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Oracle11gR2 for Oracle10gR2
          DBA
          Biju Thomas
       OneNeck IT Services
          Session #313


                             http://www.oneneck.com
About me…
• Senior Database Architect at OneNeck IT
  Services Corporation (www.oneneck.com)
• More than 18 years of Oracle experience
• Author of Oracle11g OCA, Co-author of
  Oracle10g (New Features), Oracle9i (SQL &
  Admin) and Oracle8i (SQL & Admin) certification
  guides published by Sybex/Wiley
• Published articles in Oracle Magazine, Oracle
  Internals and Select Journal
• Oracle 7, 8i, 9i, 10g, 11g OCP Administrator
• Oracle Database SQL Certified Expert
The ERP Outsourcing Experts : Provide a comprehensive,
                                                  flexible suite of outsourcing solutions designed specifically to
                                                  help mid-market and public sector organizations


                            Over 130 customers and 66,000 users in 45 countries on
                            six continents ~ Over 950 customer sites supported
                            worldwide

98% Contract Renewal Rate over 13 years
and 13 years of profitability (since inception)


Ranked No. 1 ERP Management Outsourcer by
the Black Book of Outsourcing




Stop by Booth #939
Session Objectives
• Review Oracle11gR2 features for DBA
• Highlight Oracle11gR2 and 11gR1 behaviors
  that are different from 10gR2.
• Discuss out-of-the-box features that can be
  implemented easily [covered in the Enterprise
  Edition Install].
• These are not the top features of 11gR1 and
  11gR2 release.
Session Outline
• 11gR2 DB Features
  – Includes Features in 11.2.0.2 [patchset 1]
• Installation & ASM Changes
  – ASM is now Grid Infrastructure
  – Patchset Installation
  – Getting Started with Grid Infrastructure
• 11gR1 Features – Quick Review
• Paper includes more info with examples and
  Oracle documentation reference for further
  reading.
11gR2 [11.2.0.1] &
  11gR2ps1 [11.2.0.2]
       Features


Oracle Database & Tools
On Demand Segment Creation
• New segments for tables, indexes, LOB columns
  created only when row added to segment.
• Partitioned tables & indexes added to this
  feature in PS1.
• Improves space usage as well as large
  application install time.
• DEFERRED_SEGMENT_CREATION parameter
  controls this behavior.
• New column SEGMENT_CREATED in
  DBA_TABLES, DBA_INDEXES.
                                            11gR2
Remove & Add Empty Segments
• DBMS_SPACE_ADMIN package includes
  programs to manage empty segments.
  – DROP_EMPTY_SEGMENTS
  – MATERIALIZE_DEFERRED_SEGMENTS
• Three arguments – schema name, table name
  and partition name.

EXEC SYS.dbms_space_admin.drop_empty_segments
  (schema_name=>'BTHOMAS', table_name=>'ODSEG_T1');

                                              11gR2
Drop Segment in TRUNCATE
                              select   segment_name, bytes
                              from     user_segments
• By default, Oracle          where    segment_name like 'ODSEG%'
  Database deallocates all    or       segment_name               in
                                       (select segment_name
  space used except that               from    user_lobs);
  specified by the            SEGMENT_NAME                   BYTES
                              ------------------------- ----------
  MINEXTENTS storage          ODSEG_T1                       65536
                              ODSEG_T1_PK                    65536
  parameter.                  SYS_LOB0000097197C00003$$      65536

• In Oracle Database 11g      truncate table odseg_t1 drop all storage;
                              Table truncated.
  Release 2 (11.2.0.2), you   select segment_name, bytes
  can use TRUNCATE with       from   user_segments
                              where segment_name like 'ODSEG%'
  the DROP ALL                or     segment_name               in
  STORAGE option to drop             (select segment_name
                                     from    user_lobs );
  entire segments.            no rows selected
                                                                 11gR2ps1
Zero-size Unusable Index
                             select index_name,
• If you alter any index            segment_created, status
                             from   user_indexes;
  [b-tree, bitmap or         INDEX_NAME           SEG STATUS
                             -------------------- --- --------
  function based] to         XX_T1_I1             YES VALID
  UNUSABLE, its storage      alter index xx_t1_i1 unusable;
                             Index altered.
  segments will be
                             select index_name     ,
  dropped.                          segment_created, status

• The parameter              from   user_indexes;
                             INDEX_NAME           SEG STATUS
  deferred_segment_crea      -------------------- --- --------
                             XX_T1_I1             NO UNUSABLE
  tion does not have any     select segment_name
  impact on this behavior.   from   dba_segments
                             where segment_name = 'XX_T1_I1';
                             no rows selected

                                                                 11gR2
Change DB Link Password
• The ALTER DATABASE LINK statement can
  change user password in the database link.
• ALTER DATABASE LINK privilege needed to
  modify database links.
• Private, PUBLIC and SHARED database link
  passwords can be changed.

create database link myownlink
connect to bthomas identified by justapwd
using 'CECORDEV';
alter database link myownlink
                                              11gR2
connect to bthomas identified by mynewpwd1;
Concurrent Statistics Gather
• Oracle11gR2 11.2.0.2 includes a new global
  preference setting for Optimizer statistics
  gathering.
• The concurrent statistics gathering enables
  Oracle to gather statistics on multiple tables and
  table partitions concurrently.
• The Job Scheduler will decide how many of
  these jobs will need to be run concurrently.

