (hPa) Rainfall/ Rainy Days (millimeters) Weather Causing Phenomena Days with Thunder- storms / Lightning January 3-NE 15-N 25.7 / 21.2 67 33.8 / 16.8 1012.6 5.0/1 NE Monsoon, Localized thunderstorm, Shearline, Frontal System 2/1 February 4-NE 16-NNE 25.5 / 21.9 73 33.4 / 17.2 1012.8 trace/0 Northeast Monsoon 0/0 March 3-NNW 12-NNE 26.5 / 22.2 73 36.6 / 17.6 1012.7 0.0/0 Northeast Monsoon 1/0 April 3-NNW 13-N 28.6 / 24.5 71 35.2 / 21.0 1009.7 trace/0 Localized thunderstorms 0/0 May 2 – W 13-N 30.2/26.0 72 35.6/24.5 1008.7 29.2/6 Localized thunderstorms, STY Betty 10/11 June 3 – ESE 18-SW 28.8/26.2 81 33.4/24.2 1008.2 278.6/19 Southwest Monsoon, Localized thunderstorms, TY Chedeng 28/21 July 3 – E 27-SW 28.6/26.1 82 34.9/23.4 1006.4 773.1/13 Southwest Monsoon, Localized thunderstorms TD Dodong #1, STY Egay #1-4 14/7 August 4 – SW 21-SSW 28.5/26.2 83 33.5/24.2 1006.9 752.6/18 Southwest Monsoon, Localized thunderstorms TY Falcon, Trough of TY. Goring, TY Goring #1-2 14/10 September 3 – ESE 14-SW 28.3/26.2 85 33.6/23.6 1008.2 277.4/16 Southwest Monsoon enhanced by TY Hanna, Southwest Monsoon, Localized thunderstorms 20/25 October 3 – E 10-SW 28.3/25.4 79 35.2/23.0 1010.8 166.3/12 Localized Thunderstorms, TY Jenny, Southwest Monsoon, Northeast Monsoon 11/10 November 3 – NE 14-NNE 28.0/23.8 70 35.5/19.5 1012.2 1.0/1 Northeast Monsoon 3/0 December 3 - NE 14-NNE 27.5/23.8 73 34.6/21.6 1013.2 trace/0 Northeast Monsoon 0/0 Source: DOST, Philippine Atmospheric, Geophysical and Astronomical Services Administration (PAGASA), Laoag International Airport, Laoag City
  • 32. Disclaimer: Tables, maps and other information contained in this document are from various sources and are consolidated for general information purposes only and are not intended for use as source of any advice such as legal, medical, accounting and the likes. Ecological Profile: PROVINCE OF ILOCOS NORTE Part 2: GEO-PHYSICAL ENVIRONMENT 28 E. HAZARD PROFILE 1. HAZARD PROFILE The proximity of the province to the northern tip of the country which is usually the exit point of Tropical Cyclones coming from the eastern seaboard and the presence of two (2) Active Faults – the Bangui Fault System and the West Ilocos Fault System, makes Ilocos Norte vulnerable to Hydrometeorological and Geologic hazards. 1.1. HYDROMETEOROLOGIC HAZARDS The Philippine archipelago is situated in a typhoon belt that is why it is hit by numerous typhoons and storms starting from the month of July through October. Due to Climate Change, typhoons continue to hit our area at an extended time up to November and December. With these tropical cyclones passing, possible hazards are: rain-induced landslide, flood and storm surge. Flood. Based on historical disaster records gathered, the type of hazard that is usually occurring in the Province is flooding. Events like these were usually triggered by various tropical cyclones that pass through the Province considering that the Philippines lies within the Typhoon Belt of the Western Pacific. Places frequently hit by typhoons are the Northern and Eastern Luzon and the Bicol and Eastern Visayas Region. An average of 25 typhoons visits the Philippines each year. Ilocos Norte is struck by typhoons at an average of 3 typhoons annually that are usually causing floods. The weather systems that affected the province in 2023 were the Southwest (SW) monsoon, localized thunderstorms, low-pressure areas (LPAs). Throughout the year, the province experienced the passage of Typhoon “BETTY”, Typhoon “CHEDENG”, Tropical Depression (TD) “DODONG”, Super Typhoon (STY) “EGAY”, Typhoon “FALCON”, Typhoon (TY) “GORING”, Southwest monsoon enhanced by Typhoon “HANNA”, and Typhoon Typhoon “JENNY” that brought heavy to torrential rains in areas along its path, that led to flooding, flashfloods, and rain-induced landslides. Moreover, STY “EGAY” brought strong winds and torrential rains that caused tremendous damages to infrastructure and agriculture over Regions I in July 2023. Likewise, rainfall accumulated from these TCs and enhanced SW monsoon have significantly contributed to the rise in the water level. Storm Surge. With the effect of tropical Cyclones, storm surge was recorded in affecting nine (9) coastal municipalities of the province.
