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CoinGecko 2023 Annual Crypto Industry Report
CoinGecko 2023 Annual Crypto Industry Report
DeFi Analysis
- 2023 DeFi Overview
- 2023 DeFi vs TradFi Returns
- 2023 DeFi Multichain Market Share
- 2023 DeFi Ecosystem Overview
- 2023 Cross-chain Bridge Liquidity
- 2023 Highlights for DeFi
28
1
Table of Contents
Analysts:
Market Landscape
- 2023 Spot Market Overview
- 2023 Crypto Dominance
- 2023 Cryptocurrency Price Returns
- 2023 Top 15 Stablecoins Overview
- 2023 Total Crypto Market Cap & Bitcoin vs. S&P 500
- 2023 Trending Categories
- 2023 Notable Events Timeline
- 2023 Notable Bugs And Exploits
3
Founders’ Note 2
Non-Fungible Tokens (NFTs)
- 2023 NFT Trading Volume across Top 8 Chains
- 2023 NFT Platform Trading Volumes
- 2023 NFT Lending
- 2023 Highlights for NFT
- 2023 Highlights for GameFi
36
Bitcoin Analysis
- 2023 Bitcoin Price vs. Trading Volume
- 2023 Bitcoin Mining Hash Rate
- 2023 Bitcoin vs. Major Asset Classes Price Returns
- Inscriptions
13
Exchanges
- 2023 Top Crypto Exchange Trading Volumes
- 2023 Top 10 Spot Centralized Exchanges (CEX) ​Trading Volume
- 2023 Top 10 Spot Decentralized Exchanges (DEX) ​Trading Volume
- 2023 Spot DEX Trading Volume Breakdown by Chain
- 2023 Top 10 Centralized Perpetual Exchanges Trading Volume
- 2023 Top 10 Centralized Perpetual Exchanges Open Interest
- 2023 Top 10 Decentralized Perpetual Protocols Trading Volume
- 2023 Top 10 Decentralized Perpetual Protocols Open Interest
42
Ethereum Analysis
- 2023 Ethereum Price vs. Trading Volume
- 2023 Ethereum Consensus Layer Staking
- 2023 Ethereum Burn Rate
- 2023 Layer 2 Adoption
18
Shaun Lee Weng Dee Nicholas Boey
Win Win Zhong
Solana Analysis
- 2023 Solana Price vs. Trading Volume
- 2023 Growth in Solana Onchain Metrices
- 2023 Solana Highlights
23
CoinGecko 2023 Annual Crypto Industry Report 2
Founders’ Note
Bobby Ong
COO
TM Lee
CEO
The summary for 2023 Q4 could just be “anticipation over ETFs sends crypto market into frenzy”, as market sentiment turned more bullish with every new report that we’re
getting closer to having US spot Bitcoin ETFs approved. In Q4 alone, the total crypto market cap rose by 55% from $1.1T to $1.6T, with the price of Bitcoin catapulting from $27k
to $42k. Across the entire 2023, the total crypto market cap has more than doubled from $832B at the beginning of the year, led by Bitcoin’s (2.6x) meteoric resurgence. After
the drama and doldrums of 2022, it’s safe to say 2023 has been a strong year of recovery for the industry.
A lookback at the notable events of the year showed crypto’s many tussles with law enforcement. There were plenty of lawsuits, arrests, convictions, settlements and
bankruptcy proceedings in 2023, bookended by Binance’s $4.3B settlement with the US authorities in November. Nonetheless with most of these cases resolved or close to it,
hopefully we can finally turn the page on the sins of the last cycle…
… because there’s plenty to be excited about within crypto these days as new exciting developments come to the fore! Projects have been building throughout the bear market,
and are now showcasing the fruits of their labors. The Ethereum and EVM ecosystem saw an explosion of Layer 2s looking to scale the world computer. While we started with
just optimistic or zero-knowledge based rollups, new technical innovations have introduced further possibilities such as modularization and parallelization, giving greater choice
to users and developers. While the infrastructure continues to progress, the focus now shifts to building out dApps that can onboard the next wave of users to crypto.
After largely being written off post-FTX collapse, the Solana ecosystem has risen from the ashes in 2023 to mount a
strong challenge against EVM dominance. Upgrades have improved the stability of the base network, and its projects
are now showcasing the advantages of a highly performant monolithic chain with cheap fees. Long-term users are
also being rewarded with airdrops from ecosystem projects, drawing in even more attention and activity. Solana has
a lot of momentum going into 2024, and it’ll be interesting to see how the teams channel it to building a sustainable
ecosystem and community.
We cycle back to Bitcoin because other than the ETF story, it’s been hard to ignore the creation of Inscriptions, first
pioneered by Ordinals, but have now proliferated into a bunch of different technical standards for issuing fungible
tokens and NFTs. While we have not seen much utility from these projects yet, this new innovation has definitely
made the Bitcoin blockchain a richer ecosystem (and also enriching miners in the process). Inscriptions have also re-
ignited the conversation around scaling Bitcoin, with drivechains and richer Layer 2s now being actively discussed.
Unfortunately not everything was a bed of roses. The NFT market took a massive hit this year, suffering in terms of
both floor price and trading volumes. Many so-called blue chip collections failed to hang on to their valuations, and
have had to pivot or drastically scale back their ambitions. With positivity returning to crypto, hopefully this will spur
more activity that expands the possibilities of use cases built on NFTs.
On the CoinGecko end, we remain laser-focused on delivering our goals across our main product lines - CoinGecko,
GeckoTerminal, and API. 2024 is looking bullish thus far, and we can’t wait to share more of what we have been
working on in the near future. Onwards and upwards!
CoinGecko 2023 Annual Crypto Industry Report
MARKET LANDSCAPE
3
CoinGecko 2023 Annual Crypto Industry Report
$0B
$50B
$100B
$150B
$200B
$250B
$300B
$350B
$400B
$0.0T
$0.2T
$0.4T
$0.6T
$0.8T
$1.0T
$1.2T
$1.4T
$1.6T
$1.8T
$2.0T
Jan-23 Feb-23 Mar-23 Apr-23 May-23 Jun-23 Jul-23 Aug-23 Sep-23 Oct-23 Nov-23 Dec-23
Total Volume Traded Total Market Cap Trendline (Total Market Cap)
4
2023 Spot Market Overview
Total crypto market cap more than doubled in 2023 from $829B to $1.72T, with 70% of the gains
coming in Q4
Market Cap
Total crypto market cap has climbed by
108% (+$869B) in 2023, despite earlier
expectations of challenging macroeconomic
conditions. In 2023 Q4 alone, total crypto
market cap increased by +54.3%, or $607B
in absolute terms.
Average trading volume in Q4 stood at
$75.1B, a 91.9% QoQ increase. However,
overall trading volume for 2023 sat at
$58.9B, a -31.6% decrease compared to
2022.
Source: CoinGecko
Total Market Cap & Spot Trading Volume (2023)
Trading Volume
$829B
Notable moves within the Top 30 cryptos in
2023 Q4 include SOL which climbed from
#7 to #5 (from #18 as at end-2022) and
AVAX from #22 to #9.
ICP reentered the Top 30 at #16 after
falling out in Q3, while new entrants of
2023 include NEAR (#23), OP (#26), and INJ
(#30) replacing HBAR, BUSD, XMR, and TUSD.
+108.1%
Total Market Cap
Change in 2023
$1.72T
$1.12T
CoinGecko 2023 Annual Crypto Industry Report 5
2023 Crypto Dominance
Bitcoin dominance spiked by 9.2% in 2023 to 47.8%, while stablecoins USDT and USDC lost the
most market share amongst the top 7 cryptos
Bitcoin dominance has soared in 2023,
climbing from 38.6% to 47.8% as it grabbed the
attention of investors, with other majors (except
Solana) suffering as a result.
Against a growing crypto market, the drop in
USDT (-2.7%) and USDC (-4.0%) dominance
signals also the inflow of fiat currency into the
market.
Source: CoinGecko
15.9%
1.5%
5.3%
2.7%
1.4%
4.0%
2.8%
2.0%
2.5%
2.1%
2.0%
0.2%
22.2%
0.3%
47.8%
9.2%
Aside from Bitcoin, Solana also saw a notable
increase in dominance from 0.4% to 2.5% in
2023, surpassing XRP and USDC at #5 and #6
respectively.
0%
10%
20%
30%
40%
50%
60%
70%
80%
90%
100%
Jan-23 Feb-23 Mar-23 Apr-23 May-23 Jun-23 Jul-23 Aug-23 Sep-23 Oct-23 Nov-23 Dec-23
BTC ETH USDT BNB SOL XRP USDC Others
Crypto Dominance (2023)
CoinGecko 2023 Annual Crypto Industry Report 6
2023 Cryptocurrencies Price Returns​
Cryptocurrencies saw green across the board in 2023 as the BTC rally lifted the collective crypto
market - SOL, INJ, LEO, and IMX were the standout performers in their respective categories
4 out of the top 5 P2E tokens – SAND (+55%), AXS (+46%), MANA
(+74%), and GALA (+82%) – also underperformed BTC, except for
IMX which posted a 454% gain in 2023. Outside the top 5, notable
climbers include WEMIX, RON, and BEAM which posted returns of
+594%, +601%, and +256% respectively.
Among the top 5 cryptocurrencies, SOL was the top performer in
Q4 with a 374% gain, ending 2023 overall with a 10x price
increase. BTC followed as the far second with a 155% gain in 2023,
outperforming ETH (+91%), XRP (+80%), and BNB (+27%).
Within the top 10 by market cap, AVAX also outperformed BTC with a
254% gain in 2023.
Source: CoinGecko
All top 5 exchange tokens – BNB (+27%), OKB (+10%), LEO (+111%),
CRO (+77%), and KCS (+59%) – saw positive returns in 2023, but
none managed to outperform BTC. WOO at #9 by CEX token
market cap saw returns of +230%, outperforming both BTC and the
top 5 CEX tokens.
INJ stole the show in 2023 with a 28x move, breaking it into the
top 5 DeFi cryptos for the first time.
This is followed by GRT (+231%), LDO (+177%), LINK (+168%), and
UNI (+40%), making DeFi a comparatively stronger category as only
UNI had underperformed BTC by 2023-end.
Outside the top 5. RUNE (+300%) and MKR (+230%) also recorded
significant gains in 2023.
CoinGecko 2023 Annual Crypto Industry Report
$0B
$20B
$40B
$60B
$80B
$100B
$120B
$140B
Jan-23 Feb-23 Mar-23 Apr-23 May-23 Jun-23 Jul-23 Aug-23 Sep-23 Oct-23 Nov-23 Dec-23
USDT USDC DAI TUSD FDUSD BUSD Others
Market Cap
7
2023 Top 15 Stablecoins Overview
USDT solidifies its position as the top stablecoin with its dominance climbing from 49% to 71%
in 2023
Source: CoinGecko
$91.7B
+$25.5B (+38.5%)
$24.5B
-$20.0B (-45.0%)
$5.2B
+$0.2B (+3.3%)
$2.3B
+$1.5B (+204.8%)
$1.8B
+$1.8B (+590.3%)
Outside of BUSD, USDC saw the largest loss
with a 45% decline or $20B in absolute
terms, suffering from a loss of confidence
since its temporary depeg during the US
banking crisis in 2023 March. USDT was the
main beneficiary of this, gaining $25.5B
(+38.5%) in market cap and a whopping
22% in market share in 2023.
Top 15 stablecoins market cap declined by
11.3% by end-Q3, before climbing 7.1% in Q4
to end 2023 with a 5% decline overall.
With the phase-out of BUSD almost complete,
FDUSD has now broken into the top 5
stablecoins. TUSD and FDUSD saw similar
absolute gains at $1.5B and $1.8B
respectively, while DAI stayed relatively
flat in 2023.
Outside the top 5, LST-backed stablecoins
mkUSD and eUSD entered the top 15, while
GUSD and crvUSD fell out.
Top 15 Stablecoins Market Cap Breakdown (2023)
USDT: 49%
USDC: 33%
DAI: 4%
BUSD: 12%
TUSD: 1%
FDUSD: 0%
Others: 2%
$136B
$129B
USDT: 71%
USDC: 19%
DAI: 4%
TUSD: 2%
FDUSD: 1%
BUSD: 1%
Others: 2%
-5.6%
Top 15 Stablecoins Market
Cap Change YoY
CoinGecko 2023 Annual Crypto Industry Report
0
1,000
2,000
3,000
4,000
5,000
$0.0T
$0.5T
$1.0T
$1.5T
$2.0T
$2.5T
Jan-23 Feb-23 Mar-23 Apr-23 May-23 Jun-23 Jul-23 Aug-23 Sep-23 Oct-23 Nov-23 Dec-23
Total Crypto Market Cap Bitcoin Market Cap S&P 500
Market Cap
8
2023 Total Crypto Market Cap & Bitcoin vs. S&P 500
Despite correlation between total crypto market cap and S&P500 turning moderately negative
in Q2, overall correlation in 2023 between the two remained moderately high at 0.65
S&P 500
Bitcoin continues to be the bellwether of the
crypto market, with a 0.97 correlation with
total crypto market cap.
Source: CoinGecko, MarketWatch
While both the crypto markets and S&P500
rallied in 2023, total crypto market cap
however was only moderate to strongly
correlated to the S&P500 in 2023 at 0.65.
This figure rose to 0.86 in 2023 Q4.
Interestingly with Bitcoin being driven by ETF
news, its price has become highly
correlated (0.74) to the S&P500. In 2023 Q4,
correlation between the two climbed to 0.81.
Total crypto market cap had an
annualized volatility of 38.6%, 2.4x more
than the S&P500 at 15.9%.
Total crypto market cap climbed 108.1%, 4.6x
more than the S&P500 which climbed 23.7%.
Bitcoin was slightly more volatile than
overall crypto market, with an annualized
volatility of 43.2%. It saw gains of 155%, 6.5x
more than the S&P500.
Total Crypto Market Cap & Bitcoin vs. S&P 500 (2023)
CoinGecko 2023 Annual Crypto Industry Report 9
2023 Trending Categories
AI, GameFi & Meme Coins Top Crypto Narratives’ Interest in 2023
1.7%
1.8%
1.8%
2.0%
2.1%
2.2%
2.5%
2.7%
4.6%
6.5%
7.1%
7.2%
8.3%
10.5%
11.3%
FTX Holdings
Smart Contract Platforms
DePIN
NFTs
Avalanche Ecosystem
Ethereum Ecosystem
Layer 2
DeFi
Layer 1
Real World Assets
BRC-20
Solana Ecosystem
Meme Coins
GameFi
Artificial Intelligence
Source: CoinGecko
Artificial Intelligence (AI), GameFi and
meme coins were the most popular
narratives in 2023, capturing one third of
investor interest.
The Solana ecosystem, BRC-20 tokens and
real world assets (RWA) also gained
significant attention, capturing more than
5% of the crypto narratives interest each this
year.
4 out of the 49 blockchain ecosystems,
made it into the top 15 crypto narratives in
2023.
Each of these ecosystems had very strong
narratives. In 2023, we have Solana’s rise
from the dead, the introduction of BRC-20s,
the Ethereum Shanghai Upgrade in April,
and the Avalanche ecosystem having a
revival similar to Solana.
72.3%
Top 15 Narratives Share of
Overall CoinGecko Categories
Web Traffic in 2023
Market Share of CoinGecko Categories Web Traffic 2023
CoinGecko 2023 Annual Crypto Industry Report 10
2023 Notable Events Timeline
2023 saw a banking crisis and regulatory scrutiny from the SEC early in the year, followed by
several wins for the industry – BlackRock’s filing for BTC ETF, Ripple & Grayscale Victory
19 Jan
Grayscale won appeal
for SEC to review its
case to convert GBTC
into spot BTC ETF
Judge ruled Ripple’s
sale of XRP were
not securities
CFTC sued Binance for
violation of the CEA
and CFTC regulations
Mt Gox initiated
repayment to its
creditors
Ethereum Shapella
Upgrade and
withdrawals enabled
for staked ETH
Arbitrum (ARB)
token airdrop;
Do Kwon arrested
in Montenegro
BlackRock filed for
spot BTC ETF
Ordinals launched
on Bitcoin
SEC sued
Binance & Coinbase
Banking Turmoil
(SVB, Silvergate,
Signature Bank, Credit
Suisse collapse)
Sam Bankman-
Fried found guilty
31 Jan 14 Feb 8-13 Mar 23 Mar 29 Mar
9-11 Aug 13 Jul 15 Jun 5-6 Jun 12 Apr
29 Aug
4 Oct 31 Oct 2 Nov 28 Dec
Binance agreed to
$4.3B settlement
with US Authorities
16 Nov 21 Nov
Genesis filed for
Chapter 11
bankruptcy
SEC unsuccessful in
its attempt to overturn
earlier courtroom loss
to Ripple
Celestia
launched
Base officially
launched, Friend.tech
launched
BlackRock filed for
spot ETH ETF
Blur Season 1
airdrop
CoinGecko 2023 Annual Crypto Industry Report 11
2023 Notable Bugs and Exploits
$2.0B was lost to at least 463 exploits in 2023, with 66% of the total stolen funds coming from
the top 6 hacks
January
July
December
Fantom Foundation: $7M
Stars Arena: $3M
Multichain: $231M
Vyper: $50M
CoinsPaid: $37M
Bald: $23M
AlphaPo: $23M
August
April
November
October
MEV Boost Exploit: $26M
Bitrue: $22M
GDAC: $14M
Yearn.finance: $12M
Hundred Finance: $7M
February
September
Exactly Protocol: $7M
Magnate Finance: $5M
Zunami Protocol: $2M
Poloniex: $123M
HECO: $86M
KyberSwap: $45M
Binance User: $27M
HTX: $22M
Atomic Wallet: $115M
Ackerman Ponzi: $33M
Pink Drainer: $4M
June
CoinDeal: $45M
LendHub: $6M
GMX Phishing: $4M
FCS: $3M
BonqDAO: $120M
Platypus Finance: $9M
Friendsies: $5M
Shata Capital: $5M
Euler Finance: $196M
Monkey Drainer: $17M
Safe Moon: $9M
ERC20 Permit: $9M
March
Fintoch: $32M
Jimbos Protocol: $8M
Deus Finance: $6M
Swaprum: $3M
May
Orbit Chain: $82M
Herencia Artifex: $30M
Link Drainer: $4M
Wallet Drain: $2M
OKX: $2M
The largest exploit in 2023 was the
Multichain bridge hack, with $231M lost in
July 2023.
Another exploit which caused a huge scare
was the Ledger exploit in December, which
injected malicious code into dApps that were
using Ledger Connect Kit. Fortunately, the
exploit was quickly spotted, and a resolution
was implemented quickly after.
Other large exploits include Euler Finance
($196M), Mixin Network ($142M), Poloniex
($123M), BonqDAO ($120M), and Atomic
Wallet ($115M).
Thankfully, $177M from the Euler Finance
Hack has since been returned.
Source: Rekt, De.Fi, TRM Labs
Mixin Network: $142M
CoinEx: $53M
Stake: $41M
Coindroplet: $23M
HTX: $8M
According to TRM Labs, North Korean-
linked groups account for 30.6%, or at least
$600M of the stolen cryptocurrencies in
2023. This figure, though significant,
represents a decrease from the $850M in
crypto stolen in 2022.