exec DBMS_STATS.SET_GLOBAL_PREFS
  ('CONCURRENT','TRUE');                      11gR2ps1
Audit Trail Management
• DBMS_AUDIT_MGMT package to manage DB
  and OS audit trail records.
• API to move audit tables to another tablespace.
• AUDIT_TRAIL_AUD_STD constant for AUD$
  table, AUDIT_TRAIL_FGA_STD for FGA_LOG$
  table, AUDIT_TRAIL_DB_STD for both.
SQL>
execute DBMS_AUDIT_MGMT.SET_AUDIT_TRAIL_LOCATION( -
> AUDIT_TRAIL_TYPE            =>
  DBMS_AUDIT_MGMT.AUDIT_TRAIL_AUD_STD, -
> AUDIT_TRAIL_LOCATION_VALUE => 'SYSAUX');
                                              11gR2
Audit Trail Cleanup
• Initialize the audit cleanup infrastructure using
  INIT_CLEANUP
• Optionally set the archive timestamp using
  SET_LAST_ARCHIVE_TIMESTAMP. By default
  records older than this timestamp are deleted
  when purge job is invoked.
• Purge the records using CLEAN_AUDIT_TRAIL.
• Setup a job to clean records periodically using
  CREATE_PURGE_JOB.
                                             11gR2
Audit Trail Cleanup – Contd.
• Initialize
dbms_audit_mgmt.init_cleanup(
  audit_trail_type =>
  dbms_audit_mgmt.audit_trail_aud_std,
  default_cleanup_interval => 24 /* 1 day */ );
• Set Archive Timestamp
dbms_audit_mgmt.set_last_archive_timestamp(
          audit_trail_type =>
  dbms_audit_mgmt.audit_trail_aud_std,
          last_archive_time => systimestamp-60);
• Manual Purge
dbms_audit_mgmt.clean_audit_trail(
           audit_trail_type =>
  dbms_audit_mgmt.audit_trail_aud_std,            11gR2
           use_last_arch_timestamp => true);
Audit Trail Cleanup – Contd.
• Create purge job
dbms_audit_mgmt.create_purge_job(
 audit_trail_type =>
  dbms_audit_mgmt.audit_trail_aud_std,
 audit_trail_purge_interval => 24 /* 1 day */ ,
 audit_trail_purge_name => 'PURGE_DB_AUDIT_RECORDS',
 use_last_arch_timestamp => true);
• Views
   – DBA_AUDIT_MGMT_CONFIG_PARAMS: Shows current parameters
     values.
   – DBA_AUDIT_MGMT_LAST_ARCH_TS: Shows last archive timestamp
     set for audit trail purges.
   – DBA_AUDIT_MGMT_CLEANUP_JOBS: Shows current cleanup jobs.
   – DBA_AUDIT_MGMT_CLEAN_EVENTS: Show history of purge events,
     DBA needs to manually purge records from this view, if it grows too
     large.                                                         11gR2
Audit Trail Cleanup – Contd.
SELECT *
FROM   DBA_AUDIT_MGMT_CONFIG_PARAMS;

PARAMETER_NAME                PARAMETER_VALUE   AUDIT_TRAIL
---------------------------   ---------------   ---------------------
DB AUDIT TABLESPACE           SYSAUX            STANDARD AUDIT TRAIL
DB AUDIT TABLESPACE           SYSAUX            FGA AUDIT TRAIL
AUDIT FILE MAX SIZE           10000             OS AUDIT TRAIL
AUDIT FILE MAX SIZE           10000             XML AUDIT TRAIL
AUDIT FILE MAX AGE            5                 OS AUDIT TRAIL
AUDIT FILE MAX AGE            5                 XML AUDIT TRAIL
DB AUDIT CLEAN BATCH SIZE     10000             STANDARD AUDIT TRAIL
DB AUDIT CLEAN BATCH SIZE     10000             FGA AUDIT TRAIL
OS FILE CLEAN BATCH SIZE      1000              OS AUDIT TRAIL
OS FILE CLEAN BATCH SIZE      1000              XML AUDIT TRAIL
DEFAULT CLEAN UP INTERVAL     24                STANDARD AUDIT TRAIL
                                                              11gR2
External Table Preprocessing
• The preprocessor program converts the data to a record
  format supported by the ORACLE_LOADER access
  driver and then writes the converted record data to
  standard output (stdout), which the access driver reads
  as input.
• Very useful in situations like if the input file is
  compressed format
• New EXECUTE Privilege for Directory Objects.
• Preprocess commands execute every time table is read.
• DEFAULT DIRECTORY specifies the directory location
  of the data file. PREPROCESSOR specifies the
  executable directory and the name of the executable.
                                                    11gR2
External Table Preprocessing – Contd.
create directory data_dir as '/home/biju/data_files';
create directory exec_dir as '/home/biju/exec_scripts';
grant read, write on directory data_dir to bthomas;
grant execute on directory exec_dir to bthomas;