  • 33. Disclaimer: Tables, maps and other information contained in this document are from various sources and are consolidated for general information purposes only and are not intended for use as source of any advice such as legal, medical, accounting and the likes. Ecological Profile: PROVINCE OF ILOCOS NORTE Part 2: GEO-PHYSICAL ENVIRONMENT 29 Rain-Induced Landslide. In November 2020, a major rain-induced landslide due to TC “Ulysses” occurred in Pancian, Pagudpud resulting to the temporary isolation of said barangay including Pasaleng and the whole municipality of Adams. Major and minor landslide thereafter to the present. 1.2. GEOLOGIC HAZARDS Our country is located within the "Ring of Fire", also called the Circum- Pacific Belt, which is the zone of earthquakes surrounding the Pacific Ocean. About 90% of the world's earthquakes occur there. With this geographical setting, and the presence of the 2 active faults, incidents of Earthquake – and related hazards like ground shaking, liquefaction, EIL and tsunami, are inevitable. Earthquake. Historically, the most significant disaster and considered the most damaging hazard event that happened in Ilocos Norte is the August 17, 1983 Earthquake causing the total collapse of at least four (4) buildings leading to the death of 16 individuals and injuring 47 others. However, the strongest earthquake to have hit the province occurred in March 19, 1931 with a magnitude of VII-IX on the Rossi-Forel Scale. Ground shaking. Next to flooding, that is frequently affecting the Province, is ground shaking. Tsunami. So far, the Province has no historical events of Tsunami except for Alert Level II cautioned last March 11, 2011 caused by the 8.8 magnitude earthquake in Japan creating extremely destructive Tsunami in Northeastern Japan.
  • 34. Disclaimer: Tables, maps and other information contained in this document are from various sources and are consolidated for general information purposes only and are not intended for use as source of any advice such as legal, medical, accounting and the likes. Ecological Profile: PROVINCE OF ILOCOS NORTE Part 2: GEO-PHYSICAL ENVIRONMENT 30 FAULT LINES Table 2-10. Distribution of Faults in Ilocos Norte Province Type of Fault Direction 30 kms. Southeast of Badoc to 15 kms. /East of Vintar Normal N 20 E Marcos Reverse N 30 E to NS Nueva Era to Maan-anteng, Solsona Normal N 30 E Parparoroc Vintar Normal N 35 E Lubnac, Vintar to 10 kms. Northwest of Dumalneg Thrust N 20 W to N 40 E Pansian Pagudpud to Adams Thrust N 10 E 8 kms. South of Adams Left Lateral N 25 W 7 kms. West of Carasi Left Lateral N 20 E Tadao, Pasuquin Thrust N 20 W Caruan, Pasuquin Thrust N 25 E to N 60 E South of Badoc Normal East – West 4 kms. East of Dumalneg Undetermined North – South 10 kms. East of Pasuquin Undetermined North 20o East towards Bangui 7 Kms. Southeast of Agaga, Burgos Right Literal N 30 E Source: DOST, Philippine Institute of Volcanology and Seismology (PHIVOLCS)
  • 35. Disclaimer: Tables, maps and other information contained in this document are from various sources and are consolidated for general information purposes only and are not intended for use as source of any advice such as legal, medical, accounting and the likes. Ecological Profile: PROVINCE OF ILOCOS NORTE Part 3: NATURAL RESOURCES & ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT 31 A. LAND RESOURCES 1. LAND USE The Ilocos Province has a total existing land use area of 3,622.91 km2, primarily Agricultural (1,054.18 km2) and Forest Areas (2,164.52 km). Each municipality categorized the existing land use into Build-up Areas, Forest Areas, and other uses such as industrial, bodies of water, roads, and bare land areas. Table 3-1. Existing Land Use Source: Comprehensive Land Use Plan, Province of Ilocos Norte 2. STATUS OF LAND AREA CLASSIFICATION Table 3-2. Status of Land Area Classification Classification Area Square Kilometers (Sq.Kms.) Hectares (Has.) Total 3,622.91 362,291 Alienable and Disposable 1,458.39 145,839 Forest Land 2,164.52 216,452 Source: Comprehensive Land Use Plan, Province of Ilocos Norte Land Use Area Square Kilometers (Sq.Kms.) Hectares (Has.) Total 3,622.91 362,291 Built-up-Areas 170.44 17,044 Agricultural 1,054.18 120,999 Forest Areas 2,164.52 216,452 Industrial Areas 25.92 2,592 Bodies of Water 83.76 8,376 Tourism Areas 24.62 2,462 Roads & Bridges 37.90 3,790 Open Space/Playground 8.86 886 Mineral Land 33.65 3,365 Cemetery 2.01 201 Dumpsite 0.44 44 Bareland Areas 16.61 1,661 Part 3: NATURAL RESOURCES & ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT
  • 36. Disclaimer: Tables, maps and other information contained in this document are from various sources and are consolidated for general information purposes only and are not intended for use as source of any advice such as legal, medical, accounting and the likes. Ecological Profile: PROVINCE OF ILOCOS NORTE Part 3: NATURAL RESOURCES & ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT 32 Table 3-3. Status of Land Area Classification by Municipality (in Hectares) A & D Forest Land Total Within CENRO-Bangui: 1. Adams 788.25 11,505.81 12,294.06 2. Bangui 3,956.90 6,800.03 10,756.93 3. Burgos 5,562.60 7,327.57 12,890.17 4. Dumalneg 530.05 4,145.84 4,675.89 5. Pagudpud 6,522.79 12,186.40 18,709.19 6. Pasuquin 8,449.98 9,472.06 17,922.04 7. Vintar 10,805.83 46,493.17 57,299.00 Within CENRO-Laoag: 1. Laoag City* 11,854.94 291.60 12,146.54 2. Bacarra* 3,750.85 - 3,750.85 3. Badoc 6,768.46 1,729.48 8,497.94 4. Banna 8,850.83 1,184.01 10,034.84 5. Batac City 11,138.93 2,454.55 13,593.48 6. Carasi* 7,663.93 6,967.77 14,631.70 7. Currimao 4,120.95 232.80 4,353.75 8. Dingras 5,372.91 1,924.00 7,296.91 9. Marcos 5,616.21 1,364.83 6,981.04 10. Nueva Era 5,007.34 52,487.42 57,494.76 11. Paoay 6,309.76 1,166.92 7,476.68 12. Piddig* 9,426.77 9,342.67 18,769.44 13. Pinili 3,210.80 2,089.11 5,299.91 14. San Nicolas 3,929.11 - 3,929.11 15. Sarrat 6,896.08 1,987.84 8,883.92 16. Solsona 8,187.16 7,373.00 15,560.16 * Falls under District 1 Source: Provincial Environment and Natural Resources Office, Ilocos Norte Department of Environment and Natural Resources Office, Region I Based on 2014 Statistical Profile
  • 37. Disclaimer: Tables, maps and other information contained in this document are from various sources and are consolidated for general information purposes only and are not intended for use as source of any advice such as legal, medical, accounting and the likes. Ecological Profile: PROVINCE OF ILOCOS NORTE Part 3: NATURAL RESOURCES & ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT 33 B. MINERAL RESOURCES Source: Provincial Environment and Natural Resources Office, Ilocos Norte
  • 38. Disclaimer: Tables, maps and other information contained in this document are from various sources and are consolidated for general information purposes only and are not intended for use as source of any advice such as legal, medical, accounting and the likes. Ecological Profile: PROVINCE OF ILOCOS NORTE Part 3: NATURAL RESOURCES & ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT 34 Source: Provincial Environment and Natural Resources Office, Ilocos Norte
  • 39. Disclaimer: Tables, maps and other information contained in this document are from various sources and are consolidated for general information purposes only and are not intended for use as source of any advice such as legal, medical, accounting and the likes. Ecological Profile: PROVINCE OF ILOCOS NORTE Part 3: NATURAL RESOURCES & ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT 35 Source: Provincial Environment and Natural Resources Office, Ilocos Norte
  • 40. Disclaimer: Tables, maps and other information contained in this document are from various sources and are consolidated for general information purposes only and are not intended for use as source of any advice such as legal, medical, accounting and the likes. Ecological Profile: PROVINCE OF ILOCOS NORTE Part 3: NATURAL RESOURCES & ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT 36 C. FORESTRY RESOURCES 1. FOREST LAND AREA Table 3-5. Forest Land Area and Other Related Data, 2019-2022 2019 2020 1. Total Forest Land Area (has) 189,545.26 189,545.26 Dipterocarp (old and residual) Pine (old and young) Submarginal Mossy Brushland Other Land Use 2. Reforestation Project Area Covered (has) 40,448.53 42, 393.53 Status of Development Planted Planted CEP (including aquatic & terrestrial land area) 3. Effective Forest Cover 40,448.53 42,398.53 4. Forest Area To Be Protected 71,791.68 71,791.68 5. Forest To Be Protected 6. Upland Development Project (UDP 2009-2010) 7. National Greening Program (NGP 2011-2015) Yr 2011 (has) 1,749.59 Yr 2012 (has) 3,732.67 Yr 2013 (has) 5,238.55 Yr 2014 (has) 7,526.77 Yr 2015 (has) 9,621.33 8. National Greening Program (NGP 2016-2018) Yr 2016 (has) 2,089.93 Yr 2017 (has) 4,654.69 Yr 2018 (has) 4,467.00 9. National Greening Program (NGP 2019-2020) has 1,368 1,950 10. National Greening Program (NGP 2021-2022) has 915 2,197 11. List of CBFMA Monitored in Ilocos Norte 2019 2020 Carasi Upland Agro Forest Association Inc. (CUAFAI) Saranay Multi-purpose Cooperative Black Mountain Upland Forestry Association Incorporated (BMUFAI) Indigenous Support for Natures Growth Association Inc. (ISNAG) Sto. Nino Watershed Rehabilitation and Developers Organization (SMWaRDO) Pari-ir Forest Savers Association, Inc Saranay Ti Imelda Farmers Association, Inc. Lumba-ao Multi-Planters Association, In. Cabittauran Upland Farmers Association Incorporated Esperanza Multi-Purpose Cooperative Dipilat DIBBOA Upland Farmers Association, Inc.