CoinGecko 2023 Annual Crypto Industry Report
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CoinGecko 2023 Annual Crypto Industry Report
BITCOIN ANALYSIS
13
CoinGecko 2023 Annual Crypto Industry Report
$0B
$10B
$20B
$30B
$40B
$50B
$60B
$70B
$80B
$0
$5,000
$10,000
$15,000
$20,000
$25,000
$30,000
$35,000
$40,000
$45,000
$50,000
Jan-23 Feb-23 Mar-23 Apr-23 May-23 Jun-23 Jul-23 Aug-23 Sep-23 Oct-23 Nov-23 Dec-23
Volume Price
Yearly
high
$44,004
14
2023 Bitcoin Price vs. Trading Volume
Aside from a market cool off in Q3, BTC saw gains throughout 2023 to end the year with a
+155% gain
BTC Price Trading Vol
BTC has climbed significantly by 155% in
2023.
BTC saw a strong first leg up in Q1, then had
another spike up in late Q2 as a slew of spot
BTC ETF applications were filed.
The market then cooled off in Q3, before
rallying strongly in Q4 on the back of
anticipation for spot bitcoin ETF approvals,
and expected interest rate cuts by the Fed.
Average trading volume saw a drop off
around end-Q1, gradually declining from Q2-
Q3 before picking up slightly in Q4 to
$18.0B (+64.3% QoQ).
As many BTC holders continued to cling on to
their coins, volume remained relatively low in
Q4 despite the significant price spike due to
limited supply on the markets.
Q3 Price Return
-11.5%
Source: CoinGecko
Q2 Price Return
+6.9%
Q1 Price Return
+72.4%
Q4 Price Return
+64.3%
Yearly
low
$16,541
+155.2%
BTC Price Return in 2023
Bitcoin Price and Spot Trading Volume (2023)
CoinGecko 2023 Annual Crypto Industry Report
150m
200m
250m
300m
350m
400m
450m
500m
550m
600m
650m
Jan-23 Feb-23 Mar-23 Apr-23 May-23 Jun-23 Jul-23 Aug-23 Sep-23 Oct-23 Nov-23 Dec-23
15
2023 Bitcoin Mining Hash Rate
Bitcoin mining hash rate continues to chart new all-time-highs, growing by 105% in 2023, as
mining stocks recorded major returns
Hash Rate TH/s
2023 Q4 has seen another wave of
expansions by mining companies:
• Marathon Digital agreed to buy 2 new
bitcoin-mining sites in Texas and
Nebraska for $178.6M
• Bit Origin secures $6.74M investment to
build new mining facility in Wyoming
• Riot, Cipher, and Hive purchase 66.6K,
37K, and 7K ASICs respectively.
Public listed mining stocks – Cipher Mining
(CIFR), Marathon Digital (MARA), CleanSpark
(CLSK), and Riot Platforms (RIOT) also
recorded significant returns in 2023 of
615%, 556%, 425%, and 343% respectively.
Q1 Hash Rate
20.5%
Q2 Hash Rate
22.0%
Source: Blockchain.com, MarketWatch
Q3 Hash Rate
17.0%
Q4 Hash Rate
33.7%
Bitcoin mining hash rate continues to
chart new all-time-highs, growing by over
2x in 2023. The latest ATH was recorded on
Dec 24 at 612m TH/s.
The last time hash rate has experienced a
down quarter was in 2022 Q2.
All-time High
612m TH/s
+104.9%
Bitcoin’s hash rate
increase in 2023
Bitcoin's Total Hash Rate (2023)
CoinGecko 2023 Annual Crypto Industry Report 16
Despite a rising interest rate environment, bitcoin outperformed major asset classes with a
155% gain, while the NASDAQ (+42%) and S&P500 (+24%) also posted strong returns in 2023
Bitcoin vs. Major Asset Classes in 2023
In stark contrast to 2022 where it was the worst performing
asset with a 64% decline, BTC far outperformed all other
asset classes in 2023 with a 155% gain.
2023 Bitcoin vs. Major Asset Classes Price Returns
Price
Return
Crude oil (-11%) posted its first y-o-y decline since 2020
prompted by fears of oversupply from production outside
OPEC, though there could now be potential supply
disruptions from ongoing geopolitical turmoil in the Middle
East.
The NASDAQ (+42%) and S&P500 (+24%) also recorded
strong years, both closing 2023 at their highest levels since
2022 January. Gold (+13%) also recorded relatively sizable
gains.
Source: Market Watch, CoinGecko
-50.0%
0.0%
50.0%
100.0%
150.0%
200.0%
Jan-23 Feb-23 Mar-23 Apr-23 May-23 Jun-23 Jul-23 Aug-23 Sep-23 Oct-23 Nov-23 Dec-23
BTC NASDAQ Crude Oil Gold
TLT DXY GBP JPY
CoinGecko 2023 Annual Crypto Industry Report 17
Inscriptions
Inscriptions, introduced by Ordinals in 2023 January, has led to a frenzy of NFTs and memecoins
on BTC, leading to a boon for miners by propelling transaction fees skywards
Source: Blockchain.com, Dune Analytics (@21co)
The latest surge in inscriptions minting on the Bitcoin
network has driven daily total transaction fees up to
an all-time-high of $23.7M on December 17, 2023.
Bitcoin Total Transaction Fees & Daily Inscriptions (2023)
0K
100K
200K
300K
400K
500K
600K
700K
800K
900K
$0m
$5m
$10m
$15m
$20m
$25m
Jan-23 Feb-23 Mar-23 Apr-23 May-23 Jun-23 Jul-23 Aug-23 Sep-23 Oct-23 Nov-23 Dec-23
Daily Inscriptions Total Transaction Fees
Despite daily inscriptions remaining elevated after the
mid-May spike up until late September, total transaction
fees paid to miners were actually quite low. This could
be due to low secondary trading activity of inscriptions
during this period of time, a sign that inscription
trading activity is what drives fees rather than
minting activity.
When inscription trading took off again in November,
total transaction fees followed suit.
23.7M
Highest Daily Total Transaction
Fees Paid to Bitcoin Miners on
December 17, 2023
Inscriptions are arbitrary data (e.g. text, images) written
onto a satoshi, the smallest unit of bitcoin. It was first
introduced by the Ordinals protocol launched by
developer Casey Rodarmor on Jan 21, and enabled the
creation of NFTs and semi-fungible tokens (notably BRC-
20 tokens) on the bitcoin network. By end-2023,
cumulative inscriptions on Bitcoin reached 52.8M.
Total Transaction Fees ($) Number of Inscriptions
CoinGecko 2023 Annual Crypto Industry Report
ETHEREUM ANALYSIS
18
CoinGecko 2023 Annual Crypto Industry Report
$0B
$20B
$40B
$60B
$80B
$100B
$120B
$0
$200
$400
$600
$800
$1,000
$1,200
$1,400
$1,600
$1,800
$2,000
$2,200
$2,400
$2,600
Jan-23 Feb-23 Mar-23 Apr-23 May-23 Jun-23 Jul-23 Aug-23 Sep-23 Oct-23 Nov-23 Dec-23
Volume Price
19
2023 Ethereum Price vs. Trading Volume
Price of ETH rose by +36.4% in 2023 Q4, ending the year in the green with gains of +90.5%
Source: CoinGecko
ETH Price Trading Vol
Q1 2023 Price Return
+49.8%
Q2 2023 Price Return
+6.0%
Q3 2023 Price Return
-13.6%
Q4 2023 Price Return
+36.4%
Yearly
low
$1,196
Yearly high
$2,376
ETH closed 2023 at $2,294, representing a
90.5% increase in the year.
+90.5%
ETH Price Return in 2023
In 2023, ETH started Q1 with a rally but
consolidated for the most part in Q2 and Q3.
In Q4, ETH broke away on a rally at the start
of November and hit a yearly high of $2,376
in December.
Trading volumes picked up significantly in
Q4, for a daily average of $14.4B, up from
$7.2B in Q3.
With the BTC ETF approved by the SEC,
attention may switch to ETH which has spot
ETFs pending approval.
Ethereum also has the Dencun upgrade that
will implement EIP-4844 scheduled for first
half of 2024. Known as Proto-Danksharding,
it is expected to reduce gas fees, and boost
network efficiency.
Ethereum Price and Spot Trading Volume (2023)
CoinGecko 2023 Annual Crypto Industry Report
0M
5M
10M
15M
20M
25M
30M
Jan-23 Feb-23 Mar-23 Apr-23 May-23 Jun-23 Jul-23 Aug-23 Sep-23 Oct-23 Nov-23 Dec-23
Lido Coinbase Figment
Binance Kraken Rocket Pool
Kiln Staked.us Bitcoinsuisse
OKX Stakefish Upbit
DARMA Capital Frax Others
20
2023 Ethereum Consensus Layer Staking
ETH staking grew +6.4% in 2023 Q4 to hit 29.1 mil, but experienced its slowest quarter as the
Celsius bankruptcy estate began unstaking its ETH holdings
ETH’s Shapella upgrade was completed in
April, and deposits have far outpaced
withdrawals thus far.
However, the Celsius bankruptcy estate
has begun to unstake its ETH holdings,
which may result in a drop in staked ETH.
Total staked ETH hit 29.1 mil by the end
of 2023. Staked ETH increased by 82.5%
in 2023. However, growth in Q4 has
slowed to +6.4%. This is the lowest QoQ
growth in 2023, with 1.7 mil ETH added.
Lido’s dominance seems to have found a
ceiling at the ~30% mark, where it has
hovered around since the start of 2023.
Source: Dune Analytics
Q1 2023
Total Staked ETH
+13.6%
Q2 2023
Total Staked ETH
+30.3%
Q3 2023
Total Staked ETH
+14.5%
14.4%
4.3% 3.7%
2.8%
2.5%
2.9%
27.2%
31.7%
Staked ETH
29,100,451
Q4 2023
Total Staked ETH
+6.4%
27,263,813
23,596,678
18,006,199
15,804,534
Total Staked ETH in Validators (2023)
CoinGecko 2023 Annual Crypto Industry Report 21
2023 Ethereum Burn Rate
ETH posted its first deflationary year, burning 1.09M ETH; The Ethereum network removed 342K
ETH from circulation
Source: Etherscan, Dune Analytics
ETH
1
Uniswap
155k ETH
2
ETH Transfers
67k ETH
3
USDT
48k ETH
4
Arbitrum
25k ETH
5
Metamask
21k ETH
Top 6 Burn Leaderboard of 2023
6
zkSync
18k ETH
0
5,000
10,000
15,000
20,000
25,000
Jan-23 Feb-23 Mar-23 Apr-23 May-23 Jun-23 Jul-23 Aug-23 Sep-23 Oct-23 Nov-23 Dec-23
Burned Emissions
Memecoin
+ Telegram
Bot szn 2023 saw over 1.09M ETH burned, while
0.75M were emitted. This was an average of
91k ETH burned a month. In 2022, this figure
was an average 123K ETH burned / month. In
total 342K ETH was taken out of
circulation in 2023.
1.09M
ETH Burned in 2023
ETH was once again deflationary in 2023 Q4,
after trending inflationary in Q3. In Q4, 270k
ETH were burned and 216K ETH emitted, a
net burn of 54K.
The largest one-day burn in Q4 occurred on
December 18, where 6,303 ETH was burned.
Uniswap was the main burner of ETH in
2023, burning 155K ETH. Memecoin szn in
Q2 helped fuel this burn.
Previously in 2022, and 2021, NFT
marketplace OpenSea dominated the burn
leaderboard, but have since fallen off
alongside the decline of NFTs.
ETH Burn vs. Emission Rate (2023)
CoinGecko 2023 Annual Crypto Industry Report 22
2023 Layer 2 Adoption
Layer 2 networks saw over 1.31B transactions in 2023; Arbitrum executed more than a third of
all transactions on Ethereum L2s, and almost the same amount of transactions as mainnet
Source: Etherscan, Blockscout
Total Transactions on Layer 2’s (2023)
Over 1.31B Layer 2 (L2) transactions were
carried out in 2023. 375.3M were carried out
on Arbitrum, accounting for 28.6% of all L2
transactions. Excluding opBNB, Arbitrum
accounted for more than a third (37.5%) of all
transactions on Ethereum Layer 2s in 2023.
1.31B
Transactions on L2’s in 2023
Arbitrum executed almost the same amount
of transactions with Ethereum mainnet in
2023, which executed 383.1M transactions.
Transactions on L2’s increased 93.8% QoQ,
with 659.0M in Q4 compared to 340.0M in
Q3.
The large increase can be attributed to
opBNB which had the most transactions in
Q4, with 304.8M (47.6%). The majority of
these transactions were due to a surge of
inscriptions. In December alone, the network
recorded several days with more than 20M
transactions.
Total Trading Volume ($ Million)
66.2M 64.4M 76.7M
28.6M 30.4M 48.9M
Market
Share
90.6M 116.8M 132.6M 119.2M 137.4M 402.4M
54%
78% 76%
65%
57%
44%
35%
24%
19% 22% 23%
11%
5%
14%
23%
28%
29%
25%
22%
21%
13%
9%
44%
19% 14% 15% 12%
18%
19%
14%
8% 7%
7%
10%
15% 13%
10%
15%
20%
14%
6%
6%
5%
6%
8%
24%
65%
0%
10%
20%
30%
40%
50%
60%
70%
80%
90%
100%
Jan-23 Feb-23 Mar-23 Apr-23 May-23 Jun-23 Jul-23 Aug-23 Sep-23 Oct-23 Nov-23 Dec-23
Arbitrum zkSync Optimism StarkNet Base
Linea Mantle Network Zora Network Polygon zkEVM Scroll
Metis Manta Pacific Boba Network opBNB
CoinGecko 2023 Annual Crypto Industry Report
SOLANA ANALYSIS
23
CoinGecko 2023 Annual Crypto Industry Report
$0B
$1B
$2B
$3B
$4B
$5B
$6B
$7B
$8B
$0
$20
$40
$60
$80
$100
$120
$140
Jan-23 Feb-23 Mar-23 Apr-23 May-23 Jun-23 Jul-23 Aug-23 Sep-23 Oct-23 Nov-23 Dec-23 Jan-24
Volume Price
24
2023 Solana Price vs. Trading Volume
Solana rose from the ashes, recording a meteoric Q4 price increase of 374% to close out the
year at $101.33, ending the year with a 10x gain
Q3 Price Return
+13.0%
Q2 Price Return
-10.7%
Q1 Price Return
+112.9%
Q4 Price Return
+373.8%
Yearly
high
$121
SOL Price Trading Vol
Solana Price and Spot Trading Volume (2023)
SOL climbed from $10.0 to $101.33 in 2023,
marking a 917.3% increase.
SOL had its first leg up in January, climbing
>2x before crabbing until mid-October. It
then saw an aggressive rally up to $121.45
before slightly correcting at year end.
+917.3%
SOL Price Return in 2023
Daily trading volume in Q1 averaged at
~$827M, then dropped to hover around
~$400M in Q2 and Q3 before seeing a spike
to $2B in Q4 (+379% QoQ).
Solana has seen a resurgence in bullish
narratives which acted as tailwinds for its
token, such as OPOS (“Only Possible on
Solana”), its revival and resilience after the
FTX implosion, and the proliferation of
popular memecoins on its ecosystem.
The Solana network has also undergone
several technical upgrades, and has not
seen a major outage since February 2023.
Source: CoinGecko
CoinGecko 2023 Annual Crypto Industry Report 25
2023 Growth in Solana Onchain Metrices
Rebounding after a tumultuous 2022, the Solana network achieved new highs in user activity as
average daily transactions grew by 563% in 2023
Although the price of SOL continued to
plummet in 2022 after the all-time high run
to $260 in 2021, daily users have
continued to climb throughout the first
half of 2022 due to the Solana NFT season,
peaking at 453K users in May 2022. With the
Terra collapse occurring shortly after, daily
users began to fall steadily, while daily
transactions increased from ~20M in 2023
May to ~40M in 2023 July.
By the end of 2022, the collapse of FTX has
resulted in number of active Solana users to
fall by 76.7% from its peak in May to 106K
users at the end of December 2022.
The network saw a slight resurgence in 2023
H1 with the migration of Helium and their
partnership with Mastercard, as daily
transactions spiked by 40% from 20M at
the end of March to 28M one week later.
Following SOL’s recent run-up in Q4, users
have returned to the ecosystem, hitting a
peak of 456K users in December 2023.
0
100,000
200,000
300,000
400,000
500,000
600,000
700,000
800,000
900,000
1,000,000
0M
10M
20M
30M
40M
50M
60M
Jan-22 Apr-22 Jul-22 Oct-22 Jan-23 Apr-23 Jul-23 Oct-23
Daily Active Users Daily Transactions
Source: Hello Moon, Dune Analytics
Daily
Transactions
Daily Active
Users
Collapse of FTX
87.1M
Highest Daily Transaction
Count in 2023
Solana Daily Transactions and Daily Active Users (2022 - 2023)
Collapse of Terra
CoinGecko 2023 Annual Crypto Industry Report 26
2023 Solana Highlights
The return of Solana is rooted in its blazing fast performance, cheap fees, dApps with great UI,
alongside the potent combination of airdrop and memecoins
Airdrops typically occur on newer chains looking to
incentivize bridging and usage. However recent
Solana airdrops have come from projects that have
been stalwarts of the ecosystem. These airdrops
are generous rewards for users who have stuck
with the ecosystem through out its darkest
period. It also resulted in airdrop farmers
descending on the chain to hunt the next airdrop.
Another solid indicator of interest are memecoins,
and Solana has no shortage of these too. BONK
sparked a fair share of excitement when it
launched back in 2022 December, but it has scaled
truly new heights by end-2023. Solana projects /
tokens have also launched in all the trending
narratives of 2023 such as AI, DePIN, and RWA,
letting degens speculate to their heart’s content.
Finally, the revival of Solana NFTs in price and
volume also signaled rising levels of degeneracy as
speculators move further out the risk curve.
Airdrops, Memecoins and NFTs
An underrated advantage of Solana is how easy it
is to onramp and use, compared to other newer
chains. SOL is already broadly listed and supported
across centralized exchanges, and has wallets with
great UX such as Phantom and Backpack.
Being a monolithic chain saves users the effort
and cost of bridging across different roll-ups. This
results in no liquidity fragmentation, and also
minimizes the complexity and risk of having to
trust bridges. However if you need to use a bridge,
Portal / Wormhole provides a more than ample
solution.
Solana dApps also have great UI and are easy to
use in general, with fast performance and cheap
fees makes interacting with the chain and dApps
an almost seamless experience.
Great UI and Easy-to-Use dApps
The original promise of Solana was incredible
performance at a very cheap cost for users.
While some of the first Solana dApps (notably
Serum) showed off what the chain was capable of
even back in 2020, the chain was always marred by
outages.
Over the course of the bear market, upgrades
introduced to the chain has stabilized it
significantly, with no incident reported since
February 2023.
At the start of 2023 the community began rallying
around #OPOS, looking to truly take advantage
and showcase Solana’s combination of superior
performance and cheap fees. Use cases around
micropayments, DeFi, DePIN, mass-NFT minting,
games started to be featured more, and #OPOS
has become a rallying cry for Solana projects.