$ pwd
/home/biju/data_files
$ ls -l
-rw-r--r-- 1 oracle dba 99 Feb 25 19:33 emp_sal.txt.gz
$ pwd
/home/biju/exec_scripts
$ ls -l
-rwxr--r-- 1 oracle dba 13 Feb 25 19:39 run_zcat.sh
$ cat run_zcat.sh
/bin/zcat $1
                                                          11gR2
External Table Preprocessing – Contd.
create table zx_file (empno number(5),
      empname varchar2(20), salary number (10,2))
     organization external (
     type oracle_loader
     default directory data_dir
     access parameters (records delimited by newline
            preprocessor exec_dir:'run_zcat.sh'
            fields terminated by ',')
     location ('emp_sal.txt.gz'));

select *      from zx_file;
       EMPNO EMPNAME                    SALARY
----------   -------------------- ----------
       101   John King               1245.68
       201   Matt Love               4567.33
       345   Joshua Jacob            67533.9           11gR2
DataPump Legacy Mode
• If you are still using the legacy “exp” and “imp”
  commands and comfortable with them, in 11gR2 data
  pump recognizes the legacy parameters.
• The output file is written to default DATA_PUMP_DIR
  location, not to the current directory.
• Can create a non-existent user during import.

expdp file=bthomas.dmp log=bthomas.log
  owner=bthomas rows=n
impdp file=bthomas.dmp log=bthomas_imp.log
  fromuser=bthomas touser=bthomas_dump
                                                   11gR2
Scheduler: File Watcher
• Start a job based on file arrival.
• File watcher is a scheduler object that defines its
  location and other properties.
• By default file watcher checks for arrival of a file
  every 10 minutes.
• DBMS_SCHEDULER.CREATE_FILE_WATCHER
  procedure is used to create file watcher.
• dba_scheduler_file_watchers view lists all active
  file watchers.
                                                11gR2
Scheduler: Email Alerts
• Scheduler can send emails based on job events.
• ADD_JOB_EMAIL_NOTIFICATION procedure.
• DBA_SCHEDULER_NOTIFICATIONS view.


        job_all_events      job_over_max_dur
        job_broken          job_run_completed
        job_chain_stalled   job_sch_lim_reached
        job_completed       job_started
        job_disabled        job_stopped
        job_failed          job_succeeded


                                                  11gR2
SQL*Plus Exit Commit
• Prior to Oracle11gR2, the default behavior on
  EXIT from SQL*Plus is COMMIT and exit.
• In 11gR2, you can define the behavior. The
  default behavior is COMMIT on EXIT, which can
  be made to ROLLBACK on EXIT using

SET EXITCOMMIT OFF


                                           11gR2
11gR2 [11.2.0.1] &
    11gR2ps1 [11.2.0.2]
         Features

      Installation, ASM
Grid Infrastructure – Getting
           Started
Full Install Patchsets
• Beginning 11gR2, patch set 1 [11.2.0.2], patchsets include full
  software install [patch number 10098816].
• No need to download and install base version and then patch.
• Oracle recommends out of place install and upgrade. In place
  upgrade still supported.
• Patchsets are still downloaded from Metalink [using wget is much
  easier].
                                                                 client
                                                                 database
  p10098816_112020_Linux-x86-64_1of7.zip : Database part 1
  p10098816_112020_Linux-x86-64_2of7.zip : Database part 2       deinstall
  p10098816_112020_Linux-x86-64_3of7.zip : Grid Infrastructure   examples
  p10098816_112020_Linux-x86-64_4of7.zip : Client                gateways
  p10098816_112020_Linux-x86-64_5of7.zip : Gateways
  p10098816_112020_Linux-x86-64_6of7.zip : Examples
                                                                 grid
  p10098816_112020_Linux-x86-64_7of7.zip : DeInstall
                                                                             11gR2ps1
Automatic Software Update
• The installer (OUI) connects to Metalink to check
  for software updates and applies them.




                                            11gR2ps1
Install – New Warnings




                         11gR2
Install – ASM is Grid Infrastructure
• Starting 11gR2, ASM Oracle Home is separate
  from Database Oracle Home.
• ASM Oracle Home is known as Grid
  Infrastructure (GI).
• Software distribution includes “database” and
  “grid”.



• Grid single instance install software same for
  RAC install as well.                         11gR2
Oracle Restart
• Oracle components can be automatically
  restarted after a hardware or software failure or
  whenever host computer restarts.
  –   ASM Instance
  –   Mount Diskgroups
  –   Oracle Notification Services [if enabled]
  –   Listeners
  –   Databases
  –   Services
• Knows dependency
                                                  11gR2
Oracle Restart – Contd.
• Use srvctl to manually start/stop components.
$ srvctl start asm
$ srvctl start database -d cecordev
• Use crsctl to enable Oracle Restart
{GI_HOME}/bin/crsctl enable has
CRS-4622: Oracle High Availability Services autostart is enabled.
{GI_HOME}/bin/crsctl start has
CRS-4123: Oracle High Availability Services has been started.