  • 41. Disclaimer: Tables, maps and other information contained in this document are from various sources and are consolidated for general information purposes only and are not intended for use as source of any advice such as legal, medical, accounting and the likes. Ecological Profile: PROVINCE OF ILOCOS NORTE Part 3: NATURAL RESOURCES & ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT 37 Table 3-5. continued… 2019 2020 Dimamaga Farmers Association Inc Tamdagan United Rural Enhanced Developers Inc. San Jose Farmers Association Masadsaduel Multi-Purpose Cooperative Saranay Vintar Multi-Purpose Cooperative Cabangaran Multi-Purpose Association, Inc. BDO Consumers Cooperative Bago-Sitio Sagpat Uplanders Association, Inc Baguinsoso Protectors and Developers Association Cabayo MPC Capan-awan Cabuluan Farmers Association, Inc Caunayan Multi-Purpose Cooperative Community Forest Development Organizations, Inc. Isisc-isic Dasar Community Association Inc. Federation of Dumalneg Organizations, Inc. Gubang Tribal Farmers Association Ilocandia Foresters Farmers and Contractors MPC Dasar Upland Farmers Association Upper Canaam Namnama ISF SCF Garmers Association, Inc. United Dilavonian Communal Farmers Association, Inc. LBN Multi-Purpose Cooperative Sarsarguelas Multi-Purpose Cooperative Tungel Multi-Purpose Cooperative Isic-isic Multi-Purpose Cooperative Lanao East North Spring Development Association Malasin Samahang Nayon MPC Mantapat Calawasan Agro-forest Farmers Association, Inc. Saguigui-Subec Upland Farmers Associations, Inc. Paspasagad Hillside Farmers Associations, Inc. Tanap Agaga Buduan Associations, Inc. Zanjera Masadsaduel 4Ps Empowerment Inc. 2021 2022 Isic-isic Multi-Purpose Cooperative Masadsaduel Farmers Association Inc. 2023 Malasin Samahang Nayon Lanao East North Spring Development Association Tamdagan United Rural Enhanced Developers, Inc. Cabangaran Multi-Purpose Association Inc. Upper Canaan Namnama ISF SCF Farmers Association Inc. Gubang Tribal Farmers Association Dasar Upland Farmers Association LBN Multi-Purpose Cooperative
  • 42. Disclaimer: Tables, maps and other information contained in this document are from various sources and are consolidated for general information purposes only and are not intended for use as source of any advice such as legal, medical, accounting and the likes. Ecological Profile: PROVINCE OF ILOCOS NORTE Part 3: NATURAL RESOURCES & ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT 38 Table 3-5. continued… 2023 Malasin Samahang Nayon Lanao East North Spring Development Association Tamdagan United Rural Enhanced Developers, Inc. Cabangaran Multi-Purpose Association Inc. Upper Canaan Namnama ISF SCF Farmers Association Inc. Gubang Tribal Farmers Association Dasar Upland Farmers Association 10. List of Protected Areas in Ilocos Norte Paoay Lake Natural Park (PLNP) – Brgy. Nanguyudan, Sungadan, Nagbacalan and Suba, Paoay, Ilocos Norte Kalbario – Patapat Natural Park (KPNP) – Adams, Adams Pancian, Pasaleng, Maligligay, Pagudpud Tanap Watershed Forest Reserve (TWFR) – Tanap, Burgos Metropolitan Watershed Forest Reserve (MINWFR) – Sulbec, Sapat, Tadao, Pasuquin Source : Provincial Environnent & Natural Ressources Office, Ilocos Norte 2. MAJOR FOREST PRODUCTS • Rattan • Tanguile • Firewood • Bamboo • Pine • Wildlife • Timber • Poles
  • 43. Disclaimer: Tables, maps and other information contained in this document are from various sources and are consolidated for general information purposes only and are not intended for use as source of any advice such as legal, medical, accounting and the likes. Ecological Profile: PROVINCE OF ILOCOS NORTE Part 3: NATURAL RESOURCES & ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT 39 D. FISHING AND AQUATIC RESOURCES Table 3-6. Production and Area of Fishpond by Type of Fishing/Source, 2023 Source/Type of Fishing Area (has.) No. of Banca Production (MT) Aquaculture Projects: Fishponds 40.38** - 391.54** Fish Cages 5.81** - 280.73** Small Farm Reservoir 110.82** - 410.53** Rice-Fish Culture 21.15** - 117.73** Riverine - - Communal Waters: SWIPs/Dams 180.52** - 18.76** Rivers 673.50** - 371.09** Creeks Lakes 318.00** 524.00** - 336.00** 83.13** Municipal Fisheries: Motorized Bancas - 1,809 16,181.56 (total for motorized & non- motorized) Non-Motorized Bancas - 638 Flatboat - 50* 1,200.00 Raft - 500* 330.00 Payao - 0 0 Inland Production: Lakes - - 34.00 SWIPs - - 14.60 DDs - - 9.90 Rivers/Creeks - - 90.00 - Brackishwater Note: *Available data is 2019. ** Available data is 2022. Source: Provincial Agriculture Office, Ilocos Norte
  • 44. Disclaimer: Tables, maps and other information contained in this document are from various sources and are consolidated for general information purposes only and are not intended for use as source of any advice such as legal, medical, accounting and the likes. Ecological Profile: PROVINCE OF ILOCOS NORTE Part 3: NATURAL RESOURCES & ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT 40 Table 3-7. Potential Areas of Fishing and Aquatic Resources by Municipality, 2019 Municipality/City Potential Areas (Hectares) Lakes Fishponds Rivers Dams Creeks SWIP Adams - - 2.30 - - - Bacarra - - 4.50 - - 0.50 Badoc - - 0.50 - 0.64 0.50 Bangui - - - - - - Banna - - 10.00 - - - Batac City 0.50 - - - - 1.80 Burgos - - 8.00 - 1.05 2.25 Carasi - - 0.40 - 0.20 - Currimao - - - - 0.30 - Dingras - - 2.40 - 2.50 - Dumalneg - - - - - - Laoag City - - 5.00 - 10 - Marcos - - 1.00 - - 0.06 Nueva Era 0.50 - 2.00 - - 0.60 Pagudpud - - 2.00 - 3.50 5.00 Paoay - - 0.50 - 0.25 0.20 Pasuquin - - 3.61 - 15.51 - Piddig - - 2.31 - 4.30 1.31 Pinili - - 1.97 0.80 - 0.38 San Nicolas - - - - - 3.50 Sarrat - - 1.00 - - 1.30 Solsona - - 8.00 - 1 0.02 Vintar - - 3.35 - 2.16 - Total 1.00 58.84 0.80 41.41 17.41 Source: Provincial Agriculture Office, Ilocos Norte