#OPOS (Only Possible on Solana)
CoinGecko 2023 Annual Crypto Industry Report
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113
BLOCKCHAINS
840+
DEXes
2.3M+
POOLS
2M+
TOKENS
27
CoinGecko 2023 Annual Crypto Industry Report
DEFI ANALYSIS
28
CoinGecko 2023 Annual Crypto Industry Report
2.8%
3.2%
3.6%
4.0%
4.4%
4.8%
$30B
$40B
$50B
$60B
$70B
$80B
$90B
$100B
Jan-23 Feb-23 Mar-23 Apr-23 May-23 Jun-23 Jul-23 Aug-23 Sep-23 Oct-23 Nov-23 Dec-23
Total DeFi Market Cap DeFi Share of Market (DeFi/Global Market Cap)
29
2023 DeFi Overview
While the DeFi market cap largely stayed around $50B for the first three quarters after its initial
rise in 2023 Q1, the sector saw a significant boost in Q4 as market sentiment turned bullish
Market Cap % of Market
Source: CoinGecko
Q3 2023
$46B
Q2 2023
$48B
Q4 2023
$78B
Q1 2023
$51B
TradFi
banking
turmoil
Blackrock’s
spot bitcoin
ETF spotted
on DTCC
Ethereum
Shapella
upgrade
Crypto
sell-off
Kicking off 2023 with a market cap of just
$34B, DeFi has proven itself to be
unwavering, ending the year with an
additional $44B added to its market cap.
Gains in DeFi’s total market cap has
outpaced the overall crypto market cap,
growing by 128.8% compared to 109.9%.
+128.8%
Increase in DeFi Market Cap
compared to January 1, 2023
DeFi market cap has stayed between $40B
- $50B despite the sell-off in August.
However, the possibility of a spot Bitcoin ETF
approval has pushed DeFi’s market cap
higher alongside the overall market to new
yearly highs in Q4, surging from $46B at the
end of Q3 to $78B at the end of 2023.
The Q4 run-up in market cap has increased
DeFi’s dominance to 4.5%, after staying
largely below 4.0% in Q2 and Q3 of the year.
Total DeFi Market Cap and DeFi Share of Overall Market (2023)
CoinGecko 2023 Annual Crypto Industry Report 30
2023 DeFi vs TradFi Returns
Interest rates for Stablecoins in DeFi have surged back to levels last seen in 2021, as the
appetite for leverage returns once more
Source: Adapted from @tt_tyler’s Interest Rate Dashboard, YCharts
*Stablecoin interest rates include borrowing rates for USDC, USDT and Dai on Aave and Compound.
Annual Yield
12.53%
4.72%
0.00%
2.00%
4.00%
6.00%
8.00%
10.00%
12.00%
14.00%
16.00%
Stablecoin Interest Rates US 1-Year T-bill Rates
Although DeFi yields cratered from 13.49% in
January 2021 to 4.21% in 2021 December, T-
bill rates were still close to zero
+7.81%
Spread between Stablecoin
Interest Rates vs US 1-Year T-
bill Rates on January 1, 2024
The Fed started hiking rates throughout 2022
to combat inflation, while the crypto market
cratered, causing demand for leverage to dry
up. This pushed T-bill rates higher than
DeFi borrowing rates. By the end of 2022, T-
bills were yielding 4.72% compared to 2.89%
from lending stablecoins.
While DeFi yields have crept up steadily
throughout 2023 H1, rising speculation of
US spot Bitcoin ETF approvals in the final
quarter of the year saw massive increase in
risk appetites and demand for leverage.
Stablecoin borrowing rates more than
doubled from 5.15% in 2023 Q3 to 12.53% in
2023 Q4.
Stablecoin Interest Rates VS US 1-Year Treasury Bill Rates (2021 – 2023)
CoinGecko 2023 Annual Crypto Industry Report 31
2023 DeFi Multichain Market Share
Ethereum now controls a larger share of DeFi TVL with 68% dominance, while Tron is now the
second largest chain by TVL in 2023, outpacing BNB Smart Chain
$53B $60B $65B $63B $64B $57B
Source: DefiLlama
*Monthly TVL is calculated by taking the average TVL on daily basis for each month.
** RWAs and redeposits are not included in multi-chain TVL
Market
Share
$60B $62B $59B $59B $71B $82B
Total TVL
64% 64% 66% 66% 66% 68% 69% 69% 68% 68% 68% 68%
9% 9% 8% 8% 9% 9% 9% 9% 11% 12% 11% 10%
10% 9% 8% 8% 8% 6% 6% 5% 6% 5% 5% 4%
9% 9% 8% 8% 7% 7% 7% 7% 7% 7% 7% 7%
0%
10%
20%
30%
40%
50%
60%
70%
80%
90%
100%
Jan-23 Feb-23 Mar-23 Apr-23 May-23 Jun-23 Jul-23 Aug-23 Sep-23 Oct-23 Nov-23 Dec-23
Ethereum Tron BSC Solana Arbitrum Avalanche
Polygon Optimism Base Cardano Cronos Others
Although multichain TVL in DeFi saw
fluctuations up to 2023 Q3, the sector
witnessed significant inflows of $25B in
2023 Q4, resulting in an overall 55.6% rise in
TVL by the end of the year. Ethereum has
continued to solidify its dominance,
increasing its market share from 64% in
2023 January to 68% at in 2023 December.
+55.6%
Increase in Multichain DeFi
TVL since January 1, 2023
Coming into 2023 as close rivals, Tron is now
well ahead of BNB Smart Chain, controlling
10% market share. Since the start of the
year, TVL on Tron has surged by 74.8% with
the launch of stUSDT, while TVL on BSC has
dropped by 31% by the end of 2023.
The Solana ecosystem has seen a major
revival in 2023, growing its TVL by 441.1%
from $447M in 2023 January to $2.4B in 2023
December. The price appreciation of the
network token (SOL) along with the potential
of future airdrops have pushed more users
into bridging over.
Multi-chain Total Value Locked (TVL) Breakdown (2023)
CoinGecko 2023 Annual Crypto Industry Report 32
2023 DeFi Ecosystem Overview
Liquid staking consolidates its place at the top of DeFi protocols in Q4, while lending and
bridging protocols also saw significant gains in their share of TVL
Infrastructure
$1.23B
Derivatives
$1.75B
Despite the completion of the Ethereum Shapella upgrade, the liquid
staking sector has continued to grow tremendously throughout 2023,
capping of the year with a 61.3% increase in TVL from $20B to $32.2B over
the 2023 Q4.
Real World Assets (RWAs) saw a smaller TVL increase of 0.9%, lowering their
TVL share from 7.4% in 2023 Q3 to 5.1% in 2023 Q4 as the crypto space
shifted to other trends. However, the sector has had a commendable 2023
with its total TVL growing by 640% from $760M to $5.62B at the end of
2023.
Despite making up just 1% of the overall DeFi sector, TVL on yield farms have
risen by over 74x, highlighting the return of crypto users who have
regained their willingness to generate returns on their holdings, in light
of improving market conditions.
Total Value Locked of Each DeFi Category (Q4 2023)
Source: DeFiLlama
Farm
$1.13B
CoinGecko 2023 Annual Crypto Industry Report
Bridges 2023 Q4 2023 Q3 QoQ % Change
WBTC $6.7B $4.4B 52.8%
JustCryptos $4.8B $3.1B 55.1%
Portal $1.0B $322M 211.0%
hBTC $425M $242M 75.7%
Stargate $330M $389M 15.3%
Multichain $177M $115M 54.0%
Axelar $168M $96M 75.5%
Synapse $114M $110M 3.3%
Across $104M $56M 85.2%
Celer cBridge $98M $88M 11.7%
Poly Network $97M $85M 13.6%
Hop Protocol $60M $59M 1.0%
33
2023 Cross-chain Bridge Liquidity
Liquidity has rebounded across most cross-chain platforms, led by a 211% TVL increase on the
Portal bridge as users flock back to Solana
Although WBTC has once again shown impressive growth of 52.8% from
$4.4B in 2023 Q3 to $6.7B in 2023 Q4, much of this is due to Bitcoin’s
56.5% price increase over the past quarter, indicating that the bridge
still saw a slight outflow in terms of assets. This is likely, given that the
rise of Inscriptions-based tokens may have shifted some liquidity back
to the Bitcoin network.
The revival of the Solana ecosystem has resulted in massive inflows
through the Portal bridge, pushing it into the top 3 with a 211%
increase in TVL from $322M in 2023 September to $1B by the end of
2023.
On the other hand, Stargate has lost 15.3% of its TVL over the past
quarter, as uncertainty around the launch date of LayerZero’s ZRO,
along with a thriving market environment for deploying capital, could
be driving airdrop farmers away to greener pastures.
With the resurgence of L2s and the Cosmos ecosystem in 2023 Q4,
bridges specializing in the former (Across) and the latter (Axelar) have
experienced significant inflows. Climbing through the ranks of the top
12 bridges, Across’ bridging protocol for L2s has nearly doubled its
TVL from $56M in 2023 Q3 to $104M in 2023 Q4.
Top 12 Bridges with Highest Liquidity (as of Jan 1, 2024)
Source: DeFiLlama
Total Cross-chain Bridge Liquidity
as of January 1, 2024
$14.0B
(+74.4%)
CoinGecko 2023 Annual Crypto Industry Report 34
2023 Highlights for DeFi
As price action continues to stagnate in 2023, DeFi is moving back to core fundamentals,
focusing on improving scalability and user experience
● GMX + other perps
● Layer Zero
● SushiXSwap
In 2021, food yield farms, which sometimes
promised up to millions in APY, have proven to
be unsustainable in the long run, with excessive
emissions of governance tokens with no inherent
value. As such, many projects are now placing
greater emphasis on ‘real yield’, generating
sustainable returns in the form of established
cryptocurrencies, such as ETH or stablecoins.
While decentralized perpetual protocols such
as GMX paved the way for real yield protocols in
2022, their popularity has been succeeded by
LSDs and LSDFi protocols in 2023, which
generate real returns through network staking.
With real-world interest rates reaching new highs
this year, Real World Assets (RWAs) also
became popular as an alternative method to
access TradFi returns. Not to be left out,
GambleFi platforms such as Rollbit, also offer
real yields to liquidity providers who act as the
‘house’, earning a cut of the platform’s earnings.
The Evolution of Real Yield
In 2023 June, Uniswap announced the v4 upgrade
of its platform, introducing ‘hooks’ that allow users
to add customized actions that trigger based on
actions within the liquidity pool, such as dynamic
fees and on-chain limit orders, with all pools running
under a single smart contract. But that’s not all, as
UniswapX, an intent-based swapping protocol, was
also released a month later, offering better prices,
gas-free cross-chain trades, and MEV protection.
In a nutshell, intents allow users to sign specific
parameters for transactions and outsource them to
solvers to be executed in the most efficient manner.
First popularized by CowSwap, the resurgence of
intent-based architecture has become a trending
topic in 2023. While intents are now used for on-
chain trade routing and cross-chain transfers/swaps,
projects such as Anoma, Essential and dappOS are
currently building general purpose intent-based
architecture, extending their use case beyond just
DEXs and bridges.
Reinventing DEXs
Although general purpose Layer-1s have become
the experimental playground for innovations in DeFi
and NFTs, developers are building blockchains with
specialized architecture are required to promote
further adoption of DeFi, capable of handling a high
amount of transactions quickly, at a fraction of the
cost. The launch of DeFi-focused networks such as
Sei and Injective offer a smoother and faster
experience for users through native matching
engines and decentralized orderbooks.
However, dApps don’t all have to be built on specific
networks, when they can operate as their own app-
chain. With dYdX completing its migration from
Ethereum into the standalone Cosmos-based dYdX
Chain, more protocols have since transitioned into
deploying their own app-chains or rollapps, which
leverage the security of underlying L1s/L2s. This
process is further simplified through Rollup-as-a-
Service (RaaS) providers such as Dymension,
Caldera and Conduit.
A Chain for Every dApp
CoinGecko 2023 Annual Crypto Industry Report 35
CoinGecko 2023 Annual Crypto Industry Report 36
NON-FUNGIBLE TOKENS (NFTs)
CoinGecko 2023 Annual Crypto Industry Report 37
2023 NFT Trading Volume across Top 10 Chains
NFT market showed signs of life in early 2023, but dropped off precipitously in Q2 and Q3,
before rebounding in Q4
$4.5B $2.7B $3.2B
Source: Dune Analytics (@hildobby, @domo, @ilemi) & Cryptoslam
*​Wash trading filters are applied for Ethereum, Polygon, Arbitrum
**Cardano has been excluded due to irregular trading behaviour
Volume $1.4B
$0.16B
$0.38B
$0.81B
$0.94B
$1.60B
$1.43B
$0.99B
$0.60B
$0.52B $0.50B
$0.36B
$0.21B $0.24B
$0.50B
$0.67B
$0.36B
$0.0B
$0.5B
$1.0B
$1.5B
$2.0B
$2.5B
Jan-23 Feb-23 Mar-23 Apr-23 May-23 Jun-23 Jul-23 Aug-23 Sep-23 Oct-23 Nov-23 Dec-23
Bitcoin Ethereum Solana Polygon Avalanche ImmutableX BNB Chain Flow Arbitrum Ronin
NFT trading volume across the top 10
chains amounted to $11.8 billion in 2023.
However, this figure is still less than half of
the NFT trading volume in 2022, which
reached $26.3 billion across the top 8 chains.
+79.9%
Increase in Trading Volume
from January 2023
Ethereum-based NFTs continue to be the
main NFT chain in 2023, capturing 72.3% of
trading volume. However compared to its
dominance of over 90% in 2022, it has clearly
lost market share to Bitcoin and Solana.
Solana made an impressive comeback in
2023, with trading volumes increasing by 4
times, from $73M in January to $359M in
December 2023. Mad Lads and Tensorians
were the most popular collections.
Bitcoin surpassed Ethereum in NFT
trading volume in December, with $808M in
trading volume. This can be attributed to the
introduction of Ordinals earlier this year,
which regained popularity in November.
Top 10 Chains for NFT Trading Volume (2023)
CoinGecko 2023 Annual Crypto Industry Report
$0.31B
$0.68B
$0.35B
$1.12B
$1.01B
$0.66B
$0.38B $0.33B $0.33B
$0.23B
$0.12B $0.13B
$0.33B
$0.48B
$0.22B
$0.19B
$0.44B
$0.51B
$0.35B
$0.29B
$0.18B
$0.16B $0.13B
$0.11B
$0.08B $0.09B
$0.13B
$0.16B
$0.09B
$0.0B
$0.5B
$1.0B
$1.5B
$2.0B
$2.5B
Jan-23 Feb-23 Mar-23 Apr-23 May-23 Jun-23 Jul-23 Aug-23 Sep-23 Oct-23 Nov-23 Dec-23
OKX Blur Tensor Trade Magic Eden OpenSea Unisat X2Y2 CryptoPunks Ordinals Wallet LooksRare
38
2023 NFT Platform Trading Volume
While Blur has been dominant for most of 2023, the introduction of Bitcoin Ordinals and
Solana’s comeback has allowed many new NFT marketplaces to capture market share
$4.2B $2.5B $3.1B
Blur is the leading NFT marketplace in
2023, capturing 49.6% of trading volume.
Blur dethroned OpenSea as the top NFT
marketplace in Q1. The marketplace
enabling traders to opt-out of paying
royalties, as well as launching a lucrative
airdrop campaign, while OpenSea stood firm
on their stance to enforce royalties.
However, Blur has also since progressively
lost market share, in line with the decline in
NFT trading volume on Ethereum in 2023.
OKX has established itself as the leading
Bitcoin Ordinals marketplace, and recorded
the most trading volume amongst all NFT
marketplaces in December. This can be
attributed to increased excitement
surrounding Ordinals after Binance
announced its listing of $ORDI.
Magic Eden, Unisat and Ordinals Wallet are
the other main Ordinals marketplaces.
Source: Dune Analytics (@hildobby, @domo, @ilemi)
*OpenSea volumes include Ethereum, Polygon & Arbitrum; MagicEden volumes include Solana, Bitcoin and Polygon
**Trading Volume is credited to the aggregator (Blur, OpenSeaPro) if the trade was aggregated
***ImmutableX marketplaces are excluded due to difficulty in obtaining data
Volume $1.2B
Tensor Trade, dubbed the ‘Blur of Solana’,
rose in ranks to become the third largest
NFT marketplace in December 2023 on the
back of the Solana NFT comeback, capturing
11.7% of NFT trading volume.
Top 10 NFT Marketplaces (Jan – Dec 2023)
CoinGecko 2023 Annual Crypto Industry Report 39
2023 NFT Lending
NFT lending surged with the introduction of Blend in 2023, but still only plays a small role within
the overall NFT market
Top 6 NFT lending platforms recorded a total of $1.5B in loan
volume in 2023 Q4, representing a 20.8% increase QoQ.
Source: Dune Analytics (@beetle, @ahkek, @arcade_xyz, @nftfi-team)
Top 6 NFT Lending Platform Loan Volume (Jan – Dec 2023)
$230M $1,368M $1,484M
Volume $1,229M
$346M
$786M
$501M
$351M
$284M $302M
$500M
$552M
$39M
$36M
$0M
$100M
$200M
$300M
$400M
$500M
$600M
$700M
$800M
$900M
Jan-23 Feb-23 Mar-23 Apr-23 May-23 Jun-23 Jul-23 Aug-23 Sep-23 Oct-23 Nov-23 Dec-23
Blend ParaX (Parallel.fi) Arcade NFTfi X2Y2 BendDAO
Bored Apes and Azukis made up 50.6% of all loans on Blend
thus far, equating to $1.8B in borrowed funds. Loan origination
from Pudgy Penguins increased by 211.2% QoQ, from $81M
in Q3 to $252M in Q4. This could be due to traders looking to
make leveraged bets on Pudgys in anticipation for a price
surge, where the price increase is higher than the interest on
loan.
32.5%
18.1%
14.6%
11.4%
7.0%
6.0%
5.0%
Bored Ape Yacht Club
Azuki
MutantApeYachtClub
DeGods
PudgyPenguins
Wrapped Cryptopunks
Milady
Bored Ape Kennel Club
CloneX
BEANZ Official
Others
Loan Origination Volume on Blend (by Collection)
Blend maintained its position as the leading NFT lending
platform, capturing $552M or 92.3% of NFT lending volume in
December 2023.
CoinGecko 2023 Annual Crypto Industry Report 40
2023 Highlights for NFT
A challenging year for NFTs resulted in drastic changes within the sector such as the removal of
creator royalties, and challenging sub-collection launches for so called “blue chip” projects
The "Royalty Wars" came to the fore in the early part
of 2023, as marketplaces such as Blur and OpenSea
fought to become the dominant NFT marketplace.
Launched in October 2022, Blur allowed traders to
pay optional royalties, enabling traders to speculate
on NFTs without feeling the pinch of royalty fees. It
also temporarily eradicated royalties, before
transitioning to a 0.5% royalty model later on.
OpenSea responded by introducing an operator filter
registry to allow creators to blacklist marketplaces
which did not enforce royalties, but faced setbacks
when a loophole was discovered by Blur in January,
leading them to eventually give in and revert to
optional royalties in February. In the midst of this,
many other NFT marketplaces also initially took the
stance to protecting creator income, but later also
reverted to optional royalties.
This caused effective royalty rates to continue
to trend down, ranging from 0% to 1% in 2023.
Pudgy Penguins Comeback – A flightless bird at the
beginning of the year, Pudgy Penguins returned to
the spotlight under the renewed leadership of Luca
Netz by pivoting towards physical toys.
Azuki Fumbles – In June 2023, Azuki released a
second collection called Elementals. Unfortunately,
this new collection looked very similar to the original
collection, leading to backlash from the community
and many long term holders to exit the project.