• Configure components using srvctl
$ srvctl add listener -l LISTENER_ASM -p "TCP:1521" -o
   $ORACLE_HOME
$ srvctl config asm
ASM home: /u01/app/oracle/grid/11.2.0.2
ASM listener: LISTENER_ASM
Spfile: /u01/app/oracle/grid/11.2.0.2/dbs/spfile+ASM.ora
ASM diskgroup discovery string:
                                                                    11gR2
Oracle Restart – Contd.
$   crsctl stat res -t
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------
NAME            TARGET STATE        SERVER                   STATE_DETAILS
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Local Resources
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------
ora.LISTENER_ASM.lsnr
                ONLINE ONLINE       gildv248
ora.LISTENER_DB.lsnr
                ONLINE ONLINE       gildv248
ora.ORAARCH.dg
                ONLINE ONLINE       gildv248
ora.ORADATA.dg
                ONLINE ONLINE       gildv248
ora.asm
                ONLINE ONLINE       gildv248                 Started
ora.ons
                OFFLINE OFFLINE     gildv248
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Cluster Resources
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------
ora.cecordev.db
      1        ONLINE ONLINE        gildv248                 Open
ora.cefsgdev.db
      1        ONLINE ONLINE        gildv248                 Open
ora.cssd
      1        ONLINE ONLINE        gildv248
ora.diskmon
      1        ONLINE ONLINE        gildv248
ora.evmd
      1        ONLINE ONLINE        gildv248                                       11gR2
SYSASM Privilege
• Improves security by separating ASM
  administration from DB administration.
• Needed to stop/start ASM Instance, create
  diskgroups in 11gR2.
• New OSASM group, similar to OSDBA and
  OSOPER.
• Remote authentication possible using syntax
  sys@"myhost.mydomain.com:1521/+ASM" AS SYSASM




                                                  11gR2
ASMCA – Manage ASM
• ASM Configuration     • Command line using
  Assistant               the –silent option
• supports installing   • dbca not available in
  and configuring ASM     GI home
  instances, disk
  groups, volumes
  (ASMDVM), and
  Oracle ASM Cluster
  File System (ACFS)


                                            11gR2
Rename ASM Diskgroup
• Possible to rename diskgroup when dg is not
  mounted.
• Database file names must be manually
  renamed.
• Old diskgroups in Oracle Restart configuration
  must be removed manually.

$ srvctl stop diskgroup -g oops1
$ renamedg dgname=oops1 newdgname=good1
  verbose=true
$ srvctl start diskgroup –g good1       11gR2
11gR1 [11.1.0.x] Features

Quick Review of Oracle11gR1
Must-know non-Top Features
Alert log, Trace file Location
• Automatic Diagnostic Repository (ADR) keeps all the log
  and trace files.
• DIAGNOSTIC_DEST parameter replaces
  BACKGROUND_DUMP_DEST, USER_DUMP_DEST
  and CORE_DUMP_DEST parameters.
• DIAGNOSTIC_DEST defaults to ORACLE_BASE if set,
  else ORACLE_HOME/log.
• Alert log is under
  DIAGNOSTIC_DEST/diag/rdbms/database/instance/trac
  e. The XML version is under ../alert.