  • 45. Disclaimer: Tables, maps and other information contained in this document are from various sources and are consolidated for general information purposes only and are not intended for use as source of any advice such as legal, medical, accounting and the likes. Ecological Profile: PROVINCE OF ILOCOS NORTE Part 3: NATURAL RESOURCES & ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT 41 Table 3-8. Length of Coastline by City/Municipality City/Municipality Length of Coastline (Kilometers) Bacarra 7.00 Badoc 15.00 Bangui 7.00 Burgos 19.00 Currimao 16.50 Laoag City 12.00 Pagudpud 43.37 Paoay 10.00 Pasuquin 25.50 Total 155.37 Source: Provincial Agriculture Office, Ilocos Norte Table 3-9. Number of Fishermen by Municipality/City, 2019 Municipality Number of Fishermen Inland Coastal Total Adams 315 - 315 Bacarra 161 121 282 Badoc 117 696 813 Bangui 207 558 765 Banna 102 - 102 Batac City 1,687 - 1,687 Burgos 425 950 1,375 Carasi 65 - 65 Currimao 42 804 846 Dingras 675 - 675 Dumalneg 136 - 136 Laoag City 202 812 1,014 Marcos 197 - 197 Nueva Era 246 - 246 Pagudpud 1,430 1,288 2,718 Paoay 417 88 505 Pasuquin 1,000 814 1,814 Piddig 450 - 450 Pinili 45 - 45 San Nicolas 520 - 520 Sarrat 648 - 648 Solsona 90 - 90 Vintar 568 - 568 Total 9,745 6,131 15,876 Source: Provincial Agriculture Office, Ilocos Norte
  • 46. Disclaimer: Tables, maps and other information contained in this document are from various sources and are consolidated for general information purposes only and are not intended for use as source of any advice such as legal, medical, accounting and the likes. Ecological Profile: PROVINCE OF ILOCOS NORTE Part 3: NATURAL RESOURCES & ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT 42 E. ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT 1. PRIME GUIDELINE: THE ILOCOS NORTE ENVIRONMENT CODE OF 2007 1.1. COVERAGE • Land Use and Land Management • Forest Resources • Mineral Resources • Water Resources • Coastal Resources • Integrated Waste Management • Air and Noise Pollution Management • Eco-Tourism Management • Environmental Impact Assessment • Environmental Information and Education 2. ENVIRONMENTAL ADMINISTRATION AND MANAGEMENT 2.1. POWERS AND FUNCTIONS OF THE ILOCOS NORTE ENVIRONMENT AND NATURAL RESOURCES OFFICE (INENRO) • Formulate and implement comprehensive plan on environment and natural resources in the province, pursuant to the provisions of the Environment Code and national laws, rules and regulations. The plan shall contain programs, strategies, activities and policy guidelines on the sustainable management of forest resources, fisheries (inland and marine) and aquatic resources, water resources, mineral resources, ecological tourism, waste management, land use management and pollution control and mitigation; • Provide assistance to the municipalities, city, barangays, and other government agencies and private organizations in the implementation of their respective programs and projects, such as, but not limited to, protection, conservation, and management of forest resources, fisheries (inland and marine) and aquatic resources, water resources, mineral resources, ecological tourism, waste management, land use management and pollution control and mitigation; • Implement programs on information, education and communication, community organization and capacity-building and training and provide assistance to municipalities, city, barangay, and other government and private organizations in the implementation of similar activities in their respective areas;
  • 47. Disclaimer: Tables, maps and other information contained in this document are from various sources and are consolidated for general information purposes only and are not intended for use as source of any advice such as legal, medical, accounting and the likes. Ecological Profile: PROVINCE OF ILOCOS NORTE Part 3: NATURAL RESOURCES & ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT 43 • Recommend to the Sanggunian concerned and advise the Governor and the Mayors, as the case may be, on matters relative to the protection, conservation and utilization of the environment and natural resources; • Maintain an information center that will serve as a venue for showcasing excellence on environment and natural resources management practices; • Maintain and update resource management databases such as, but not limited to, the Municipal Coastal Database, for planning, monitoring and evaluation purposes; • Coordinate with other Provincial Government offices in the implementation of its mandate; • Enforce pertinent environment and natural resource laws, rules and regulations and provide assistance to the municipalities, city and barangays in the implementation such laws, rules and regulations. The Office shall also encourage clustering of municipalities and city in addressing law enforcement and other related concerns such as, but not limited to, the management of fishing area contiguous to two or more municipalities, protection of watershed, and riverine system and pollution control and mitigation; • Establish linkage with local and national organizations for purposes of fund- sourcing, network building, research, information, data-banking, policy advocacy and livelihood development. The Office shall also assist the municipalities and city in establishing linkages with other local and international organizations; • Cause and initiate the convening of the Provincial Environmental Summit to be held in June of every year; • Install and maintain a one-stop-shop and quick response desk that will be manned by a multi-sectoral and inter-agency team tasked to facilitate calls for fact-finding mission and monitoring, control and surveillance; • Coordinate with the national government agencies such as, but not limited to, the Department of Environment and Natural Resources, Department of Agriculture, Department of the Interior and Local Government, Philippine National Police, Philippine Coast Guard, Department of Trade and Industry, Department of Tourism, Philippine Tourism Authority, Department of Transportation and Communication, and Department of Justice in the implementation of its mandate as provided in this Code; and • Perform such other functions that are necessary in the implementation of the Environment Code as may be delegated by the Governor or the Sangguniang Panlalawigan.