DeGods Migrates from Solana to Ethereum – A
gamble that did not pay off. Solana's comeback in
2023 revived interest in its ecosystem and NFTs, but
the former Solana NFT project missed the boat.
Mad Lads Ascend – This PFP collection, created by
Armani Ferrante who also founded Solana Backpack,
has established itself as one of the blue-chips on
Solana, benefiting from numerous airdrops and
partnerships as the Solana ecosystem makes a
comeback.
NFTFi attempts to solve for two of the main
challenges of NFTs, namely price discovery and
liquidity. While it initially started with NFT lending
protocols, the space has continued to innovate and
now houses NFT perpetuals as well.
NFT lending received a significant jolt of interest in
2023 with the launch of Blend in May 2023. This
catapulted the NFT lending market by 309.5%, from
$102M in April to $418M in May 2023. While it has
seen growth, there are still significant limitations in
terms of the collections that are able to participate in
these activities.
Similar in concept to DeFi token perpetuals, NFT
perpetuals offered by protocols such as NFTPerp and
NFEX are perpetual contracts that track the floor
price of NFT collections. This allows traders to
speculate on the value of specific NFT collections,
without actually having to own the NFT itself.
Proponents claim these contracts allow for better
price discovery for NFT collections.
A Year of Ups for Some and Downs for Others NFTFi
Royalty Wars – To Enforce Or Not?
CoinGecko 2023 Annual Crypto Industry Report 41
2023 Highlights for GameFi
While yield farming has become one of the more
popular activities for DeFi users, it seems that the
same is true for GameFi enthusiasts, as farming or
mining games continue to dominate the blockchain
gaming space, with games such as Pixels and
Farmers World racking up over 175K daily active
players combined.
Akin to a gamified form of yield farming, farming or
mining game allow players to use NFTs to mine or
farm resources for a specific duration. Players will
then have to use their resources efficiently to
increase their mining output and token rewards.
However, farming games have very simple gameplay
and requires little input from actual human players,
creating an environment where bots thrive. With
users able to create and control thousands of bots,
this can dilute token rewards for real players and
discourage new ones from entering the game. As
such, this genre’s developers will need to go the
extra mile to effectively combat these practices.
At the end of the last Play-to-Earn wave, Ronin was a
very new network that had become the home of Axie
Infinity. Fast forward to 2023, Ronin has grown into a
robust ecosystem of games, with titles such as Zoids
Wild Arena and Pixels migrating over. The resurgence
of the Ronin network has caused the price of RON
to surge by 7x from $0.26 at the start of 2023 to
$1.85 at the end of 2023.
With the rising popularity of networks catering
specifically to blockchain games, DAOs such as
Merit Circle and Ancient8 have also launched their
own gaming chains, Beam and the Ancient8 Chain.
Although the Ancient8 Chain is still on the testnet,
Beam is currently lives on Avalanche as a subnet.
While these gaming chains require their native token
or ETH to perform transactions, 2023 has shown that
gasless blockchains such as Skale and Wax
continue to attract plenty of crypto gamers. Gamers
make up 88% of all users on these two blockchains,
with over 100K players on each respective network.
During the 2021 GameFi Wave, developers raised
heavy investments on the promise of delivering AAA-
quality blockchain games with modern gameplay and
sustainable tokenomics. While some communities
were still waiting for these promises to be delivered
in 2023, a handful of these projects are now
playable and are close to completion.
We’ve seen titles such as Parallel and Big Time being
opened to wider audiences, and achieving some
success at that, as reflected by the price action of
their respective tokens. From their initial launch at
$0.13 in October 2023, Big Time’s BIGTIME token
has increased by 269% to $0.44 at the end of last
year, while Parallel’s PRIME token has risen by 150%.
Meanwhile, teams that have delivered in the past are
now looking to capture lightning twice. The creators
of STEPN, the key driver behind the Move-to-Earn
hype in early 2022, are looking to release their latest
title, Gas Hero, with an emphasis on better token
sinks and conservative emissions.
The GameFi space is still full of activity in 2023, as existing projects continue to develop new
games and infrastructure to support the next generation of gamers.
Gaming Chains & Gasless Chains Open For Testing
It’s Just Honest Work … Or Not?
CoinGecko 2023 Annual Crypto Industry Report 42
EXCHANGES
CoinGecko 2023 Annual Crypto Industry Report 43
2023 Top Cryptocurrency Exchanges Trading Volume
Trading volume rose +53.1% in 2023 Q4 to $10.3T, marking its first QoQ increase
Source: CoinGecko
Total Trading Volume ($ Trillion)
Crypto closed out 2023 with total trading
volume increasing 53.1% from Q3 to Q4,
the first QoQ increase for the year.
Trading volume climbed sharply in
December to $4.3T, with market sentiment
swinging bullish in anticipation of BTC ETFs.
+53.1%
Top Crypto Exchanges
Trading Volume Increase In
2023 Q4
The ratio of CEX : DEX spot trading volume
hovered around 91.5% in Q4, similar to Q3.
Meanwhile, CEX : DEX derivatives trading
volume ratio dropped to 97.3% from 98.5%.
Overall in 2023, CEX : DEX spot ratio stood at
91.4% while CEX : DEX derivatives ratio was
98.1%.
CEX’s dominated the year despite the fall of
FTX last year, and FUD surrounding Binance
throughout 2023.
Top Cryptocurrency Exchanges Trading Volume (2023)
Trading
Volume
$3.2T $2.6T $2.8T $2.7T $2.2T $1.8T
$3.1T $3.4T $4.3T $2.5T $3.5T $4.3T
$2.30T $2.48T
$3.25T
$2.58T
$2.13T $2.29T $2.17T
$1.76T
$1.45T
$1.91T
$2.58T
$3.15T
$0.73T
$0.83T
$0.91T
$0.56T
$0.41T
$0.45T
$0.44T
$0.38T
$0.30T
$0.46T
$0.76T
$0.98T
$0.0T
$0.5T
$1.0T
$1.5T
$2.0T
$2.5T
$3.0T
$3.5T
$4.0T
$4.5T
$5.0T
Jan-23 Feb-23 Mar-23 Apr-23 May-23 Jun-23 Jul-23 Aug-23 Sep-23 Oct-23 Nov-23 Dec-23
Top 10 Perpetual CEX Top 10 Perpetual DEX Top 10 Spot CEX Top 10 Spot DEX
CoinGecko 2023 Annual Crypto Industry Report 44
2023 Top 10 Spot Centralized Exchanges (CEX) Trading Volume
Binance’s dominance over the Top 10 Spot CEXes dropped to a yearly low of 41% in November,
but managed to remain on top in 2023 Q4
Total Trading Volume ($ Trillion)
Source: CoinGecko
Market
Share
$0.6T $0.4T $0.5T $0.4T $0.4T $0.3T
$0.7T $0.8T $0.9T $0.5T $0.8T $1.0T
64% 65% 61%
53% 54% 52% 49% 51%
45% 43% 41% 44%
9% 9%
7%
10% 6% 8% 13% 8%
12% 12%
12% 9%
5% 5%
6%
6%
7% 7% 7%
6%
6% 7% 8% 9%
4% 5% 5%
6%
7% 8% 8% 8%
7% 5%
5%
6% 6% 7% 7%
7% 7% 7% 7%
7%
5% 5%
5%
6% 6% 4% 4% 5% 6% 6%
6%
8% 8% 7% 6%
0%
10%
20%
30%
40%
50%
60%
70%
80%
90%
100%
Jan-23 Feb-23 Mar-23 Apr-23 May-23 Jun-23 Jul-23 Aug-23 Sep-23 Oct-23 Nov-23 Dec-23
Binance Upbit OKX Bybit Coinbase MEXC HTX Gate KuCoin Bitget
Top 10 CEXes recorded $2.20T in spot
trading volume in 2023 Q4, after trading
below $2T for two consecutive quarters. This
represents a +98.1% increase QoQ.
+98.1%
Top 10 Spot CEX Total
Trading Volume Increase in
2023 Q4
Binance remained the dominant spot CEX,
but has continued to lose market share
through out 2023. Its market share fell to a
yearly low of 41% in November, coinciding
with its settlement with the US authorities for
$4.3B and CZ’s resignation.
All Top 10 CEXes grew in Q4, with MEXC
growing the most at 203.7% ($90.4B). This
was followed by Bybit, which grew 162.1%
($107.5B,) and KuCoin with 161.2% ($49.2B).
KuCoin regained its spot in the Top 10 in Q4
after losing it in Q3, edging out Kraken.
Top 10 Spot CEX Trading Volume Breakdown (2023)
In total, Top 10 CEXes recorded $7.2T in
trading volume in 2023 compared to $9.4T in
2022, a -23.4% YoY decline.
CoinGecko 2023 Annual Crypto Industry Report 45
2023 Top 10 Spot Decentralized Exchanges (DEX) Trading Volume
Top 10 Spot DEXes trading volume increased +87.1% in 2023 Q4, with Orca and THORSwap
leading the charge
Source: CoinGecko
Total Trading Volume ($ Billion)
$57B $48B $47B $42B $36B $32B
$59B $60B $94B $44B $72B $90B
Market
Share
63% 67%
72%
64%
69%
63% 61%
57%
63%
56% 57%
51%
5%
8%
6%
12%
13%
9%
8%
9%
10%
11% 12%
12%
11%
14%
8%
9% 10%
6%
11% 13%
14%
8%
7%
6% 6%
5%
7% 5%
5%
5% 6%
7% 5% 5% 8% 6%
7% 5%
0%
10%
20%
30%
40%
50%
60%
70%
80%
90%
100%
Jan-23 Feb-23 Mar-23 Apr-23 May-23 Jun-23 Jul-23 Aug-23 Sep-23 Oct-23 Nov-23 Dec-23
Uniswap Pancakeswap Orca Curve THORSwap TraderJoe Maverick Dodo Quickswap Balancer
Top 10 DEXs recorded a total of $205.3B in
spot trading volume in 2023 Q4,
representing an 87.1% increase QoQ.
+87.1%
Top 10 Spot DEXes Total
Trading Volume Increase in
2023 Q4
Orca was the biggest gainer amongst the
DEXes in Q4, rising 1,079.0% ($12.2B), and
now ranks third with a 11% market share.
This sharp rise in trading volume can be
attributed to the uptick in interest in Solana.
THORSwap, a cross-chain DEX, also saw a
surge in trading volume to end Q4 with
$12.5B. This is an increase of 422.4% ($10.1B)
QoQ.
Safeguards have since been implemented in
order to stem illicit transactions on the
platform.
Top 10 DEX Trading Volume Breakdown (2023)
CoinGecko 2023 Annual Crypto Industry Report 46
2023 Spot DEX Trading Volume Breakdown by Chain
Ethereum’s share of trading volume dropped to a low of 41% in December, but remains ahead
of the competition as Arbitrum showed steady growth, while Solana surged at the end of 2023
Source: CoinGecko
Market
Share
Total Trading Volume ($ Billion)
79%
70% 70%
51%
61% 61%
66%
59%
64%
57%
48%
41%
4%
9%
13%
26%
16% 18%
15%
11%
12%
14%
15%
14%
6%
8%
6%
12% 13% 10% 8%
17% 10%
10%
11%
11%
6%
14%
5% 7% 5%
8%
5% 6% 5%
0%
10%
20%
30%
40%
50%
60%
70%
80%
90%
100%
Jan-23 Feb-23 Mar-23 Apr-23 May-23 Jun-23 Jul-23 Aug-23 Sep-23 Oct-23 Nov-23 Dec-23
Ethereum Arbitrum BSC Solana THORChain Polygon Avalanche zkSync Optimism Base
$57B $48B $47B $42B $36B $32B
$59B $60B $94B $44B $72B $90B
Spot DEX Trading Volume Breakdown by Chain (2023)
Solana was the largest gainer in Q4, rising
a whopping 985.5% QoQ. Its share of
trading volume has increased from 6% to
14%
THORChain was the second largest gainer,
with its trading volume increasing 422.4% in
Q4. The two chains now rank #3 and #5
respectively in December 2023.
While BSC remained #3 in Q4 overall, it was
overtaken in December by Solana. This is the
second instance BSC has dropped in rank,
after being overtaken by Arbitrum in Q1.
Arbitrum too is being challenged by
Solana. Both chains ended December with
almost equal 14% market share.
Ethereum captured $99.3B of DEX trading
volume in 2023 Q4. This is an increase of
+38.3% from 2023 Q3, where it had $71.8B
in trading volume.
Despite the increase in trading volume in Q4,
its dominance has dropped below 50% for
the first time in 2023 in November and
December, eding the year at a low of 41% as
other chains caught up.
CoinGecko 2023 Annual Crypto Industry Report
53% 54% 54% 52% 51% 51% 51% 47% 46% 46% 47% 48%
14% 15% 16% 16% 16% 17% 17%
18% 18% 19% 19% 19%
13% 12% 12% 12% 11% 11% 11%
12% 13% 14% 15% 14%
9% 8% 8% 8% 9% 9% 9% 10% 9% 7% 7% 8%
3% 4% 4% 4% 5% 5% 4% 5% 6% 6% 5% 3%
0%
10%
20%
30%
40%
50%
60%
70%
80%
90%
100%
Jan-23 Feb-23 Mar-23 Apr-23 May-23 Jun-23 Jul-23 Aug-23 Sep-23 Oct-23 Nov-23 Dec-23
Binance OKX Bybit Bitget MEXC KuCoin Gate.io HTX Deribit BitMEX
47
2023 Top 10 Centralized Perpetual Exchanges Trading Volume
Total trading volume on perpetual CEXes more than doubled in 2023 compared to 2022, a
clear sign of market recovery, though it still lags volumes in 2021
Source: CoinGecko
Total Trading Volume ($ Trillion)
$2.6T $2.1T $2.3T
$2.3T $2.5T $3.2T
Market
Share
$2.2T $1.8T $1.4T $1.9T $2.6T $3.1T
Top 10 Centralized Perpetual Exchanges Trading Volume (2023)
Volumes on Top 10 Perpetual CEXes
experienced a strong recovery from $5.4T in
Q3 to $7.6T in Q4. It was the second most
active quarter in 2023, behind Q1.
+42.1%
Top 10 Centralized Perpetual
Exchanges Trading Volume
Increase in 2023 Q4
Similar to the spot CEX market, Binance has
managed to hang on to its market share
despite news of its DoJ settlement, and
remain the largest perpetual CEX. OKX and
Bybit also solidified their position at #2 and
#3 respectively.
In contrast with the spot CEX market, total
trading volume on Top 10 Perpetual CEXes
was $28T in 2023, more than double the
total volume in 2022 of $11T, a clear sign of
recovery of the perpetuals market. However
it still lags 2021 bull market volumes, where
Binance alone recorded $24T in perpetuals
volume.
CoinGecko 2023 Annual Crypto Industry Report
$0B
$5B
$10B
$15B
$20B
$25B
$30B
$35B
$40B
Jan-23 Feb-23 Mar-23 Apr-23 May-23 Jun-23 Jul-23 Aug-23 Sep-23 Oct-23 Nov-23 Dec-23
Binance Bybit OKX Bitget KuCoin MEXC Deribit Gate.io BitMEX HTX
48
2023 Top 10 Centralized Perpetual Exchanges Open Interest
Total Open Interest have now surged to above $30B, its highest point in the past two years;
Share of OI has consolidated to the Top 3 exchanges Binance, Bybit and OKX
Source: CoinGecko
Binance: 35%
Bybit 22%
OKX: 12%
Bitget: 9%
KuCoin: 6%
MEXC: 4%
Deribit: 5%
Gate.io: 4%
BitMEX: 1%
HTX 1%
Open
Interest
Top 10 Centralized Perpetual Exchanges Open Interest (2023)
Similar to trading volume, open interest (OI)
on Top 10 Perpetual CEXes also saw a surge
in Q4, rising to its highest point of the year at
$36.7B on December 5. Total OI closed out
the year at $32.9B, a level also higher than
any point in 2022.
+48.4%
Top 10 Centralized Perpetual
Exchanges OI Increase from
Oct 1, 2023 to Dec 31, 2023
Majority of OI amongst Top 10 Perpetual
CEXes are now concentrated between the
Top 3 exchanges Binance, Bybit, and OKX,
with ~70% share of OI at the end of 2023
compared to ~55% at the start of the year.
Strong interest in the US BTC Spot ETF have
also caused a surge in OI for BTC Futures
Contracts on TradFi Derivatives Exchange
CME, leading the OI of BTC perpetual
contracts on all Perpetual CEXes in Q4.
CoinGecko 2023 Annual Crypto Industry Report 49
2023 Top 10 Decentralized Perpetual Protocols Trading Volume
While dYdX remain dominant, it is now facing significant competition from an array of new
challengers in the decentralized perpetuals market which is fast expanding in Q4
Total Trading Volume ($ Billion)
Market
Share
Source: CoinGecko, Dune Analytics (@gmx-io,@shogun, @gains, @dragonburnz)
$56B $40B $55B
$49B $53B $77B $41B $31B $29B $52B $83B $80B
Top 10 Decentralized Perpetual Protocols Trading Volume (2023)
Similar to Perpetual CEXes, Perpetual
Protocols also saw a strong recovery in
volume, reaching $215B in Q4 compared to
$102B in Q3.
+47.4%
Top 10 Decentralized
Perpetual Protocols Trading
Volume Increase in 2023 Q4
While Kwenta had a strong showing in Q2,
the second half of the year saw the
emergence of new contenders Vertex,
Hyperliquid, RabbitX and ApeX Pro.
While dYdX has retained its leading
position in 2023 even after its migration to
the Cosmos ecosystem at end-October, its
market share has shrunk significantly from
73% in January to 37% in December due to
intense competition. However this is more
an “expansion of the pie” phenomenon.
73%
67% 68%
55% 52%
64%
59%
54%
61%
50%
43%
37%
5%
10%
11%
5%
6%
8%
14% 22%
11%
11%
14%
15% 14%
18%
12%
10%
7% 8%
6% 7%
7%
10%
5% 7%
6% 6%
5%
7%
12%
7%
11% 9%
6% 7%
6% 5%
7%
7% 5%
5%
6%
6% 6% 6%
5% 5%
5% 5%
12% 9%
5% 5%
0%
10%
20%
30%
40%
50%
60%
70%
80%
90%
100%
Jan-23 Feb-23 Mar-23 Apr-23 May-23 Jun-23 Jul-23 Aug-23 Sep-23 Oct-23 Nov-23 Dec-23
dYdX RabbitX Vertex Hyperliquid GMX ApeX Pro Kwenta Gains Network HMX Level Finance
GMX also reported a rebound in volumes
in Q4 due to its participation in the Arbitrum
STIP program.
CoinGecko 2023 Annual Crypto Industry Report
$0M
$100M
$200M
$300M
$400M
$500M
$600M
$700M
$800M
$900M
$1,000M
$1,100M
$1,200M
Jan-23 Feb-23 Mar-23 Apr-23 May-23 Jun-23 Jul-23 Aug-23 Sep-23 Oct-23 Nov-23 Dec-23
dYdX GMX Kwenta Hyperliquid ApeX Pro HMX Vertex RabbitX Gains Network Level Finance
50
2023 Top 10 Decentralized Perpetual Protocols Open Interest
OI on decentralized perpetual protocols more than doubled in 2023 to reach above $1B, helped
by the entrance of new contenders to the market and bullish market sentiment
Open
Interest
Source: CoinGecko, Dune Analytics (@gmx-io, @gunboats, @unionepro, @levelfinance)
dYdX: 34%
GMX: 27%
Kwenta: 14%
Hyperliquid: 7%
ApeX Pro: 7%
HMX: 4%
Vertex: 3%
RabbitX: 2%
Gains: 2%
Level: 0.2%
Similar to Perpetual CEXes, OI on Top 10
Perpetual Protocols also saw an increase to
$1.04B by the end the year, representing a
+41.5% increase QoQ, and a +123%
increase for the year.