                                                   11gR1
Passwords are Case Sensitive
• New users created in Oracle11g have case sensitive
  password.
• When upgrading from pre-11 release, case sensitivity
  takes effect when you change password.
• PASSWORD_VERSIONS and PASSWORD columns in
  DBA_USERS.
• Disable case sensitivity by setting
  SEC_CASE_SENSITIVE_LOGON to FALSE.
• ORAPWD has a new parameter – IGNORECASE.
• For database links, the account in Oracle11g should
  have password in uppercase when linking from pre-11g
  database.
                                                 11gR1
Changes to DEFAULT Profile
• PASSWORD_LIFE_TIME is 180
• PASSWORD_LOCK_TIME is 1
• PASSWORD_GRACE_TIME is 7
• FAILED_LOGIN_ATTEMPTS is 10
• ?/rdbms/admin/utlpwdmg.sql creates
  VERIFY_FUNCTION_11G, with enhanced
  password complexity checking.
• $ORACLE_HOME/rdbms/admin/secconf.sql
  changes DEFAULT profile, and enables default
  auditing.                              11gR1
Default Auditing
• AUDIT_TRAIL parameter is set to DB
• ALTER SYTEM, ALTER USER, ALTER
  DATABASE, ALTER PROFILE actions are
  audited.
• CREATE USER, DROP USER, DROP PROFILE
  actions are audited.
• Logins are audited (CREATE SESSION).
• Most “ANY” privilege actions are audited.
• Delete on AUD$ is audited and such records
  cannot be deleted.
Read-Only Table
• New ALTER TABLE clause to make a table read-only.
• If you try to perform insert or update or delete on read-
  only table, you get an ORA-12081 error.
• Flashback, Truncate not allowed.
• Drop table, drop indexes, drop constraints allowed.
ALTER TABLE <table_name> READ ONLY;
ALTER TABLE <table_name> READ WRITE;
select owner, table_name, tablespace_name
from dba_tables
where read_only = 'YES';
                                                       11gR1
Tablespace for Temporary Tables
• In pre-Oracle11g releases, the global temporary
  table segments where created in the user’s
  default temporary tablespace.
• In Oracle11g, you can specify a tablespace for
  global temporary tablespace segments.
create global temporary table customer_stage (
cust_name number (10),
col1 varchar2 (40),
col2 varchar2 (60))
on commit preserve rows
tablespace temp;                                 11gR1
Invisible Indexes
• If you want to test the implications of creating an
  index without affecting the application, you can
  make the index invisible. After testing, you may
  drop the index or make it visible.
• To make the optimizer use invisible index, set
  the OPTIMIZER_USE_INVISIBLE_INDEXES to
  TRUE in the session.
• INVISIBLE/VISIBLE clause is added to CREATE
  INDEX and ALTER INDEX statements
                                                11gR1
Invisible Indexes – Contd.
SQL> create index hr.employee_test on hr.employee (first_name) invisible;
Index created.
SQL> select index_name, visibility from dba_indexes
  2 where owner = 'HR' and table_name = 'EMPLOYEE';
INDEX_NAME                       VISIBILIT
------------------------------ ---------
PK_EMPLOYEE                      VISIBLE
EMPLOYEE_TEST                    INVISIBLE
SQL> select first_name, last_name from hr.employee
  2 where first_name = 'John';
------------------------------------------------------------------------------
| Id | Operation            | Name      | Rows | Bytes | Cost (%CPU)| Time     |
------------------------------------------------------------------------------
|   0 | SELECT STATEMENT |              |     3 |   78 |     3   (0)| 00:00:01 |
|* 1 | TABLE ACCESS FULL| EMPLOYEE |          3 |   78 |     3   (0)| 00:00:01 |
------------------------------------------------------------------------------
SQL> alter session set optimizer_use_invisible_indexes = true;
Session altered.
SQL> select first_name, last_name from hr.employee
  2 where first_name = 'John';
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
| Id | Operation                      | Name          | Rows | Bytes | Cost (%CPU
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
|   0 | SELECT STATEMENT              |               |    3 |    78 |     2   (0
|   1 | TABLE ACCESS BY INDEX ROWID| EMPLOYEE         |    3 |    78 |     2   (0
|* 2 |     INDEX RANGE SCAN           | EMPLOYEE_TEST |    3 |       |     1   (0   11gR1
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
DB Protection Levels
• DB_ULTRA_SAFE parameter controls the
  protection level.
• OFF: Values specified for DB_BLOCK_CHECKING,
  DB_BLOCK_CHECKSUM and DB_LOST_WRITE are
  taken.
• DATA_ONLY: DB_BLOCK_CHECKING=MEDIUM,
  DB_BLOCK_CHECKSUM=FULL,
  DB_LOST_WRITE_PROTECT=TYPICAL
• DATA_AND_INDEX: DB_BLOCK_CHECKING=FULL,
  DB_BLOCK_CHECKSUM=FULL,
  DB_LOST_WRITE_PROTECT=TYPICAL
                                           11gR1
DDL Lock Timeout
• New parameter to specify the DDL lock wait time
  – DDL_LOCK_TIMEOUT
• Value specified in seconds, default is 0, max
  1,000,000.
• Parameter can be changed using ALTER
  SYSTEM or ALTER SESSION.
• When the timeout expires, error returned as in
  previous releases.
ORA-00054: resource busy and acquire
  with NOWAIT specified or timeout
  expired                                     11gR1
WAIT in LOCK TABLE
• The LOCK TABLE statement is enhanced to
  include a WAIT clause.
• You can now specify how many seconds you
  want the database to wait before returning the
  “resource busy” error.

LOCK TABLE <table_name> IN EXCLUSIVE
  MODE WAIT 120;

                                             11gR1
DDL Logging
• To log all DDL operations in the alert log file, set the
  parameter ENABLE_DDL_LOGGING.
• The default value is FALSE, means DDL logging is
  disabled.
• Can be changed using ALTER SESSION or ALTER
  SYSTEM

Sun Jan 30 11:21:11 2011
create table bthomas.test_table (nn number)
Sun Jan 30 11:27:34 2011
alter table bthomas.test_table modify (nn varchar2 (10))
Sun Jan 30 11:29:43 2011
drop table bthomas.test_table
                                                         11gR1
Automatic Memory Configuration
• New parameters – MEMORY_TARGET and
  MEMORY_MAX_TARGET.
• No need to specify SGA size (SGA_TARGET)
  and PGA size (PGA_AGGREGATE_TARGET)
  separately.
• If SGA and PGA parameters are not set, the
  default initial allocation is 60% SGA and 40%
  PGA.
• New view – V$MEMORY_TARGET_ADVICE.