  • 48. Disclaimer: Tables, maps and other information contained in this document are from various sources and are consolidated for general information purposes only and are not intended for use as source of any advice such as legal, medical, accounting and the likes. Ecological Profile: PROVINCE OF ILOCOS NORTE Part 3: NATURAL RESOURCES & ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT 44 3. SUPPORT PROGRAMS, PROJECTS, ACTIVITIES, POLICIES AND MANDATED ROLES AND RESPONSIBILITIES 3.1. ON WATER RESOURCES • Water Conservation The extraction of fresh water in coastal areas is limited to the extent where intrusion of saline waters into the freshwater table would result. Likewise, extraction of freshwater in inland areas and in shallow aquifers must be controlled to prevent land subsidence. • Management of Watersheds Cooperative-based groups shall be given priority to undertake the development of capabilities for the management of watersheds. • Protection and Conservation of Mangroves For the purpose of protecting the livelihood and well-being of the artisanal fishing population, the sustained productivity of coastal habitats of marine flora and fauna shall be secured through the provision of assistance to municipal governments in establishing adequate safeguards and controls on human activities within declared mangrove forest reserves, marine parks and fish sanctuaries, such as, but not limited to, the formulation of a provincial coastal resource management framework. 3.2. ON FOREST RESOURCES • Enforcement of Forestry Laws in community-based forestry projects, small watershed areas and communal forests such as: oPrevention of forest fires, illegal cutting of trees and making of kaingins; oPrevention of smuggling of natural resources products and of endangered species of flora and fauna and other unlawful activities; oApprehension of violators of forest laws, rules and regulations; oConfiscation of forest products illegally extracted on site: from the community based-forestry project areas, small watersheds and communal forests; oConfiscation, forfeiture and disposition of conveyances, equipment and other implements used in the commission of offenses in the community-based areas, small watershed areas, and communal forests which are penalized under PD 705, as amended by EO 277 series of 1987 and other forestry laws, rules and regulations; oProvide extension services to beneficiaries of forest development projects and render technical and infrastructure assistance for natural-resource related conservation and utilization activities consistent with ecological balance; oManage and maintain seed banks and produce seedlings for forest and tree parks; oSeek CENRO assistance in formulating plans and programs on devolved functions and projects to forest management and protected areas and wildlife; and
  • 49. Disclaimer: Tables, maps and other information contained in this document are from various sources and are consolidated for general information purposes only and are not intended for use as source of any advice such as legal, medical, accounting and the likes. Ecological Profile: PROVINCE OF ILOCOS NORTE Part 3: NATURAL RESOURCES & ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT 45 oImplementation of Community-Based Forest Management Projects which are funded out of regular appropriations under necessary provisions involving policies and administrative arrangements. • Reforestation Projects Tree planting and reforestation shall be a continuing priority project of the provincial government. Priority areas shall include but not limited to the following: oResidual Forests oWatersheds oAirsheds oAreas of high bio-diversity levels oEroded slopes oAll open spaces within the territorial jurisdiction of Ilocos Norte 3.3. ON MINERAL RESOURCES • Adoption of adequate measures to safeguard and conserve mineral resources: oStrictly enforce Republic Act No. 7076 (the Small-Scale Mining Law of 1991) and Presidential Decree Number 1899 (Individual Application for Small Scale Mining); oEnforce Batas Pambansa 265 and Section 92 of RA 8550 banning the quarrying of beach sands in all small islands, atolls, reefs and other similar areas in all water bodies within the Province of Ilocos Norte; oThe province hereby reiterate that Batas Pambansa 265 and Section 92 of RA 8550 also ban the quarrying of beach sands even for construction projects classified as Item: Special by the DPWH Blue Book; oIssue permit for guano collection pursuant to Section 3.4(b), DAO 30, series of 1992 and extraction of quarry resources on privately owned lands and/or public lands for building and construction materials pursuant to Section 43, RA 7942 and Section 138, RA 7160; oVerify and adjudicate conflicts and collect fees and charges for guano collection and quarry resources extraction such as but not limited to sand, and gravel; and oPromote the use of renewable energy. 3.4. ON COASTAL RESOURCES • Assistance to the FARMCs, fishermen cooperatives and other collective organizations as well as the transfer of technology. • Enforcement of community-based (mangrove) forest management laws and other laws on the protection of the environment.