However this is still below historical levels.
Even back in 2022 April, dYdX alone recorded
$1B in OI.
+57.4%
Top 10 Decentralized Perpetual
Protocols OI Increase from
Oct 1, 2023 to Dec 31, 2023
Kwenta has seen steady increase in its
share of OI through out the entire year,
ending the year with 14% share of OI. Other
challengers (Hyperliquid, ApeX Pro, HMX,
Vertex, RabbitX) have much less share of OI,
despite garnering a larger share of volumes.
Despite a year where its total OI was stable
around $300M, dYdX’s lead in share of OI has
declined from 56% at the start of the year to
34% by the end.
Top 10 Decentralized Perpetual Protocols Open Interest (2023)
CoinGecko 2023 Annual Crypto Industry Report
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2023 Annual Crypto Industry Report | CoinGecko

  • 1. CoinGecko 2023 Annual Crypto Industry Report
  • 2. CoinGecko 2023 Annual Crypto Industry Report DeFi Analysis - 2023 DeFi Overview - 2023 DeFi vs TradFi Returns - 2023 DeFi Multichain Market Share - 2023 DeFi Ecosystem Overview - 2023 Cross-chain Bridge Liquidity - 2023 Highlights for DeFi 28 1 Table of Contents Analysts: Market Landscape - 2023 Spot Market Overview - 2023 Crypto Dominance - 2023 Cryptocurrency Price Returns - 2023 Top 15 Stablecoins Overview - 2023 Total Crypto Market Cap & Bitcoin vs. S&P 500 - 2023 Trending Categories - 2023 Notable Events Timeline - 2023 Notable Bugs And Exploits 3 Founders’ Note 2 Non-Fungible Tokens (NFTs) - 2023 NFT Trading Volume across Top 8 Chains - 2023 NFT Platform Trading Volumes - 2023 NFT Lending - 2023 Highlights for NFT - 2023 Highlights for GameFi 36 Bitcoin Analysis - 2023 Bitcoin Price vs. Trading Volume - 2023 Bitcoin Mining Hash Rate - 2023 Bitcoin vs. Major Asset Classes Price Returns - Inscriptions 13 Exchanges - 2023 Top Crypto Exchange Trading Volumes - 2023 Top 10 Spot Centralized Exchanges (CEX) ​Trading Volume - 2023 Top 10 Spot Decentralized Exchanges (DEX) ​Trading Volume - 2023 Spot DEX Trading Volume Breakdown by Chain - 2023 Top 10 Centralized Perpetual Exchanges Trading Volume - 2023 Top 10 Centralized Perpetual Exchanges Open Interest - 2023 Top 10 Decentralized Perpetual Protocols Trading Volume - 2023 Top 10 Decentralized Perpetual Protocols Open Interest 42 Ethereum Analysis - 2023 Ethereum Price vs. Trading Volume - 2023 Ethereum Consensus Layer Staking - 2023 Ethereum Burn Rate - 2023 Layer 2 Adoption 18 Shaun Lee Weng Dee Nicholas Boey Win Win Zhong Solana Analysis - 2023 Solana Price vs. Trading Volume - 2023 Growth in Solana Onchain Metrices - 2023 Solana Highlights 23
  • 3. CoinGecko 2023 Annual Crypto Industry Report 2 Founders’ Note Bobby Ong COO TM Lee CEO The summary for 2023 Q4 could just be “anticipation over ETFs sends crypto market into frenzy”, as market sentiment turned more bullish with every new report that we’re getting closer to having US spot Bitcoin ETFs approved. In Q4 alone, the total crypto market cap rose by 55% from $1.1T to $1.6T, with the price of Bitcoin catapulting from $27k to $42k. Across the entire 2023, the total crypto market cap has more than doubled from $832B at the beginning of the year, led by Bitcoin’s (2.6x) meteoric resurgence. After the drama and doldrums of 2022, it’s safe to say 2023 has been a strong year of recovery for the industry. A lookback at the notable events of the year showed crypto’s many tussles with law enforcement. There were plenty of lawsuits, arrests, convictions, settlements and bankruptcy proceedings in 2023, bookended by Binance’s $4.3B settlement with the US authorities in November. Nonetheless with most of these cases resolved or close to it, hopefully we can finally turn the page on the sins of the last cycle… … because there’s plenty to be excited about within crypto these days as new exciting developments come to the fore! Projects have been building throughout the bear market, and are now showcasing the fruits of their labors. The Ethereum and EVM ecosystem saw an explosion of Layer 2s looking to scale the world computer. While we started with just optimistic or zero-knowledge based rollups, new technical innovations have introduced further possibilities such as modularization and parallelization, giving greater choice to users and developers. While the infrastructure continues to progress, the focus now shifts to building out dApps that can onboard the next wave of users to crypto. After largely being written off post-FTX collapse, the Solana ecosystem has risen from the ashes in 2023 to mount a strong challenge against EVM dominance. Upgrades have improved the stability of the base network, and its projects are now showcasing the advantages of a highly performant monolithic chain with cheap fees. Long-term users are also being rewarded with airdrops from ecosystem projects, drawing in even more attention and activity. Solana has a lot of momentum going into 2024, and it’ll be interesting to see how the teams channel it to building a sustainable ecosystem and community. We cycle back to Bitcoin because other than the ETF story, it’s been hard to ignore the creation of Inscriptions, first pioneered by Ordinals, but have now proliferated into a bunch of different technical standards for issuing fungible tokens and NFTs. While we have not seen much utility from these projects yet, this new innovation has definitely made the Bitcoin blockchain a richer ecosystem (and also enriching miners in the process). Inscriptions have also re- ignited the conversation around scaling Bitcoin, with drivechains and richer Layer 2s now being actively discussed. Unfortunately not everything was a bed of roses. The NFT market took a massive hit this year, suffering in terms of both floor price and trading volumes. Many so-called blue chip collections failed to hang on to their valuations, and have had to pivot or drastically scale back their ambitions. With positivity returning to crypto, hopefully this will spur more activity that expands the possibilities of use cases built on NFTs. On the CoinGecko end, we remain laser-focused on delivering our goals across our main product lines - CoinGecko, GeckoTerminal, and API. 2024 is looking bullish thus far, and we can’t wait to share more of what we have been working on in the near future. Onwards and upwards!
  • 4. CoinGecko 2023 Annual Crypto Industry Report MARKET LANDSCAPE 3
  • 5. CoinGecko 2023 Annual Crypto Industry Report $0B $50B $100B $150B $200B $250B $300B $350B $400B $0.0T $0.2T $0.4T $0.6T $0.8T $1.0T $1.2T $1.4T $1.6T $1.8T $2.0T Jan-23 Feb-23 Mar-23 Apr-23 May-23 Jun-23 Jul-23 Aug-23 Sep-23 Oct-23 Nov-23 Dec-23 Total Volume Traded Total Market Cap Trendline (Total Market Cap) 4 2023 Spot Market Overview Total crypto market cap more than doubled in 2023 from $829B to $1.72T, with 70% of the gains coming in Q4 Market Cap Total crypto market cap has climbed by 108% (+$869B) in 2023, despite earlier expectations of challenging macroeconomic conditions. In 2023 Q4 alone, total crypto market cap increased by +54.3%, or $607B in absolute terms. Average trading volume in Q4 stood at $75.1B, a 91.9% QoQ increase. However, overall trading volume for 2023 sat at $58.9B, a -31.6% decrease compared to 2022. Source: CoinGecko Total Market Cap & Spot Trading Volume (2023) Trading Volume $829B Notable moves within the Top 30 cryptos in 2023 Q4 include SOL which climbed from #7 to #5 (from #18 as at end-2022) and AVAX from #22 to #9. ICP reentered the Top 30 at #16 after falling out in Q3, while new entrants of 2023 include NEAR (#23), OP (#26), and INJ (#30) replacing HBAR, BUSD, XMR, and TUSD. +108.1% Total Market Cap Change in 2023 $1.72T $1.12T
  • 6. CoinGecko 2023 Annual Crypto Industry Report 5 2023 Crypto Dominance Bitcoin dominance spiked by 9.2% in 2023 to 47.8%, while stablecoins USDT and USDC lost the most market share amongst the top 7 cryptos Bitcoin dominance has soared in 2023, climbing from 38.6% to 47.8% as it grabbed the attention of investors, with other majors (except Solana) suffering as a result. Against a growing crypto market, the drop in USDT (-2.7%) and USDC (-4.0%) dominance signals also the inflow of fiat currency into the market. Source: CoinGecko 15.9% 1.5% 5.3% 2.7% 1.4% 4.0% 2.8% 2.0% 2.5% 2.1% 2.0% 0.2% 22.2% 0.3% 47.8% 9.2% Aside from Bitcoin, Solana also saw a notable increase in dominance from 0.4% to 2.5% in 2023, surpassing XRP and USDC at #5 and #6 respectively. 0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 70% 80% 90% 100% Jan-23 Feb-23 Mar-23 Apr-23 May-23 Jun-23 Jul-23 Aug-23 Sep-23 Oct-23 Nov-23 Dec-23 BTC ETH USDT BNB SOL XRP USDC Others Crypto Dominance (2023)
  • 7. CoinGecko 2023 Annual Crypto Industry Report 6 2023 Cryptocurrencies Price Returns​ Cryptocurrencies saw green across the board in 2023 as the BTC rally lifted the collective crypto market - SOL, INJ, LEO, and IMX were the standout performers in their respective categories 4 out of the top 5 P2E tokens – SAND (+55%), AXS (+46%), MANA (+74%), and GALA (+82%) – also underperformed BTC, except for IMX which posted a 454% gain in 2023. Outside the top 5, notable climbers include WEMIX, RON, and BEAM which posted returns of +594%, +601%, and +256% respectively. Among the top 5 cryptocurrencies, SOL was the top performer in Q4 with a 374% gain, ending 2023 overall with a 10x price increase. BTC followed as the far second with a 155% gain in 2023, outperforming ETH (+91%), XRP (+80%), and BNB (+27%). Within the top 10 by market cap, AVAX also outperformed BTC with a 254% gain in 2023. Source: CoinGecko All top 5 exchange tokens – BNB (+27%), OKB (+10%), LEO (+111%), CRO (+77%), and KCS (+59%) – saw positive returns in 2023, but none managed to outperform BTC. WOO at #9 by CEX token market cap saw returns of +230%, outperforming both BTC and the top 5 CEX tokens. INJ stole the show in 2023 with a 28x move, breaking it into the top 5 DeFi cryptos for the first time. This is followed by GRT (+231%), LDO (+177%), LINK (+168%), and UNI (+40%), making DeFi a comparatively stronger category as only UNI had underperformed BTC by 2023-end. Outside the top 5. RUNE (+300%) and MKR (+230%) also recorded significant gains in 2023.
  • 8. CoinGecko 2023 Annual Crypto Industry Report $0B $20B $40B $60B $80B $100B $120B $140B Jan-23 Feb-23 Mar-23 Apr-23 May-23 Jun-23 Jul-23 Aug-23 Sep-23 Oct-23 Nov-23 Dec-23 USDT USDC DAI TUSD FDUSD BUSD Others Market Cap 7 2023 Top 15 Stablecoins Overview USDT solidifies its position as the top stablecoin with its dominance climbing from 49% to 71% in 2023 Source: CoinGecko $91.7B +$25.5B (+38.5%) $24.5B -$20.0B (-45.0%) $5.2B +$0.2B (+3.3%) $2.3B +$1.5B (+204.8%) $1.8B +$1.8B (+590.3%) Outside of BUSD, USDC saw the largest loss with a 45% decline or $20B in absolute terms, suffering from a loss of confidence since its temporary depeg during the US banking crisis in 2023 March. USDT was the main beneficiary of this, gaining $25.5B (+38.5%) in market cap and a whopping 22% in market share in 2023. Top 15 stablecoins market cap declined by 11.3% by end-Q3, before climbing 7.1% in Q4 to end 2023 with a 5% decline overall. With the phase-out of BUSD almost complete, FDUSD has now broken into the top 5 stablecoins. TUSD and FDUSD saw similar absolute gains at $1.5B and $1.8B respectively, while DAI stayed relatively flat in 2023. Outside the top 5, LST-backed stablecoins mkUSD and eUSD entered the top 15, while GUSD and crvUSD fell out. Top 15 Stablecoins Market Cap Breakdown (2023) USDT: 49% USDC: 33% DAI: 4% BUSD: 12% TUSD: 1% FDUSD: 0% Others: 2% $136B $129B USDT: 71% USDC: 19% DAI: 4% TUSD: 2% FDUSD: 1% BUSD: 1% Others: 2% -5.6% Top 15 Stablecoins Market Cap Change YoY
  • 9. CoinGecko 2023 Annual Crypto Industry Report 0 1,000 2,000 3,000 4,000 5,000 $0.0T $0.5T $1.0T $1.5T $2.0T $2.5T Jan-23 Feb-23 Mar-23 Apr-23 May-23 Jun-23 Jul-23 Aug-23 Sep-23 Oct-23 Nov-23 Dec-23 Total Crypto Market Cap Bitcoin Market Cap S&P 500 Market Cap 8 2023 Total Crypto Market Cap & Bitcoin vs. S&P 500 Despite correlation between total crypto market cap and S&P500 turning moderately negative in Q2, overall correlation in 2023 between the two remained moderately high at 0.65 S&P 500 Bitcoin continues to be the bellwether of the crypto market, with a 0.97 correlation with total crypto market cap. Source: CoinGecko, MarketWatch While both the crypto markets and S&P500 rallied in 2023, total crypto market cap however was only moderate to strongly correlated to the S&P500 in 2023 at 0.65. This figure rose to 0.86 in 2023 Q4. Interestingly with Bitcoin being driven by ETF news, its price has become highly correlated (0.74) to the S&P500. In 2023 Q4, correlation between the two climbed to 0.81. Total crypto market cap had an annualized volatility of 38.6%, 2.4x more than the S&P500 at 15.9%. Total crypto market cap climbed 108.1%, 4.6x more than the S&P500 which climbed 23.7%. Bitcoin was slightly more volatile than overall crypto market, with an annualized volatility of 43.2%. It saw gains of 155%, 6.5x more than the S&P500. Total Crypto Market Cap & Bitcoin vs. S&P 500 (2023)
  • 10. CoinGecko 2023 Annual Crypto Industry Report 9 2023 Trending Categories AI, GameFi & Meme Coins Top Crypto Narratives’ Interest in 2023 1.7% 1.8% 1.8% 2.0% 2.1% 2.2% 2.5% 2.7% 4.6% 6.5% 7.1% 7.2% 8.3% 10.5% 11.3% FTX Holdings Smart Contract Platforms DePIN NFTs Avalanche Ecosystem Ethereum Ecosystem Layer 2 DeFi Layer 1 Real World Assets BRC-20 Solana Ecosystem Meme Coins GameFi Artificial Intelligence Source: CoinGecko Artificial Intelligence (AI), GameFi and meme coins were the most popular narratives in 2023, capturing one third of investor interest. The Solana ecosystem, BRC-20 tokens and real world assets (RWA) also gained significant attention, capturing more than 5% of the crypto narratives interest each this year. 4 out of the 49 blockchain ecosystems, made it into the top 15 crypto narratives in 2023. Each of these ecosystems had very strong narratives. In 2023, we have Solana’s rise from the dead, the introduction of BRC-20s, the Ethereum Shanghai Upgrade in April, and the Avalanche ecosystem having a revival similar to Solana. 72.3% Top 15 Narratives Share of Overall CoinGecko Categories Web Traffic in 2023 Market Share of CoinGecko Categories Web Traffic 2023
  • 11. CoinGecko 2023 Annual Crypto Industry Report 10 2023 Notable Events Timeline 2023 saw a banking crisis and regulatory scrutiny from the SEC early in the year, followed by several wins for the industry – BlackRock’s filing for BTC ETF, Ripple & Grayscale Victory 19 Jan Grayscale won appeal for SEC to review its case to convert GBTC into spot BTC ETF Judge ruled Ripple’s sale of XRP were not securities CFTC sued Binance for violation of the CEA and CFTC regulations Mt Gox initiated repayment to its creditors Ethereum Shapella Upgrade and withdrawals enabled for staked ETH Arbitrum (ARB) token airdrop; Do Kwon arrested in Montenegro BlackRock filed for spot BTC ETF Ordinals launched on Bitcoin SEC sued Binance & Coinbase Banking Turmoil (SVB, Silvergate, Signature Bank, Credit Suisse collapse) Sam Bankman- Fried found guilty 31 Jan 14 Feb 8-13 Mar 23 Mar 29 Mar 9-11 Aug 13 Jul 15 Jun 5-6 Jun 12 Apr 29 Aug 4 Oct 31 Oct 2 Nov 28 Dec Binance agreed to $4.3B settlement with US Authorities 16 Nov 21 Nov Genesis filed for Chapter 11 bankruptcy SEC unsuccessful in its attempt to overturn earlier courtroom loss to Ripple Celestia launched Base officially launched, Friend.tech launched BlackRock filed for spot ETH ETF Blur Season 1 airdrop
  • 12. CoinGecko 2023 Annual Crypto Industry Report 11 2023 Notable Bugs and Exploits $2.0B was lost to at least 463 exploits in 2023, with 66% of the total stolen funds coming from the top 6 hacks January July December Fantom Foundation: $7M Stars Arena: $3M Multichain: $231M Vyper: $50M CoinsPaid: $37M Bald: $23M AlphaPo: $23M August April November October MEV Boost Exploit: $26M Bitrue: $22M GDAC: $14M Yearn.finance: $12M Hundred Finance: $7M February September Exactly Protocol: $7M Magnate Finance: $5M Zunami Protocol: $2M Poloniex: $123M HECO: $86M KyberSwap: $45M Binance User: $27M HTX: $22M Atomic Wallet: $115M Ackerman Ponzi: $33M Pink Drainer: $4M June CoinDeal: $45M LendHub: $6M GMX Phishing: $4M FCS: $3M BonqDAO: $120M Platypus Finance: $9M Friendsies: $5M Shata Capital: $5M Euler Finance: $196M Monkey Drainer: $17M Safe Moon: $9M ERC20 Permit: $9M March Fintoch: $32M Jimbos Protocol: $8M Deus Finance: $6M Swaprum: $3M May Orbit Chain: $82M Herencia Artifex: $30M Link Drainer: $4M Wallet Drain: $2M OKX: $2M The largest exploit in 2023 was the Multichain bridge hack, with $231M lost in July 2023. Another exploit which caused a huge scare was the Ledger exploit in December, which injected malicious code into dApps that were using Ledger Connect Kit. Fortunately, the exploit was quickly spotted, and a resolution was implemented quickly after. Other large exploits include Euler Finance ($196M), Mixin Network ($142M), Poloniex ($123M), BonqDAO ($120M), and Atomic Wallet ($115M). Thankfully, $177M from the Euler Finance Hack has since been returned. Source: Rekt, De.Fi, TRM Labs Mixin Network: $142M CoinEx: $53M Stake: $41M Coindroplet: $23M HTX: $8M According to TRM Labs, North Korean- linked groups account for 30.6%, or at least $600M of the stolen cryptocurrencies in 2023. This figure, though significant, represents a decrease from the $850M in crypto stolen in 2022.