                                            11gR1
Automatic Memory Configuration - Contd
• The V$MEMORY_DYNAMIC_COMPONENTS view
  shows the summarized information on all resize
  operations and shows the current sizes of all SGA
  components.
• If you set the MEMORY_TARGET to a non-zero value,
  Oracle will manage memory automatically. The
  MEMORY_MAX_TARGET will default to the value of
  MEMORY_TARGET.
• If you have also set SGA_TARGET and
  PGA_AGGREGATE_TARGET parameters, those values
  will be considered the minimums.
                                              11gR1
Parameter File from Memory
• In pre-Oracle11g releases, we can create pfile
  from spfile or spfile from pfile.
• In Oracle11g, we can now create spfile or pfile
  from memory

  CREATE
    PFILE='/u01/oracle/admin/DB1/pfile/initD
    B1.ora' FROM MEMORY;

  CREATE SPFILE FROM MEMORY;
                                              11gR1
Misc: SQL*Plus Error Logging
• SQL*Plus error logging to write ORA, PLS and SP2
  errors – Default table name is SPERRORLOG.
       SET   ERRORL[OGGING] {ON|OFF} [TABLE [schema.]tablename]
             [TRUNCATE] [IDENTIFIER identifier]
             SQL> desc sperrorlog
              Name                   Null?              Type
              ---------------------- --------           ----------------
              USERNAME                                  VARCHAR2(256)
              TIMESTAMP                                 TIMESTAMP(6)
              SCRIPT                                    VARCHAR2(1024)
              IDENTIFIER                                VARCHAR2(256)
              MESSAGE                                   CLOB
              STATEMENT                                 CLOB


SQL>         set errorlogging on
                                                                       11gR1
Questions….???

And… Thank You For Your Time
• Please complete the session evaluation form
   – Biju Thomas
   – Oracle11gR2 for Oracle10gR2 DBA
   – Session # 313
• Further questions, comments…
   – Stop by Booth #939
   – WWW.ONENECK.COM

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2011 Collaborate IOUG Presentation