  • 50. Disclaimer: Tables, maps and other information contained in this document are from various sources and are consolidated for general information purposes only and are not intended for use as source of any advice such as legal, medical, accounting and the likes. Ecological Profile: PROVINCE OF ILOCOS NORTE Part 3: NATURAL RESOURCES & ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT 46 • Coastal tourism development and promotion programs. 3.5. ON INTEGRATED WASTE MANAGEMENT • Role of the Province The Provincial Government shall promote the practice of waste segregation and waste minimization at source. Specifically, it shall perform the following functions: oAssist municipal governments in the preparation of a multiyear IWM program, including information, education, and communication materials; oFacilitate establishment of supportive linkages between municipal government units and other government and private sector organizations; oAssist municipalities who may decide to group themselves, consolidate or coordinate their efforts, services, and resources for the purpose of establishing a common IWM system or facilities; oIn coordination with the Presidential Task Force for Waste Management, DENR, NGOs, and the League of Municipalities, facilitate the establishment of a model municipal unit that demonstrates an effective and efficient IWM system; oTrain provincial personnel to provide technical assistance services, particularly in IWM and EIA (Environmental Impact Assessment) to city and municipal governments; and oInstall an operational monitoring system to ensure sustainability of IWM programs. • Role of Cities, Municipalities and Barangays Pursuant to Section 17, RA 7160, the city, municipality and barangay shall be responsible in providing services related to waste and garbage disposal. The city and municipal governments shall consider the following processes for the establishment of their own IWM system: oEstablish waste stream through the conduct of a baseline survey on current WM practices; oConduct consensus building with communities in order to generate support and participation from the private sector; oPrepare an IWM program based on the review of options identified with the community; oPromulgate an IWM Ordinance. The ordinance shall contain the following parts, namely: Definition of Terms, Waste Generation and Storage, Waste Processing and Resource Recovery, Collection and Transportation of Waste, Disposal of Solid Wastes, User Fees for Waste Management Services, Violation and Penalty and Penal Provisions. The city or municipality may refer to the Generic City/Municipal Ordinance for waste management prepared by the Presidential Task Force for Waste Management; and
  • 51. Disclaimer: Tables, maps and other information contained in this document are from various sources and are consolidated for general information purposes only and are not intended for use as source of any advice such as legal, medical, accounting and the likes. Ecological Profile: PROVINCE OF ILOCOS NORTE Part 3: NATURAL RESOURCES & ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT 47 oAppoint an IWM manager/coordinator to oversee integrated approach versus the conventional collection and disposal effort. 3.6. ON AIR AND NOISE POLLUTION MANAGEMENT • Comprehensive Air Quality Management Program/Plan The role of PENRO is to: o Prepare comprehensive air quality management programs, plans and strategies within the limits set forth in Republic Act No. 7160 and R.A. No. 8749 otherwise known as the “Philippine Clean Air Act of 1999" which shall be implemented within the territorial jurisdiction of Ilocos Norte upon the approval of the Sanggunian; o Take the lead in all efforts concerning air quality protection and rehabilitation; and o Coordinate with other government agencies and non-governmental organizations in the implementation of measures to prevent and control air pollution. • Noise Reduction To protect the general welfare and public health against nuisance caused by excessive noise, the following measures shall be implemented: o Building construction, digging equipment, stationary engines, factories are hereby prohibited to create unnecessary noise which would result in ambient noise level higher than the ambient standards; o Restaurants, pub houses, karaoke’s, are also prohibited to create unnecessary noise which would result in ambient noise level higher than the ambient standards; and o Wanton firing of guns and other noise creating gadgets. 3.7. ON ECO-TOURISM MANAGEMENT • Eco-Tourism Development Plan In line to the Environment Code, the province and in coordination to concerned city/municipal LGUs, national government agencies/offices, non- governmental organizations, and private sector representatives, the Provincial Eco-tourism Development Framework shall be formulated to: o Regulate and control the growth of ecotourism activities in the province through the formulation and implementation of framework plans; o Identify and prioritize tourism zones and areas for development in consideration of the ecology, market potential, infrastructure investment requirement, economic viability, strategic position for expansion and community participation. Determination of such areas shall be subject to the recommendation of the Sangguniang Bayan concerned, after consultation with the affected barangay, and