  • 13. CoinGecko 2023 Annual Crypto Industry Report API for Business Reliable, accurate and comprehensive market metrics for crypto projects, developers & traders. ✓ Improve your project’s crypto & NFT offering ✓ Save time & cost - don’t build price feeds from scratch ✓ Help end-users discover market momentum ✓ DEX data available upon request 850+ EXCHANGES 10,000+ COINS 3,000+ NFTs 50 ENDPOINTS 10B+ CALLS PER MONTH 10 Years HISTORICAL DATA Try out our new Demo API Keyed Plan Available to all CoinGecko users at zero cost. Monthly cap of 10,000 calls & 30 calls/min rate limit. GET YOUR DEMO API KEY 12
  • 14. CoinGecko 2023 Annual Crypto Industry Report BITCOIN ANALYSIS 13
  • 15. CoinGecko 2023 Annual Crypto Industry Report $0B $10B $20B $30B $40B $50B $60B $70B $80B $0 $5,000 $10,000 $15,000 $20,000 $25,000 $30,000 $35,000 $40,000 $45,000 $50,000 Jan-23 Feb-23 Mar-23 Apr-23 May-23 Jun-23 Jul-23 Aug-23 Sep-23 Oct-23 Nov-23 Dec-23 Volume Price Yearly high $44,004 14 2023 Bitcoin Price vs. Trading Volume Aside from a market cool off in Q3, BTC saw gains throughout 2023 to end the year with a +155% gain BTC Price Trading Vol BTC has climbed significantly by 155% in 2023. BTC saw a strong first leg up in Q1, then had another spike up in late Q2 as a slew of spot BTC ETF applications were filed. The market then cooled off in Q3, before rallying strongly in Q4 on the back of anticipation for spot bitcoin ETF approvals, and expected interest rate cuts by the Fed. Average trading volume saw a drop off around end-Q1, gradually declining from Q2- Q3 before picking up slightly in Q4 to $18.0B (+64.3% QoQ). As many BTC holders continued to cling on to their coins, volume remained relatively low in Q4 despite the significant price spike due to limited supply on the markets. Q3 Price Return -11.5% Source: CoinGecko Q2 Price Return +6.9% Q1 Price Return +72.4% Q4 Price Return +64.3% Yearly low $16,541 +155.2% BTC Price Return in 2023 Bitcoin Price and Spot Trading Volume (2023)
  • 16. CoinGecko 2023 Annual Crypto Industry Report 150m 200m 250m 300m 350m 400m 450m 500m 550m 600m 650m Jan-23 Feb-23 Mar-23 Apr-23 May-23 Jun-23 Jul-23 Aug-23 Sep-23 Oct-23 Nov-23 Dec-23 15 2023 Bitcoin Mining Hash Rate Bitcoin mining hash rate continues to chart new all-time-highs, growing by 105% in 2023, as mining stocks recorded major returns Hash Rate TH/s 2023 Q4 has seen another wave of expansions by mining companies: • Marathon Digital agreed to buy 2 new bitcoin-mining sites in Texas and Nebraska for $178.6M • Bit Origin secures $6.74M investment to build new mining facility in Wyoming • Riot, Cipher, and Hive purchase 66.6K, 37K, and 7K ASICs respectively. Public listed mining stocks – Cipher Mining (CIFR), Marathon Digital (MARA), CleanSpark (CLSK), and Riot Platforms (RIOT) also recorded significant returns in 2023 of 615%, 556%, 425%, and 343% respectively. Q1 Hash Rate 20.5% Q2 Hash Rate 22.0% Source: Blockchain.com, MarketWatch Q3 Hash Rate 17.0% Q4 Hash Rate 33.7% Bitcoin mining hash rate continues to chart new all-time-highs, growing by over 2x in 2023. The latest ATH was recorded on Dec 24 at 612m TH/s. The last time hash rate has experienced a down quarter was in 2022 Q2. All-time High 612m TH/s +104.9% Bitcoin’s hash rate increase in 2023 Bitcoin's Total Hash Rate (2023)
  • 17. CoinGecko 2023 Annual Crypto Industry Report 16 Despite a rising interest rate environment, bitcoin outperformed major asset classes with a 155% gain, while the NASDAQ (+42%) and S&P500 (+24%) also posted strong returns in 2023 Bitcoin vs. Major Asset Classes in 2023 In stark contrast to 2022 where it was the worst performing asset with a 64% decline, BTC far outperformed all other asset classes in 2023 with a 155% gain. 2023 Bitcoin vs. Major Asset Classes Price Returns Price Return Crude oil (-11%) posted its first y-o-y decline since 2020 prompted by fears of oversupply from production outside OPEC, though there could now be potential supply disruptions from ongoing geopolitical turmoil in the Middle East. The NASDAQ (+42%) and S&P500 (+24%) also recorded strong years, both closing 2023 at their highest levels since 2022 January. Gold (+13%) also recorded relatively sizable gains. Source: Market Watch, CoinGecko -50.0% 0.0% 50.0% 100.0% 150.0% 200.0% Jan-23 Feb-23 Mar-23 Apr-23 May-23 Jun-23 Jul-23 Aug-23 Sep-23 Oct-23 Nov-23 Dec-23 BTC NASDAQ Crude Oil Gold TLT DXY GBP JPY
  • 18. CoinGecko 2023 Annual Crypto Industry Report 17 Inscriptions Inscriptions, introduced by Ordinals in 2023 January, has led to a frenzy of NFTs and memecoins on BTC, leading to a boon for miners by propelling transaction fees skywards Source: Blockchain.com, Dune Analytics (@21co) The latest surge in inscriptions minting on the Bitcoin network has driven daily total transaction fees up to an all-time-high of $23.7M on December 17, 2023. Bitcoin Total Transaction Fees & Daily Inscriptions (2023) 0K 100K 200K 300K 400K 500K 600K 700K 800K 900K $0m $5m $10m $15m $20m $25m Jan-23 Feb-23 Mar-23 Apr-23 May-23 Jun-23 Jul-23 Aug-23 Sep-23 Oct-23 Nov-23 Dec-23 Daily Inscriptions Total Transaction Fees Despite daily inscriptions remaining elevated after the mid-May spike up until late September, total transaction fees paid to miners were actually quite low. This could be due to low secondary trading activity of inscriptions during this period of time, a sign that inscription trading activity is what drives fees rather than minting activity. When inscription trading took off again in November, total transaction fees followed suit. 23.7M Highest Daily Total Transaction Fees Paid to Bitcoin Miners on December 17, 2023 Inscriptions are arbitrary data (e.g. text, images) written onto a satoshi, the smallest unit of bitcoin. It was first introduced by the Ordinals protocol launched by developer Casey Rodarmor on Jan 21, and enabled the creation of NFTs and semi-fungible tokens (notably BRC- 20 tokens) on the bitcoin network. By end-2023, cumulative inscriptions on Bitcoin reached 52.8M. Total Transaction Fees ($) Number of Inscriptions
  • 19. CoinGecko 2023 Annual Crypto Industry Report ETHEREUM ANALYSIS 18
  • 20. CoinGecko 2023 Annual Crypto Industry Report $0B $20B $40B $60B $80B $100B $120B $0 $200 $400 $600 $800 $1,000 $1,200 $1,400 $1,600 $1,800 $2,000 $2,200 $2,400 $2,600 Jan-23 Feb-23 Mar-23 Apr-23 May-23 Jun-23 Jul-23 Aug-23 Sep-23 Oct-23 Nov-23 Dec-23 Volume Price 19 2023 Ethereum Price vs. Trading Volume Price of ETH rose by +36.4% in 2023 Q4, ending the year in the green with gains of +90.5% Source: CoinGecko ETH Price Trading Vol Q1 2023 Price Return +49.8% Q2 2023 Price Return +6.0% Q3 2023 Price Return -13.6% Q4 2023 Price Return +36.4% Yearly low $1,196 Yearly high $2,376 ETH closed 2023 at $2,294, representing a 90.5% increase in the year. +90.5% ETH Price Return in 2023 In 2023, ETH started Q1 with a rally but consolidated for the most part in Q2 and Q3. In Q4, ETH broke away on a rally at the start of November and hit a yearly high of $2,376 in December. Trading volumes picked up significantly in Q4, for a daily average of $14.4B, up from $7.2B in Q3. With the BTC ETF approved by the SEC, attention may switch to ETH which has spot ETFs pending approval. Ethereum also has the Dencun upgrade that will implement EIP-4844 scheduled for first half of 2024. Known as Proto-Danksharding, it is expected to reduce gas fees, and boost network efficiency. Ethereum Price and Spot Trading Volume (2023)
  • 21. CoinGecko 2023 Annual Crypto Industry Report 0M 5M 10M 15M 20M 25M 30M Jan-23 Feb-23 Mar-23 Apr-23 May-23 Jun-23 Jul-23 Aug-23 Sep-23 Oct-23 Nov-23 Dec-23 Lido Coinbase Figment Binance Kraken Rocket Pool Kiln Staked.us Bitcoinsuisse OKX Stakefish Upbit DARMA Capital Frax Others 20 2023 Ethereum Consensus Layer Staking ETH staking grew +6.4% in 2023 Q4 to hit 29.1 mil, but experienced its slowest quarter as the Celsius bankruptcy estate began unstaking its ETH holdings ETH’s Shapella upgrade was completed in April, and deposits have far outpaced withdrawals thus far. However, the Celsius bankruptcy estate has begun to unstake its ETH holdings, which may result in a drop in staked ETH. Total staked ETH hit 29.1 mil by the end of 2023. Staked ETH increased by 82.5% in 2023. However, growth in Q4 has slowed to +6.4%. This is the lowest QoQ growth in 2023, with 1.7 mil ETH added. Lido’s dominance seems to have found a ceiling at the ~30% mark, where it has hovered around since the start of 2023. Source: Dune Analytics Q1 2023 Total Staked ETH +13.6% Q2 2023 Total Staked ETH +30.3% Q3 2023 Total Staked ETH +14.5% 14.4% 4.3% 3.7% 2.8% 2.5% 2.9% 27.2% 31.7% Staked ETH 29,100,451 Q4 2023 Total Staked ETH +6.4% 27,263,813 23,596,678 18,006,199 15,804,534 Total Staked ETH in Validators (2023)
  • 22. CoinGecko 2023 Annual Crypto Industry Report 21 2023 Ethereum Burn Rate ETH posted its first deflationary year, burning 1.09M ETH; The Ethereum network removed 342K ETH from circulation Source: Etherscan, Dune Analytics ETH 1 Uniswap 155k ETH 2 ETH Transfers 67k ETH 3 USDT 48k ETH 4 Arbitrum 25k ETH 5 Metamask 21k ETH Top 6 Burn Leaderboard of 2023 6 zkSync 18k ETH 0 5,000 10,000 15,000 20,000 25,000 Jan-23 Feb-23 Mar-23 Apr-23 May-23 Jun-23 Jul-23 Aug-23 Sep-23 Oct-23 Nov-23 Dec-23 Burned Emissions Memecoin + Telegram Bot szn 2023 saw over 1.09M ETH burned, while 0.75M were emitted. This was an average of 91k ETH burned a month. In 2022, this figure was an average 123K ETH burned / month. In total 342K ETH was taken out of circulation in 2023. 1.09M ETH Burned in 2023 ETH was once again deflationary in 2023 Q4, after trending inflationary in Q3. In Q4, 270k ETH were burned and 216K ETH emitted, a net burn of 54K. The largest one-day burn in Q4 occurred on December 18, where 6,303 ETH was burned. Uniswap was the main burner of ETH in 2023, burning 155K ETH. Memecoin szn in Q2 helped fuel this burn. Previously in 2022, and 2021, NFT marketplace OpenSea dominated the burn leaderboard, but have since fallen off alongside the decline of NFTs. ETH Burn vs. Emission Rate (2023)
  • 23. CoinGecko 2023 Annual Crypto Industry Report 22 2023 Layer 2 Adoption Layer 2 networks saw over 1.31B transactions in 2023; Arbitrum executed more than a third of all transactions on Ethereum L2s, and almost the same amount of transactions as mainnet Source: Etherscan, Blockscout Total Transactions on Layer 2’s (2023) Over 1.31B Layer 2 (L2) transactions were carried out in 2023. 375.3M were carried out on Arbitrum, accounting for 28.6% of all L2 transactions. Excluding opBNB, Arbitrum accounted for more than a third (37.5%) of all transactions on Ethereum Layer 2s in 2023. 1.31B Transactions on L2’s in 2023 Arbitrum executed almost the same amount of transactions with Ethereum mainnet in 2023, which executed 383.1M transactions. Transactions on L2’s increased 93.8% QoQ, with 659.0M in Q4 compared to 340.0M in Q3. The large increase can be attributed to opBNB which had the most transactions in Q4, with 304.8M (47.6%). The majority of these transactions were due to a surge of inscriptions. In December alone, the network recorded several days with more than 20M transactions. Total Trading Volume ($ Million) 66.2M 64.4M 76.7M 28.6M 30.4M 48.9M Market Share 90.6M 116.8M 132.6M 119.2M 137.4M 402.4M 54% 78% 76% 65% 57% 44% 35% 24% 19% 22% 23% 11% 5% 14% 23% 28% 29% 25% 22% 21% 13% 9% 44% 19% 14% 15% 12% 18% 19% 14% 8% 7% 7% 10% 15% 13% 10% 15% 20% 14% 6% 6% 5% 6% 8% 24% 65% 0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 70% 80% 90% 100% Jan-23 Feb-23 Mar-23 Apr-23 May-23 Jun-23 Jul-23 Aug-23 Sep-23 Oct-23 Nov-23 Dec-23 Arbitrum zkSync Optimism StarkNet Base Linea Mantle Network Zora Network Polygon zkEVM Scroll Metis Manta Pacific Boba Network opBNB
  • 24. CoinGecko 2023 Annual Crypto Industry Report SOLANA ANALYSIS 23
  • 25. CoinGecko 2023 Annual Crypto Industry Report $0B $1B $2B $3B $4B $5B $6B $7B $8B $0 $20 $40 $60 $80 $100 $120 $140 Jan-23 Feb-23 Mar-23 Apr-23 May-23 Jun-23 Jul-23 Aug-23 Sep-23 Oct-23 Nov-23 Dec-23 Jan-24 Volume Price 24 2023 Solana Price vs. Trading Volume Solana rose from the ashes, recording a meteoric Q4 price increase of 374% to close out the year at $101.33, ending the year with a 10x gain Q3 Price Return +13.0% Q2 Price Return -10.7% Q1 Price Return +112.9% Q4 Price Return +373.8% Yearly high $121 SOL Price Trading Vol Solana Price and Spot Trading Volume (2023) SOL climbed from $10.0 to $101.33 in 2023, marking a 917.3% increase. SOL had its first leg up in January, climbing >2x before crabbing until mid-October. It then saw an aggressive rally up to $121.45 before slightly correcting at year end. +917.3% SOL Price Return in 2023 Daily trading volume in Q1 averaged at ~$827M, then dropped to hover around ~$400M in Q2 and Q3 before seeing a spike to $2B in Q4 (+379% QoQ). Solana has seen a resurgence in bullish narratives which acted as tailwinds for its token, such as OPOS (“Only Possible on Solana”), its revival and resilience after the FTX implosion, and the proliferation of popular memecoins on its ecosystem. The Solana network has also undergone several technical upgrades, and has not seen a major outage since February 2023. Source: CoinGecko
  • 26. CoinGecko 2023 Annual Crypto Industry Report 25 2023 Growth in Solana Onchain Metrices Rebounding after a tumultuous 2022, the Solana network achieved new highs in user activity as average daily transactions grew by 563% in 2023 Although the price of SOL continued to plummet in 2022 after the all-time high run to $260 in 2021, daily users have continued to climb throughout the first half of 2022 due to the Solana NFT season, peaking at 453K users in May 2022. With the Terra collapse occurring shortly after, daily users began to fall steadily, while daily transactions increased from ~20M in 2023 May to ~40M in 2023 July. By the end of 2022, the collapse of FTX has resulted in number of active Solana users to fall by 76.7% from its peak in May to 106K users at the end of December 2022. The network saw a slight resurgence in 2023 H1 with the migration of Helium and their partnership with Mastercard, as daily transactions spiked by 40% from 20M at the end of March to 28M one week later. Following SOL’s recent run-up in Q4, users have returned to the ecosystem, hitting a peak of 456K users in December 2023. 0 100,000 200,000 300,000 400,000 500,000 600,000 700,000 800,000 900,000 1,000,000 0M 10M 20M 30M 40M 50M 60M Jan-22 Apr-22 Jul-22 Oct-22 Jan-23 Apr-23 Jul-23 Oct-23 Daily Active Users Daily Transactions Source: Hello Moon, Dune Analytics Daily Transactions Daily Active Users Collapse of FTX 87.1M Highest Daily Transaction Count in 2023 Solana Daily Transactions and Daily Active Users (2022 - 2023) Collapse of Terra
  • 27. CoinGecko 2023 Annual Crypto Industry Report 26 2023 Solana Highlights The return of Solana is rooted in its blazing fast performance, cheap fees, dApps with great UI, alongside the potent combination of airdrop and memecoins Airdrops typically occur on newer chains looking to incentivize bridging and usage. However recent Solana airdrops have come from projects that have been stalwarts of the ecosystem. These airdrops are generous rewards for users who have stuck with the ecosystem through out its darkest period. It also resulted in airdrop farmers descending on the chain to hunt the next airdrop. Another solid indicator of interest are memecoins, and Solana has no shortage of these too. BONK sparked a fair share of excitement when it launched back in 2022 December, but it has scaled truly new heights by end-2023. Solana projects / tokens have also launched in all the trending narratives of 2023 such as AI, DePIN, and RWA, letting degens speculate to their heart’s content. Finally, the revival of Solana NFTs in price and volume also signaled rising levels of degeneracy as speculators move further out the risk curve. Airdrops, Memecoins and NFTs An underrated advantage of Solana is how easy it is to onramp and use, compared to other newer chains. SOL is already broadly listed and supported across centralized exchanges, and has wallets with great UX such as Phantom and Backpack. Being a monolithic chain saves users the effort and cost of bridging across different roll-ups. This results in no liquidity fragmentation, and also minimizes the complexity and risk of having to trust bridges. However if you need to use a bridge, Portal / Wormhole provides a more than ample solution. Solana dApps also have great UI and are easy to use in general, with fast performance and cheap fees makes interacting with the chain and dApps an almost seamless experience. Great UI and Easy-to-Use dApps The original promise of Solana was incredible performance at a very cheap cost for users. While some of the first Solana dApps (notably Serum) showed off what the chain was capable of even back in 2020, the chain was always marred by outages. Over the course of the bear market, upgrades introduced to the chain has stabilized it significantly, with no incident reported since February 2023. At the start of 2023 the community began rallying around #OPOS, looking to truly take advantage and showcase Solana’s combination of superior performance and cheap fees. Use cases around micropayments, DeFi, DePIN, mass-NFT minting, games started to be featured more, and #OPOS has become a rallying cry for Solana projects. #OPOS (Only Possible on Solana)
  • 28. CoinGecko 2023 Annual Crypto Industry Report Track DEXes and on-chain crypto prices, in real time. Get market data of: Up your trading game, discover the next big opportunity in DeFi. All with GeckoTerminal. What’s new? Google Login now available! Sync your Watchlist and track your tokens on-the-go. [Guide] Builder? Get the most comprehensive market data via the Public API. (new endpoints!) New listing: Now tracking TON Network! New page: Learn more about us! Stay updated with GeckoTerminal: 113 BLOCKCHAINS 840+ DEXes 2.3M+ POOLS 2M+ TOKENS 27
  • 29. CoinGecko 2023 Annual Crypto Industry Report DEFI ANALYSIS 28