  • 1. Oracle11gR2 for Oracle10gR2 DBA Biju Thomas OneNeck IT Services Session #313 http://www.oneneck.com
  • 2. About me… • Senior Database Architect at OneNeck IT Services Corporation (www.oneneck.com) • More than 18 years of Oracle experience • Author of Oracle11g OCA, Co-author of Oracle10g (New Features), Oracle9i (SQL & Admin) and Oracle8i (SQL & Admin) certification guides published by Sybex/Wiley • Published articles in Oracle Magazine, Oracle Internals and Select Journal • Oracle 7, 8i, 9i, 10g, 11g OCP Administrator • Oracle Database SQL Certified Expert
  • 3. The ERP Outsourcing Experts : Provide a comprehensive, flexible suite of outsourcing solutions designed specifically to help mid-market and public sector organizations Over 130 customers and 66,000 users in 45 countries on six continents ~ Over 950 customer sites supported worldwide 98% Contract Renewal Rate over 13 years and 13 years of profitability (since inception) Ranked No. 1 ERP Management Outsourcer by the Black Book of Outsourcing Stop by Booth #939
  • 4. Session Objectives • Review Oracle11gR2 features for DBA • Highlight Oracle11gR2 and 11gR1 behaviors that are different from 10gR2. • Discuss out-of-the-box features that can be implemented easily [covered in the Enterprise Edition Install]. • These are not the top features of 11gR1 and 11gR2 release.
  • 5. Session Outline • 11gR2 DB Features – Includes Features in 11.2.0.2 [patchset 1] • Installation & ASM Changes – ASM is now Grid Infrastructure – Patchset Installation – Getting Started with Grid Infrastructure • 11gR1 Features – Quick Review • Paper includes more info with examples and Oracle documentation reference for further reading.
  • 6. 11gR2 [11.2.0.1] & 11gR2ps1 [11.2.0.2] Features Oracle Database & Tools
  • 7. On Demand Segment Creation • New segments for tables, indexes, LOB columns created only when row added to segment. • Partitioned tables & indexes added to this feature in PS1. • Improves space usage as well as large application install time. • DEFERRED_SEGMENT_CREATION parameter controls this behavior. • New column SEGMENT_CREATED in DBA_TABLES, DBA_INDEXES. 11gR2
  • 8. Remove & Add Empty Segments • DBMS_SPACE_ADMIN package includes programs to manage empty segments. – DROP_EMPTY_SEGMENTS – MATERIALIZE_DEFERRED_SEGMENTS • Three arguments – schema name, table name and partition name. EXEC SYS.dbms_space_admin.drop_empty_segments (schema_name=>'BTHOMAS', table_name=>'ODSEG_T1'); 11gR2
  • 9. Drop Segment in TRUNCATE select segment_name, bytes from user_segments • By default, Oracle where segment_name like 'ODSEG%' Database deallocates all or segment_name in (select segment_name space used except that from user_lobs); specified by the SEGMENT_NAME BYTES ------------------------- ---------- MINEXTENTS storage ODSEG_T1 65536 ODSEG_T1_PK 65536 parameter. SYS_LOB0000097197C00003$$ 65536 • In Oracle Database 11g truncate table odseg_t1 drop all storage; Table truncated. Release 2 (11.2.0.2), you select segment_name, bytes can use TRUNCATE with from user_segments where segment_name like 'ODSEG%' the DROP ALL or segment_name in STORAGE option to drop (select segment_name from user_lobs ); entire segments. no rows selected 11gR2ps1
  • 10. Zero-size Unusable Index select index_name, • If you alter any index segment_created, status from user_indexes; [b-tree, bitmap or INDEX_NAME SEG STATUS -------------------- --- -------- function based] to XX_T1_I1 YES VALID UNUSABLE, its storage alter index xx_t1_i1 unusable; Index altered. segments will be select index_name , dropped. segment_created, status • The parameter from user_indexes; INDEX_NAME SEG STATUS deferred_segment_crea -------------------- --- -------- XX_T1_I1 NO UNUSABLE tion does not have any select segment_name impact on this behavior. from dba_segments where segment_name = 'XX_T1_I1'; no rows selected 11gR2
  • 11. Change DB Link Password • The ALTER DATABASE LINK statement can change user password in the database link. • ALTER DATABASE LINK privilege needed to modify database links. • Private, PUBLIC and SHARED database link passwords can be changed. create database link myownlink connect to bthomas identified by justapwd using 'CECORDEV'; alter database link myownlink 11gR2 connect to bthomas identified by mynewpwd1;
  • 12. Concurrent Statistics Gather • Oracle11gR2 11.2.0.2 includes a new global preference setting for Optimizer statistics gathering. • The concurrent statistics gathering enables Oracle to gather statistics on multiple tables and table partitions concurrently. • The Job Scheduler will decide how many of these jobs will need to be run concurrently. exec DBMS_STATS.SET_GLOBAL_PREFS ('CONCURRENT','TRUE'); 11gR2ps1
  • 13. Audit Trail Management • DBMS_AUDIT_MGMT package to manage DB and OS audit trail records. • API to move audit tables to another tablespace. • AUDIT_TRAIL_AUD_STD constant for AUD$ table, AUDIT_TRAIL_FGA_STD for FGA_LOG$ table, AUDIT_TRAIL_DB_STD for both. SQL> execute DBMS_AUDIT_MGMT.SET_AUDIT_TRAIL_LOCATION( - > AUDIT_TRAIL_TYPE => DBMS_AUDIT_MGMT.AUDIT_TRAIL_AUD_STD, - > AUDIT_TRAIL_LOCATION_VALUE => 'SYSAUX'); 11gR2
  • 14. Audit Trail Cleanup • Initialize the audit cleanup infrastructure using INIT_CLEANUP • Optionally set the archive timestamp using SET_LAST_ARCHIVE_TIMESTAMP. By default records older than this timestamp are deleted when purge job is invoked. • Purge the records using CLEAN_AUDIT_TRAIL. • Setup a job to clean records periodically using CREATE_PURGE_JOB. 11gR2
  • 15. Audit Trail Cleanup – Contd. • Initialize dbms_audit_mgmt.init_cleanup( audit_trail_type => dbms_audit_mgmt.audit_trail_aud_std, default_cleanup_interval => 24 /* 1 day */ ); • Set Archive Timestamp dbms_audit_mgmt.set_last_archive_timestamp( audit_trail_type => dbms_audit_mgmt.audit_trail_aud_std, last_archive_time => systimestamp-60); • Manual Purge dbms_audit_mgmt.clean_audit_trail( audit_trail_type => dbms_audit_mgmt.audit_trail_aud_std, 11gR2 use_last_arch_timestamp => true);