  • 52. Disclaimer: Tables, maps and other information contained in this document are from various sources and are consolidated for general information purposes only and are not intended for use as source of any advice such as legal, medical, accounting and the likes. Ecological Profile: PROVINCE OF ILOCOS NORTE Part 3: NATURAL RESOURCES & ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT 48 approval of the Governor, who, in turn, shall issue directive for the purpose; o Preserve places, sites, or areas of archeological, cultural, and/or historical value or importance; o Develop, rehabilitate, conserve and monitor operations of beaches, coastal forests and sanctuary parks for fish or migratory birds or indigenous birds, including native flora and fauna; o Establish a government friendly tourism business atmosphere in order to further encourage tourism investments such as, but not limited to, granting fiscal incentives, awards for delivery of excellent hospitality services, and encouragement or subsidy for small-scale enterprises in support of eco-tourism; o Encourage educational awareness as to the importance of ecology and sustainable development vis-à-vis tourism development and undertakings through information drive, study tours, and in-bound and out-bound tourism mission; provided, that in the case of the out- bound tourism mission, said activity shall be subject to the recommendation of the Provincial Tourism Office and approval of the Sangguniang Panlalawigan; o Establish and maintain Visitors Information Assistance Center; o Establish and maintain a Provincial Tourism Display Center to showcase locally produced products; o Encourage holding of tourism activities provided that the activities shall be environment-friendly and economically sustainable, and o Encourage use of indigenous materials and Ilocano architectural design to harmonize design of exterior buildings or edifices with the architectural style of site and to enhance natural asset and ambiance. 3.8. ON ENVIRONMENTAL INFORMATION AND EDUCATION • Management Direction The underlying purpose of the enactment of measures to protect the environment, seen in its broadest socio-political sense, is to enable people to critically understand the problems and to mobilize local efforts towards the desired objectives of rules and regulations. Environmental legislation should not be limited to the direct curtailment of activities and processes that are inimical to the preservation of environment, but more importantly, it should educate the people and enable them to react to and comply with the purpose of the legislative measure. The objective of a continuing community education program is to cultivate environment-friendly lifestyles and concretize sustainable use practices among individuals and industries alike. • Role of INENRO The Ilocos Norte Environment and Natural Resource Office (INENRO), through its Administrative and Support Services shall: o Disseminate information on the state of the environment and the impacts of human activities on their sustainability as part of its local
  • 53. Disclaimer: Tables, maps and other information contained in this document are from various sources and are consolidated for general information purposes only and are not intended for use as source of any advice such as legal, medical, accounting and the likes. Ecological Profile: PROVINCE OF ILOCOS NORTE Part 3: NATURAL RESOURCES & ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT 49 environmental education program through various media such as print, radio, TV, cultural shows, and public dialogues; o Establish Environment Information Center in coordination with the Ilocos Norte Provincial Library and Information Center; o Conduct seminars on subjects such as but not limited to global warming, ozone depletion, coastal resource and fisheries management systems, Community-based Fishery Law Enforcement, Air Pollution, Red Tide Phenomena, Sustainable Agriculture and Safe Use of Pesticides, Tourism Management, Water Management Program, and other pertinent topics on the effects of the use of hazardous on the environment; o Seek the services of NGOs, POs and other advocacy groups on the dissemination of information and the conduct of lectures; o Work closely with local religious groups to design a catechism module focused on the environment; o Coordinate with the Department of Education, TESDA and Commission on Higher Education to develop a concise curriculum on environment highlighting the unique features of Ilocos Norte’s ecosystem; o Tap the services of specialists in government agencies such as the DOST, DENR and DA as well as those in the academe for the conduct of more comprehensive seminars on the environment; o Establish a network for information and collection and feedback linking NGOs, government agencies and people’s organizations for reporting violations, outbreaks, destructive resource-use practices and to conduct systematic observation on pollution and environmental impacts of human activities. To this end, investments in radio communication equipment, computers and other tools for surveillance should be facilitated; and o Prescribe guidelines to encourage billboard advertisers to use at least one fourth (1/4) of their paid space for pictures of and facts about endangered flora and fauna to heighten people’s awareness in promoting their conservation and protection. • Role of Local Governments Local Governments, through inter-municipal cooperation, and with the support of national agencies, shall embark on a human resources development and capacity building to: o Expand multidisciplinary education, training and research on sustainable management of land, water and air resources; o Create training opportunities for members of the community, NGOs, POs and the industry to encourage environment-friendly lifestyles; o Develop and strengthen, where the need arises, institutions capable of conducting research, monitoring and implementing the objectives and activities related to environmental legislation and resources conservation; and o Develop local planning capabilities particularly using the population and development planning method.