  • 30. CoinGecko 2023 Annual Crypto Industry Report 2.8% 3.2% 3.6% 4.0% 4.4% 4.8% $30B $40B $50B $60B $70B $80B $90B $100B Jan-23 Feb-23 Mar-23 Apr-23 May-23 Jun-23 Jul-23 Aug-23 Sep-23 Oct-23 Nov-23 Dec-23 Total DeFi Market Cap DeFi Share of Market (DeFi/Global Market Cap) 29 2023 DeFi Overview While the DeFi market cap largely stayed around $50B for the first three quarters after its initial rise in 2023 Q1, the sector saw a significant boost in Q4 as market sentiment turned bullish Market Cap % of Market Source: CoinGecko Q3 2023 $46B Q2 2023 $48B Q4 2023 $78B Q1 2023 $51B TradFi banking turmoil Blackrock’s spot bitcoin ETF spotted on DTCC Ethereum Shapella upgrade Crypto sell-off Kicking off 2023 with a market cap of just $34B, DeFi has proven itself to be unwavering, ending the year with an additional $44B added to its market cap. Gains in DeFi’s total market cap has outpaced the overall crypto market cap, growing by 128.8% compared to 109.9%. +128.8% Increase in DeFi Market Cap compared to January 1, 2023 DeFi market cap has stayed between $40B - $50B despite the sell-off in August. However, the possibility of a spot Bitcoin ETF approval has pushed DeFi’s market cap higher alongside the overall market to new yearly highs in Q4, surging from $46B at the end of Q3 to $78B at the end of 2023. The Q4 run-up in market cap has increased DeFi’s dominance to 4.5%, after staying largely below 4.0% in Q2 and Q3 of the year. Total DeFi Market Cap and DeFi Share of Overall Market (2023)
  • 31. CoinGecko 2023 Annual Crypto Industry Report 30 2023 DeFi vs TradFi Returns Interest rates for Stablecoins in DeFi have surged back to levels last seen in 2021, as the appetite for leverage returns once more Source: Adapted from @tt_tyler’s Interest Rate Dashboard, YCharts *Stablecoin interest rates include borrowing rates for USDC, USDT and Dai on Aave and Compound. Annual Yield 12.53% 4.72% 0.00% 2.00% 4.00% 6.00% 8.00% 10.00% 12.00% 14.00% 16.00% Stablecoin Interest Rates US 1-Year T-bill Rates Although DeFi yields cratered from 13.49% in January 2021 to 4.21% in 2021 December, T- bill rates were still close to zero +7.81% Spread between Stablecoin Interest Rates vs US 1-Year T- bill Rates on January 1, 2024 The Fed started hiking rates throughout 2022 to combat inflation, while the crypto market cratered, causing demand for leverage to dry up. This pushed T-bill rates higher than DeFi borrowing rates. By the end of 2022, T- bills were yielding 4.72% compared to 2.89% from lending stablecoins. While DeFi yields have crept up steadily throughout 2023 H1, rising speculation of US spot Bitcoin ETF approvals in the final quarter of the year saw massive increase in risk appetites and demand for leverage. Stablecoin borrowing rates more than doubled from 5.15% in 2023 Q3 to 12.53% in 2023 Q4. Stablecoin Interest Rates VS US 1-Year Treasury Bill Rates (2021 – 2023)
  • 32. CoinGecko 2023 Annual Crypto Industry Report 31 2023 DeFi Multichain Market Share Ethereum now controls a larger share of DeFi TVL with 68% dominance, while Tron is now the second largest chain by TVL in 2023, outpacing BNB Smart Chain $53B $60B $65B $63B $64B $57B Source: DefiLlama *Monthly TVL is calculated by taking the average TVL on daily basis for each month. ** RWAs and redeposits are not included in multi-chain TVL Market Share $60B $62B $59B $59B $71B $82B Total TVL 64% 64% 66% 66% 66% 68% 69% 69% 68% 68% 68% 68% 9% 9% 8% 8% 9% 9% 9% 9% 11% 12% 11% 10% 10% 9% 8% 8% 8% 6% 6% 5% 6% 5% 5% 4% 9% 9% 8% 8% 7% 7% 7% 7% 7% 7% 7% 7% 0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 70% 80% 90% 100% Jan-23 Feb-23 Mar-23 Apr-23 May-23 Jun-23 Jul-23 Aug-23 Sep-23 Oct-23 Nov-23 Dec-23 Ethereum Tron BSC Solana Arbitrum Avalanche Polygon Optimism Base Cardano Cronos Others Although multichain TVL in DeFi saw fluctuations up to 2023 Q3, the sector witnessed significant inflows of $25B in 2023 Q4, resulting in an overall 55.6% rise in TVL by the end of the year. Ethereum has continued to solidify its dominance, increasing its market share from 64% in 2023 January to 68% at in 2023 December. +55.6% Increase in Multichain DeFi TVL since January 1, 2023 Coming into 2023 as close rivals, Tron is now well ahead of BNB Smart Chain, controlling 10% market share. Since the start of the year, TVL on Tron has surged by 74.8% with the launch of stUSDT, while TVL on BSC has dropped by 31% by the end of 2023. The Solana ecosystem has seen a major revival in 2023, growing its TVL by 441.1% from $447M in 2023 January to $2.4B in 2023 December. The price appreciation of the network token (SOL) along with the potential of future airdrops have pushed more users into bridging over. Multi-chain Total Value Locked (TVL) Breakdown (2023)
  • 33. CoinGecko 2023 Annual Crypto Industry Report 32 2023 DeFi Ecosystem Overview Liquid staking consolidates its place at the top of DeFi protocols in Q4, while lending and bridging protocols also saw significant gains in their share of TVL Infrastructure $1.23B Derivatives $1.75B Despite the completion of the Ethereum Shapella upgrade, the liquid staking sector has continued to grow tremendously throughout 2023, capping of the year with a 61.3% increase in TVL from $20B to $32.2B over the 2023 Q4. Real World Assets (RWAs) saw a smaller TVL increase of 0.9%, lowering their TVL share from 7.4% in 2023 Q3 to 5.1% in 2023 Q4 as the crypto space shifted to other trends. However, the sector has had a commendable 2023 with its total TVL growing by 640% from $760M to $5.62B at the end of 2023. Despite making up just 1% of the overall DeFi sector, TVL on yield farms have risen by over 74x, highlighting the return of crypto users who have regained their willingness to generate returns on their holdings, in light of improving market conditions. Total Value Locked of Each DeFi Category (Q4 2023) Source: DeFiLlama Farm $1.13B
  • 34. CoinGecko 2023 Annual Crypto Industry Report Bridges 2023 Q4 2023 Q3 QoQ % Change WBTC $6.7B $4.4B 52.8% JustCryptos $4.8B $3.1B 55.1% Portal $1.0B $322M 211.0% hBTC $425M $242M 75.7% Stargate $330M $389M 15.3% Multichain $177M $115M 54.0% Axelar $168M $96M 75.5% Synapse $114M $110M 3.3% Across $104M $56M 85.2% Celer cBridge $98M $88M 11.7% Poly Network $97M $85M 13.6% Hop Protocol $60M $59M 1.0% 33 2023 Cross-chain Bridge Liquidity Liquidity has rebounded across most cross-chain platforms, led by a 211% TVL increase on the Portal bridge as users flock back to Solana Although WBTC has once again shown impressive growth of 52.8% from $4.4B in 2023 Q3 to $6.7B in 2023 Q4, much of this is due to Bitcoin’s 56.5% price increase over the past quarter, indicating that the bridge still saw a slight outflow in terms of assets. This is likely, given that the rise of Inscriptions-based tokens may have shifted some liquidity back to the Bitcoin network. The revival of the Solana ecosystem has resulted in massive inflows through the Portal bridge, pushing it into the top 3 with a 211% increase in TVL from $322M in 2023 September to $1B by the end of 2023. On the other hand, Stargate has lost 15.3% of its TVL over the past quarter, as uncertainty around the launch date of LayerZero’s ZRO, along with a thriving market environment for deploying capital, could be driving airdrop farmers away to greener pastures. With the resurgence of L2s and the Cosmos ecosystem in 2023 Q4, bridges specializing in the former (Across) and the latter (Axelar) have experienced significant inflows. Climbing through the ranks of the top 12 bridges, Across’ bridging protocol for L2s has nearly doubled its TVL from $56M in 2023 Q3 to $104M in 2023 Q4. Top 12 Bridges with Highest Liquidity (as of Jan 1, 2024) Source: DeFiLlama Total Cross-chain Bridge Liquidity as of January 1, 2024 $14.0B (+74.4%)
  • 35. CoinGecko 2023 Annual Crypto Industry Report 34 2023 Highlights for DeFi As price action continues to stagnate in 2023, DeFi is moving back to core fundamentals, focusing on improving scalability and user experience ● GMX + other perps ● Layer Zero ● SushiXSwap In 2021, food yield farms, which sometimes promised up to millions in APY, have proven to be unsustainable in the long run, with excessive emissions of governance tokens with no inherent value. As such, many projects are now placing greater emphasis on ‘real yield’, generating sustainable returns in the form of established cryptocurrencies, such as ETH or stablecoins. While decentralized perpetual protocols such as GMX paved the way for real yield protocols in 2022, their popularity has been succeeded by LSDs and LSDFi protocols in 2023, which generate real returns through network staking. With real-world interest rates reaching new highs this year, Real World Assets (RWAs) also became popular as an alternative method to access TradFi returns. Not to be left out, GambleFi platforms such as Rollbit, also offer real yields to liquidity providers who act as the ‘house’, earning a cut of the platform’s earnings. The Evolution of Real Yield In 2023 June, Uniswap announced the v4 upgrade of its platform, introducing ‘hooks’ that allow users to add customized actions that trigger based on actions within the liquidity pool, such as dynamic fees and on-chain limit orders, with all pools running under a single smart contract. But that’s not all, as UniswapX, an intent-based swapping protocol, was also released a month later, offering better prices, gas-free cross-chain trades, and MEV protection. In a nutshell, intents allow users to sign specific parameters for transactions and outsource them to solvers to be executed in the most efficient manner. First popularized by CowSwap, the resurgence of intent-based architecture has become a trending topic in 2023. While intents are now used for on- chain trade routing and cross-chain transfers/swaps, projects such as Anoma, Essential and dappOS are currently building general purpose intent-based architecture, extending their use case beyond just DEXs and bridges. Reinventing DEXs Although general purpose Layer-1s have become the experimental playground for innovations in DeFi and NFTs, developers are building blockchains with specialized architecture are required to promote further adoption of DeFi, capable of handling a high amount of transactions quickly, at a fraction of the cost. The launch of DeFi-focused networks such as Sei and Injective offer a smoother and faster experience for users through native matching engines and decentralized orderbooks. However, dApps don’t all have to be built on specific networks, when they can operate as their own app- chain. With dYdX completing its migration from Ethereum into the standalone Cosmos-based dYdX Chain, more protocols have since transitioned into deploying their own app-chains or rollapps, which leverage the security of underlying L1s/L2s. This process is further simplified through Rollup-as-a- Service (RaaS) providers such as Dymension, Caldera and Conduit. A Chain for Every dApp
  • 36. CoinGecko 2023 Annual Crypto Industry Report 35
  • 37. CoinGecko 2023 Annual Crypto Industry Report 36 NON-FUNGIBLE TOKENS (NFTs)
  • 38. CoinGecko 2023 Annual Crypto Industry Report 37 2023 NFT Trading Volume across Top 10 Chains NFT market showed signs of life in early 2023, but dropped off precipitously in Q2 and Q3, before rebounding in Q4 $4.5B $2.7B $3.2B Source: Dune Analytics (@hildobby, @domo, @ilemi) & Cryptoslam *​Wash trading filters are applied for Ethereum, Polygon, Arbitrum **Cardano has been excluded due to irregular trading behaviour Volume $1.4B $0.16B $0.38B $0.81B $0.94B $1.60B $1.43B $0.99B $0.60B $0.52B $0.50B $0.36B $0.21B $0.24B $0.50B $0.67B $0.36B $0.0B $0.5B $1.0B $1.5B $2.0B $2.5B Jan-23 Feb-23 Mar-23 Apr-23 May-23 Jun-23 Jul-23 Aug-23 Sep-23 Oct-23 Nov-23 Dec-23 Bitcoin Ethereum Solana Polygon Avalanche ImmutableX BNB Chain Flow Arbitrum Ronin NFT trading volume across the top 10 chains amounted to $11.8 billion in 2023. However, this figure is still less than half of the NFT trading volume in 2022, which reached $26.3 billion across the top 8 chains. +79.9% Increase in Trading Volume from January 2023 Ethereum-based NFTs continue to be the main NFT chain in 2023, capturing 72.3% of trading volume. However compared to its dominance of over 90% in 2022, it has clearly lost market share to Bitcoin and Solana. Solana made an impressive comeback in 2023, with trading volumes increasing by 4 times, from $73M in January to $359M in December 2023. Mad Lads and Tensorians were the most popular collections. Bitcoin surpassed Ethereum in NFT trading volume in December, with $808M in trading volume. This can be attributed to the introduction of Ordinals earlier this year, which regained popularity in November. Top 10 Chains for NFT Trading Volume (2023)
  • 39. CoinGecko 2023 Annual Crypto Industry Report $0.31B $0.68B $0.35B $1.12B $1.01B $0.66B $0.38B $0.33B $0.33B $0.23B $0.12B $0.13B $0.33B $0.48B $0.22B $0.19B $0.44B $0.51B $0.35B $0.29B $0.18B $0.16B $0.13B $0.11B $0.08B $0.09B $0.13B $0.16B $0.09B $0.0B $0.5B $1.0B $1.5B $2.0B $2.5B Jan-23 Feb-23 Mar-23 Apr-23 May-23 Jun-23 Jul-23 Aug-23 Sep-23 Oct-23 Nov-23 Dec-23 OKX Blur Tensor Trade Magic Eden OpenSea Unisat X2Y2 CryptoPunks Ordinals Wallet LooksRare 38 2023 NFT Platform Trading Volume While Blur has been dominant for most of 2023, the introduction of Bitcoin Ordinals and Solana’s comeback has allowed many new NFT marketplaces to capture market share $4.2B $2.5B $3.1B Blur is the leading NFT marketplace in 2023, capturing 49.6% of trading volume. Blur dethroned OpenSea as the top NFT marketplace in Q1. The marketplace enabling traders to opt-out of paying royalties, as well as launching a lucrative airdrop campaign, while OpenSea stood firm on their stance to enforce royalties. However, Blur has also since progressively lost market share, in line with the decline in NFT trading volume on Ethereum in 2023. OKX has established itself as the leading Bitcoin Ordinals marketplace, and recorded the most trading volume amongst all NFT marketplaces in December. This can be attributed to increased excitement surrounding Ordinals after Binance announced its listing of $ORDI. Magic Eden, Unisat and Ordinals Wallet are the other main Ordinals marketplaces. Source: Dune Analytics (@hildobby, @domo, @ilemi) *OpenSea volumes include Ethereum, Polygon & Arbitrum; MagicEden volumes include Solana, Bitcoin and Polygon **Trading Volume is credited to the aggregator (Blur, OpenSeaPro) if the trade was aggregated ***ImmutableX marketplaces are excluded due to difficulty in obtaining data Volume $1.2B Tensor Trade, dubbed the ‘Blur of Solana’, rose in ranks to become the third largest NFT marketplace in December 2023 on the back of the Solana NFT comeback, capturing 11.7% of NFT trading volume. Top 10 NFT Marketplaces (Jan – Dec 2023)
  • 40. CoinGecko 2023 Annual Crypto Industry Report 39 2023 NFT Lending NFT lending surged with the introduction of Blend in 2023, but still only plays a small role within the overall NFT market Top 6 NFT lending platforms recorded a total of $1.5B in loan volume in 2023 Q4, representing a 20.8% increase QoQ. Source: Dune Analytics (@beetle, @ahkek, @arcade_xyz, @nftfi-team) Top 6 NFT Lending Platform Loan Volume (Jan – Dec 2023) $230M $1,368M $1,484M Volume $1,229M $346M $786M $501M $351M $284M $302M $500M $552M $39M $36M $0M $100M $200M $300M $400M $500M $600M $700M $800M $900M Jan-23 Feb-23 Mar-23 Apr-23 May-23 Jun-23 Jul-23 Aug-23 Sep-23 Oct-23 Nov-23 Dec-23 Blend ParaX (Parallel.fi) Arcade NFTfi X2Y2 BendDAO Bored Apes and Azukis made up 50.6% of all loans on Blend thus far, equating to $1.8B in borrowed funds. Loan origination from Pudgy Penguins increased by 211.2% QoQ, from $81M in Q3 to $252M in Q4. This could be due to traders looking to make leveraged bets on Pudgys in anticipation for a price surge, where the price increase is higher than the interest on loan. 32.5% 18.1% 14.6% 11.4% 7.0% 6.0% 5.0% Bored Ape Yacht Club Azuki MutantApeYachtClub DeGods PudgyPenguins Wrapped Cryptopunks Milady Bored Ape Kennel Club CloneX BEANZ Official Others Loan Origination Volume on Blend (by Collection) Blend maintained its position as the leading NFT lending platform, capturing $552M or 92.3% of NFT lending volume in December 2023.
  • 41. CoinGecko 2023 Annual Crypto Industry Report 40 2023 Highlights for NFT A challenging year for NFTs resulted in drastic changes within the sector such as the removal of creator royalties, and challenging sub-collection launches for so called “blue chip” projects The "Royalty Wars" came to the fore in the early part of 2023, as marketplaces such as Blur and OpenSea fought to become the dominant NFT marketplace. Launched in October 2022, Blur allowed traders to pay optional royalties, enabling traders to speculate on NFTs without feeling the pinch of royalty fees. It also temporarily eradicated royalties, before transitioning to a 0.5% royalty model later on. OpenSea responded by introducing an operator filter registry to allow creators to blacklist marketplaces which did not enforce royalties, but faced setbacks when a loophole was discovered by Blur in January, leading them to eventually give in and revert to optional royalties in February. In the midst of this, many other NFT marketplaces also initially took the stance to protecting creator income, but later also reverted to optional royalties. This caused effective royalty rates to continue to trend down, ranging from 0% to 1% in 2023. Pudgy Penguins Comeback – A flightless bird at the beginning of the year, Pudgy Penguins returned to the spotlight under the renewed leadership of Luca Netz by pivoting towards physical toys. Azuki Fumbles – In June 2023, Azuki released a second collection called Elementals. Unfortunately, this new collection looked very similar to the original collection, leading to backlash from the community and many long term holders to exit the project. DeGods Migrates from Solana to Ethereum – A gamble that did not pay off. Solana's comeback in 2023 revived interest in its ecosystem and NFTs, but the former Solana NFT project missed the boat. Mad Lads Ascend – This PFP collection, created by Armani Ferrante who also founded Solana Backpack, has established itself as one of the blue-chips on Solana, benefiting from numerous airdrops and partnerships as the Solana ecosystem makes a comeback. NFTFi attempts to solve for two of the main challenges of NFTs, namely price discovery and liquidity. While it initially started with NFT lending protocols, the space has continued to innovate and now houses NFT perpetuals as well. NFT lending received a significant jolt of interest in 2023 with the launch of Blend in May 2023. This catapulted the NFT lending market by 309.5%, from $102M in April to $418M in May 2023. While it has seen growth, there are still significant limitations in terms of the collections that are able to participate in these activities. Similar in concept to DeFi token perpetuals, NFT perpetuals offered by protocols such as NFTPerp and NFEX are perpetual contracts that track the floor price of NFT collections. This allows traders to speculate on the value of specific NFT collections, without actually having to own the NFT itself. Proponents claim these contracts allow for better price discovery for NFT collections. A Year of Ups for Some and Downs for Others NFTFi Royalty Wars – To Enforce Or Not?
  • 42. CoinGecko 2023 Annual Crypto Industry Report 41 2023 Highlights for GameFi While yield farming has become one of the more popular activities for DeFi users, it seems that the same is true for GameFi enthusiasts, as farming or mining games continue to dominate the blockchain gaming space, with games such as Pixels and Farmers World racking up over 175K daily active players combined. Akin to a gamified form of yield farming, farming or mining game allow players to use NFTs to mine or farm resources for a specific duration. Players will then have to use their resources efficiently to increase their mining output and token rewards. However, farming games have very simple gameplay and requires little input from actual human players, creating an environment where bots thrive. With users able to create and control thousands of bots, this can dilute token rewards for real players and discourage new ones from entering the game. As such, this genre’s developers will need to go the extra mile to effectively combat these practices. At the end of the last Play-to-Earn wave, Ronin was a very new network that had become the home of Axie Infinity. Fast forward to 2023, Ronin has grown into a robust ecosystem of games, with titles such as Zoids Wild Arena and Pixels migrating over. The resurgence of the Ronin network has caused the price of RON to surge by 7x from $0.26 at the start of 2023 to $1.85 at the end of 2023. With the rising popularity of networks catering specifically to blockchain games, DAOs such as Merit Circle and Ancient8 have also launched their own gaming chains, Beam and the Ancient8 Chain. Although the Ancient8 Chain is still on the testnet, Beam is currently lives on Avalanche as a subnet. While these gaming chains require their native token or ETH to perform transactions, 2023 has shown that gasless blockchains such as Skale and Wax continue to attract plenty of crypto gamers. Gamers make up 88% of all users on these two blockchains, with over 100K players on each respective network. During the 2021 GameFi Wave, developers raised heavy investments on the promise of delivering AAA- quality blockchain games with modern gameplay and sustainable tokenomics. While some communities were still waiting for these promises to be delivered in 2023, a handful of these projects are now playable and are close to completion. We’ve seen titles such as Parallel and Big Time being opened to wider audiences, and achieving some success at that, as reflected by the price action of their respective tokens. From their initial launch at $0.13 in October 2023, Big Time’s BIGTIME token has increased by 269% to $0.44 at the end of last year, while Parallel’s PRIME token has risen by 150%. Meanwhile, teams that have delivered in the past are now looking to capture lightning twice. The creators of STEPN, the key driver behind the Move-to-Earn hype in early 2022, are looking to release their latest title, Gas Hero, with an emphasis on better token sinks and conservative emissions. The GameFi space is still full of activity in 2023, as existing projects continue to develop new games and infrastructure to support the next generation of gamers. Gaming Chains & Gasless Chains Open For Testing It’s Just Honest Work … Or Not?
  • 43. CoinGecko 2023 Annual Crypto Industry Report 42 EXCHANGES
  • 44. CoinGecko 2023 Annual Crypto Industry Report 43 2023 Top Cryptocurrency Exchanges Trading Volume Trading volume rose +53.1% in 2023 Q4 to $10.3T, marking its first QoQ increase Source: CoinGecko Total Trading Volume ($ Trillion) Crypto closed out 2023 with total trading volume increasing 53.1% from Q3 to Q4, the first QoQ increase for the year. Trading volume climbed sharply in December to $4.3T, with market sentiment swinging bullish in anticipation of BTC ETFs. +53.1% Top Crypto Exchanges Trading Volume Increase In 2023 Q4 The ratio of CEX : DEX spot trading volume hovered around 91.5% in Q4, similar to Q3. Meanwhile, CEX : DEX derivatives trading volume ratio dropped to 97.3% from 98.5%. Overall in 2023, CEX : DEX spot ratio stood at 91.4% while CEX : DEX derivatives ratio was 98.1%. CEX’s dominated the year despite the fall of FTX last year, and FUD surrounding Binance throughout 2023. Top Cryptocurrency Exchanges Trading Volume (2023) Trading Volume $3.2T $2.6T $2.8T $2.7T $2.2T $1.8T $3.1T $3.4T $4.3T $2.5T $3.5T $4.3T $2.30T $2.48T $3.25T $2.58T $2.13T $2.29T $2.17T $1.76T $1.45T $1.91T $2.58T $3.15T $0.73T $0.83T $0.91T $0.56T $0.41T $0.45T $0.44T $0.38T $0.30T $0.46T $0.76T $0.98T $0.0T $0.5T $1.0T $1.5T $2.0T $2.5T $3.0T $3.5T $4.0T $4.5T $5.0T Jan-23 Feb-23 Mar-23 Apr-23 May-23 Jun-23 Jul-23 Aug-23 Sep-23 Oct-23 Nov-23 Dec-23 Top 10 Perpetual CEX Top 10 Perpetual DEX Top 10 Spot CEX Top 10 Spot DEX
  • 45. CoinGecko 2023 Annual Crypto Industry Report 44 2023 Top 10 Spot Centralized Exchanges (CEX) Trading Volume Binance’s dominance over the Top 10 Spot CEXes dropped to a yearly low of 41% in November, but managed to remain on top in 2023 Q4 Total Trading Volume ($ Trillion) Source: CoinGecko Market Share $0.6T $0.4T $0.5T $0.4T $0.4T $0.3T $0.7T $0.8T $0.9T $0.5T $0.8T $1.0T 64% 65% 61% 53% 54% 52% 49% 51% 45% 43% 41% 44% 9% 9% 7% 10% 6% 8% 13% 8% 12% 12% 12% 9% 5% 5% 6% 6% 7% 7% 7% 6% 6% 7% 8% 9% 4% 5% 5% 6% 7% 8% 8% 8% 7% 5% 5% 6% 6% 7% 7% 7% 7% 7% 7% 7% 5% 5% 5% 6% 6% 4% 4% 5% 6% 6% 6% 8% 8% 7% 6% 0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 70% 80% 90% 100% Jan-23 Feb-23 Mar-23 Apr-23 May-23 Jun-23 Jul-23 Aug-23 Sep-23 Oct-23 Nov-23 Dec-23 Binance Upbit OKX Bybit Coinbase MEXC HTX Gate KuCoin Bitget Top 10 CEXes recorded $2.20T in spot trading volume in 2023 Q4, after trading below $2T for two consecutive quarters. This represents a +98.1% increase QoQ. +98.1% Top 10 Spot CEX Total Trading Volume Increase in 2023 Q4 Binance remained the dominant spot CEX, but has continued to lose market share through out 2023. Its market share fell to a yearly low of 41% in November, coinciding with its settlement with the US authorities for $4.3B and CZ’s resignation. All Top 10 CEXes grew in Q4, with MEXC growing the most at 203.7% ($90.4B). This was followed by Bybit, which grew 162.1% ($107.5B,) and KuCoin with 161.2% ($49.2B). KuCoin regained its spot in the Top 10 in Q4 after losing it in Q3, edging out Kraken. Top 10 Spot CEX Trading Volume Breakdown (2023) In total, Top 10 CEXes recorded $7.2T in trading volume in 2023 compared to $9.4T in 2022, a -23.4% YoY decline.
  • 46. CoinGecko 2023 Annual Crypto Industry Report 45 2023 Top 10 Spot Decentralized Exchanges (DEX) Trading Volume Top 10 Spot DEXes trading volume increased +87.1% in 2023 Q4, with Orca and THORSwap leading the charge Source: CoinGecko Total Trading Volume ($ Billion) $57B $48B $47B $42B $36B $32B $59B $60B $94B $44B $72B $90B Market Share 63% 67% 72% 64% 69% 63% 61% 57% 63% 56% 57% 51% 5% 8% 6% 12% 13% 9% 8% 9% 10% 11% 12% 12% 11% 14% 8% 9% 10% 6% 11% 13% 14% 8% 7% 6% 6% 5% 7% 5% 5% 5% 6% 7% 5% 5% 8% 6% 7% 5% 0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 70% 80% 90% 100% Jan-23 Feb-23 Mar-23 Apr-23 May-23 Jun-23 Jul-23 Aug-23 Sep-23 Oct-23 Nov-23 Dec-23 Uniswap Pancakeswap Orca Curve THORSwap TraderJoe Maverick Dodo Quickswap Balancer Top 10 DEXs recorded a total of $205.3B in spot trading volume in 2023 Q4, representing an 87.1% increase QoQ. +87.1% Top 10 Spot DEXes Total Trading Volume Increase in 2023 Q4 Orca was the biggest gainer amongst the DEXes in Q4, rising 1,079.0% ($12.2B), and now ranks third with a 11% market share. This sharp rise in trading volume can be attributed to the uptick in interest in Solana. THORSwap, a cross-chain DEX, also saw a surge in trading volume to end Q4 with $12.5B. This is an increase of 422.4% ($10.1B) QoQ. Safeguards have since been implemented in order to stem illicit transactions on the platform. Top 10 DEX Trading Volume Breakdown (2023)
  • 47. CoinGecko 2023 Annual Crypto Industry Report 46 2023 Spot DEX Trading Volume Breakdown by Chain Ethereum’s share of trading volume dropped to a low of 41% in December, but remains ahead of the competition as Arbitrum showed steady growth, while Solana surged at the end of 2023 Source: CoinGecko Market Share Total Trading Volume ($ Billion) 79% 70% 70% 51% 61% 61% 66% 59% 64% 57% 48% 41% 4% 9% 13% 26% 16% 18% 15% 11% 12% 14% 15% 14% 6% 8% 6% 12% 13% 10% 8% 17% 10% 10% 11% 11% 6% 14% 5% 7% 5% 8% 5% 6% 5% 0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 70% 80% 90% 100% Jan-23 Feb-23 Mar-23 Apr-23 May-23 Jun-23 Jul-23 Aug-23 Sep-23 Oct-23 Nov-23 Dec-23 Ethereum Arbitrum BSC Solana THORChain Polygon Avalanche zkSync Optimism Base $57B $48B $47B $42B $36B $32B $59B $60B $94B $44B $72B $90B Spot DEX Trading Volume Breakdown by Chain (2023) Solana was the largest gainer in Q4, rising a whopping 985.5% QoQ. Its share of trading volume has increased from 6% to 14% THORChain was the second largest gainer, with its trading volume increasing 422.4% in Q4. The two chains now rank #3 and #5 respectively in December 2023. While BSC remained #3 in Q4 overall, it was overtaken in December by Solana. This is the second instance BSC has dropped in rank, after being overtaken by Arbitrum in Q1. Arbitrum too is being challenged by Solana. Both chains ended December with almost equal 14% market share. Ethereum captured $99.3B of DEX trading volume in 2023 Q4. This is an increase of +38.3% from 2023 Q3, where it had $71.8B in trading volume. Despite the increase in trading volume in Q4, its dominance has dropped below 50% for the first time in 2023 in November and December, eding the year at a low of 41% as other chains caught up.
  • 48. CoinGecko 2023 Annual Crypto Industry Report 53% 54% 54% 52% 51% 51% 51% 47% 46% 46% 47% 48% 14% 15% 16% 16% 16% 17% 17% 18% 18% 19% 19% 19% 13% 12% 12% 12% 11% 11% 11% 12% 13% 14% 15% 14% 9% 8% 8% 8% 9% 9% 9% 10% 9% 7% 7% 8% 3% 4% 4% 4% 5% 5% 4% 5% 6% 6% 5% 3% 0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 70% 80% 90% 100% Jan-23 Feb-23 Mar-23 Apr-23 May-23 Jun-23 Jul-23 Aug-23 Sep-23 Oct-23 Nov-23 Dec-23 Binance OKX Bybit Bitget MEXC KuCoin Gate.io HTX Deribit BitMEX 47 2023 Top 10 Centralized Perpetual Exchanges Trading Volume Total trading volume on perpetual CEXes more than doubled in 2023 compared to 2022, a clear sign of market recovery, though it still lags volumes in 2021 Source: CoinGecko Total Trading Volume ($ Trillion) $2.6T $2.1T $2.3T $2.3T $2.5T $3.2T Market Share $2.2T $1.8T $1.4T $1.9T $2.6T $3.1T Top 10 Centralized Perpetual Exchanges Trading Volume (2023) Volumes on Top 10 Perpetual CEXes experienced a strong recovery from $5.4T in Q3 to $7.6T in Q4. It was the second most active quarter in 2023, behind Q1. +42.1% Top 10 Centralized Perpetual Exchanges Trading Volume Increase in 2023 Q4 Similar to the spot CEX market, Binance has managed to hang on to its market share despite news of its DoJ settlement, and remain the largest perpetual CEX. OKX and Bybit also solidified their position at #2 and #3 respectively. In contrast with the spot CEX market, total trading volume on Top 10 Perpetual CEXes was $28T in 2023, more than double the total volume in 2022 of $11T, a clear sign of recovery of the perpetuals market. However it still lags 2021 bull market volumes, where Binance alone recorded $24T in perpetuals volume.
  • 49. CoinGecko 2023 Annual Crypto Industry Report $0B $5B $10B $15B $20B $25B $30B $35B $40B Jan-23 Feb-23 Mar-23 Apr-23 May-23 Jun-23 Jul-23 Aug-23 Sep-23 Oct-23 Nov-23 Dec-23 Binance Bybit OKX Bitget KuCoin MEXC Deribit Gate.io BitMEX HTX 48 2023 Top 10 Centralized Perpetual Exchanges Open Interest Total Open Interest have now surged to above $30B, its highest point in the past two years; Share of OI has consolidated to the Top 3 exchanges Binance, Bybit and OKX Source: CoinGecko Binance: 35% Bybit 22% OKX: 12% Bitget: 9% KuCoin: 6% MEXC: 4% Deribit: 5% Gate.io: 4% BitMEX: 1% HTX 1% Open Interest Top 10 Centralized Perpetual Exchanges Open Interest (2023) Similar to trading volume, open interest (OI) on Top 10 Perpetual CEXes also saw a surge in Q4, rising to its highest point of the year at $36.7B on December 5. Total OI closed out the year at $32.9B, a level also higher than any point in 2022. +48.4% Top 10 Centralized Perpetual Exchanges OI Increase from Oct 1, 2023 to Dec 31, 2023 Majority of OI amongst Top 10 Perpetual CEXes are now concentrated between the Top 3 exchanges Binance, Bybit, and OKX, with ~70% share of OI at the end of 2023 compared to ~55% at the start of the year. Strong interest in the US BTC Spot ETF have also caused a surge in OI for BTC Futures Contracts on TradFi Derivatives Exchange CME, leading the OI of BTC perpetual contracts on all Perpetual CEXes in Q4.
  • 50. CoinGecko 2023 Annual Crypto Industry Report 49 2023 Top 10 Decentralized Perpetual Protocols Trading Volume While dYdX remain dominant, it is now facing significant competition from an array of new challengers in the decentralized perpetuals market which is fast expanding in Q4 Total Trading Volume ($ Billion) Market Share Source: CoinGecko, Dune Analytics (@gmx-io,@shogun, @gains, @dragonburnz) $56B $40B $55B $49B $53B $77B $41B $31B $29B $52B $83B $80B Top 10 Decentralized Perpetual Protocols Trading Volume (2023) Similar to Perpetual CEXes, Perpetual Protocols also saw a strong recovery in volume, reaching $215B in Q4 compared to $102B in Q3. +47.4% Top 10 Decentralized Perpetual Protocols Trading Volume Increase in 2023 Q4 While Kwenta had a strong showing in Q2, the second half of the year saw the emergence of new contenders Vertex, Hyperliquid, RabbitX and ApeX Pro. While dYdX has retained its leading position in 2023 even after its migration to the Cosmos ecosystem at end-October, its market share has shrunk significantly from 73% in January to 37% in December due to intense competition. However this is more an “expansion of the pie” phenomenon. 73% 67% 68% 55% 52% 64% 59% 54% 61% 50% 43% 37% 5% 10% 11% 5% 6% 8% 14% 22% 11% 11% 14% 15% 14% 18% 12% 10% 7% 8% 6% 7% 7% 10% 5% 7% 6% 6% 5% 7% 12% 7% 11% 9% 6% 7% 6% 5% 7% 7% 5% 5% 6% 6% 6% 6% 5% 5% 5% 5% 12% 9% 5% 5% 0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 70% 80% 90% 100% Jan-23 Feb-23 Mar-23 Apr-23 May-23 Jun-23 Jul-23 Aug-23 Sep-23 Oct-23 Nov-23 Dec-23 dYdX RabbitX Vertex Hyperliquid GMX ApeX Pro Kwenta Gains Network HMX Level Finance GMX also reported a rebound in volumes in Q4 due to its participation in the Arbitrum STIP program.
  • 51. CoinGecko 2023 Annual Crypto Industry Report $0M $100M $200M $300M $400M $500M $600M $700M $800M $900M $1,000M $1,100M $1,200M Jan-23 Feb-23 Mar-23 Apr-23 May-23 Jun-23 Jul-23 Aug-23 Sep-23 Oct-23 Nov-23 Dec-23 dYdX GMX Kwenta Hyperliquid ApeX Pro HMX Vertex RabbitX Gains Network Level Finance 50 2023 Top 10 Decentralized Perpetual Protocols Open Interest OI on decentralized perpetual protocols more than doubled in 2023 to reach above $1B, helped by the entrance of new contenders to the market and bullish market sentiment Open Interest Source: CoinGecko, Dune Analytics (@gmx-io, @gunboats, @unionepro, @levelfinance) dYdX: 34% GMX: 27% Kwenta: 14% Hyperliquid: 7% ApeX Pro: 7% HMX: 4% Vertex: 3% RabbitX: 2% Gains: 2% Level: 0.2% Similar to Perpetual CEXes, OI on Top 10 Perpetual Protocols also saw an increase to $1.04B by the end the year, representing a +41.5% increase QoQ, and a +123% increase for the year. However this is still below historical levels. Even back in 2022 April, dYdX alone recorded $1B in OI. +57.4% Top 10 Decentralized Perpetual Protocols OI Increase from Oct 1, 2023 to Dec 31, 2023 Kwenta has seen steady increase in its share of OI through out the entire year, ending the year with 14% share of OI. Other challengers (Hyperliquid, ApeX Pro, HMX, Vertex, RabbitX) have much less share of OI, despite garnering a larger share of volumes. Despite a year where its total OI was stable around $300M, dYdX’s lead in share of OI has declined from 56% at the start of the year to 34% by the end. Top 10 Decentralized Perpetual Protocols Open Interest (2023)
  • 52. CoinGecko 2023 Annual Crypto Industry Report FOLLOW US 51
  • 53. CoinGecko 2023 Annual Crypto Industry Report THAT’S ALL! THANK YOU FOR READING :) 52