  • 16. Audit Trail Cleanup – Contd. • Create purge job dbms_audit_mgmt.create_purge_job( audit_trail_type => dbms_audit_mgmt.audit_trail_aud_std, audit_trail_purge_interval => 24 /* 1 day */ , audit_trail_purge_name => 'PURGE_DB_AUDIT_RECORDS', use_last_arch_timestamp => true); • Views – DBA_AUDIT_MGMT_CONFIG_PARAMS: Shows current parameters values. – DBA_AUDIT_MGMT_LAST_ARCH_TS: Shows last archive timestamp set for audit trail purges. – DBA_AUDIT_MGMT_CLEANUP_JOBS: Shows current cleanup jobs. – DBA_AUDIT_MGMT_CLEAN_EVENTS: Show history of purge events, DBA needs to manually purge records from this view, if it grows too large. 11gR2
  • 17. Audit Trail Cleanup – Contd. SELECT * FROM DBA_AUDIT_MGMT_CONFIG_PARAMS; PARAMETER_NAME PARAMETER_VALUE AUDIT_TRAIL --------------------------- --------------- --------------------- DB AUDIT TABLESPACE SYSAUX STANDARD AUDIT TRAIL DB AUDIT TABLESPACE SYSAUX FGA AUDIT TRAIL AUDIT FILE MAX SIZE 10000 OS AUDIT TRAIL AUDIT FILE MAX SIZE 10000 XML AUDIT TRAIL AUDIT FILE MAX AGE 5 OS AUDIT TRAIL AUDIT FILE MAX AGE 5 XML AUDIT TRAIL DB AUDIT CLEAN BATCH SIZE 10000 STANDARD AUDIT TRAIL DB AUDIT CLEAN BATCH SIZE 10000 FGA AUDIT TRAIL OS FILE CLEAN BATCH SIZE 1000 OS AUDIT TRAIL OS FILE CLEAN BATCH SIZE 1000 XML AUDIT TRAIL DEFAULT CLEAN UP INTERVAL 24 STANDARD AUDIT TRAIL 11gR2
  • 18. External Table Preprocessing • The preprocessor program converts the data to a record format supported by the ORACLE_LOADER access driver and then writes the converted record data to standard output (stdout), which the access driver reads as input. • Very useful in situations like if the input file is compressed format • New EXECUTE Privilege for Directory Objects. • Preprocess commands execute every time table is read. • DEFAULT DIRECTORY specifies the directory location of the data file. PREPROCESSOR specifies the executable directory and the name of the executable. 11gR2
  • 19. External Table Preprocessing – Contd. create directory data_dir as '/home/biju/data_files'; create directory exec_dir as '/home/biju/exec_scripts'; grant read, write on directory data_dir to bthomas; grant execute on directory exec_dir to bthomas; $ pwd /home/biju/data_files $ ls -l -rw-r--r-- 1 oracle dba 99 Feb 25 19:33 emp_sal.txt.gz $ pwd /home/biju/exec_scripts $ ls -l -rwxr--r-- 1 oracle dba 13 Feb 25 19:39 run_zcat.sh $ cat run_zcat.sh /bin/zcat $1 11gR2
  • 20. External Table Preprocessing – Contd. create table zx_file (empno number(5), empname varchar2(20), salary number (10,2)) organization external ( type oracle_loader default directory data_dir access parameters (records delimited by newline preprocessor exec_dir:'run_zcat.sh' fields terminated by ',') location ('emp_sal.txt.gz')); select * from zx_file; EMPNO EMPNAME SALARY ---------- -------------------- ---------- 101 John King 1245.68 201 Matt Love 4567.33 345 Joshua Jacob 67533.9 11gR2
  • 21. DataPump Legacy Mode • If you are still using the legacy “exp” and “imp” commands and comfortable with them, in 11gR2 data pump recognizes the legacy parameters. • The output file is written to default DATA_PUMP_DIR location, not to the current directory. • Can create a non-existent user during import. expdp file=bthomas.dmp log=bthomas.log owner=bthomas rows=n impdp file=bthomas.dmp log=bthomas_imp.log fromuser=bthomas touser=bthomas_dump 11gR2
  • 22. Scheduler: File Watcher • Start a job based on file arrival. • File watcher is a scheduler object that defines its location and other properties. • By default file watcher checks for arrival of a file every 10 minutes. • DBMS_SCHEDULER.CREATE_FILE_WATCHER procedure is used to create file watcher. • dba_scheduler_file_watchers view lists all active file watchers. 11gR2
  • 23. Scheduler: Email Alerts • Scheduler can send emails based on job events. • ADD_JOB_EMAIL_NOTIFICATION procedure. • DBA_SCHEDULER_NOTIFICATIONS view. job_all_events job_over_max_dur job_broken job_run_completed job_chain_stalled job_sch_lim_reached job_completed job_started job_disabled job_stopped job_failed job_succeeded 11gR2
  • 24. SQL*Plus Exit Commit • Prior to Oracle11gR2, the default behavior on EXIT from SQL*Plus is COMMIT and exit. • In 11gR2, you can define the behavior. The default behavior is COMMIT on EXIT, which can be made to ROLLBACK on EXIT using SET EXITCOMMIT OFF 11gR2
  • 25. 11gR2 [11.2.0.1] & 11gR2ps1 [11.2.0.2] Features Installation, ASM Grid Infrastructure – Getting Started
  • 26. Full Install Patchsets • Beginning 11gR2, patch set 1 [11.2.0.2], patchsets include full software install [patch number 10098816]. • No need to download and install base version and then patch. • Oracle recommends out of place install and upgrade. In place upgrade still supported. • Patchsets are still downloaded from Metalink [using wget is much easier]. client database p10098816_112020_Linux-x86-64_1of7.zip : Database part 1 p10098816_112020_Linux-x86-64_2of7.zip : Database part 2 deinstall p10098816_112020_Linux-x86-64_3of7.zip : Grid Infrastructure examples p10098816_112020_Linux-x86-64_4of7.zip : Client gateways p10098816_112020_Linux-x86-64_5of7.zip : Gateways p10098816_112020_Linux-x86-64_6of7.zip : Examples grid p10098816_112020_Linux-x86-64_7of7.zip : DeInstall 11gR2ps1
  • 27. Automatic Software Update • The installer (OUI) connects to Metalink to check for software updates and applies them. 11gR2ps1
  • 28. Install – New Warnings 11gR2
  • 29. Install – ASM is Grid Infrastructure • Starting 11gR2, ASM Oracle Home is separate from Database Oracle Home. • ASM Oracle Home is known as Grid Infrastructure (GI). • Software distribution includes “database” and “grid”. • Grid single instance install software same for RAC install as well. 11gR2
  • 30. Oracle Restart • Oracle components can be automatically restarted after a hardware or software failure or whenever host computer restarts. – ASM Instance – Mount Diskgroups – Oracle Notification Services [if enabled] – Listeners – Databases – Services • Knows dependency 11gR2
  • 31. Oracle Restart – Contd. • Use srvctl to manually start/stop components. $ srvctl start asm $ srvctl start database -d cecordev • Use crsctl to enable Oracle Restart {GI_HOME}/bin/crsctl enable has CRS-4622: Oracle High Availability Services autostart is enabled. {GI_HOME}/bin/crsctl start has CRS-4123: Oracle High Availability Services has been started. • Configure components using srvctl $ srvctl add listener -l LISTENER_ASM -p "TCP:1521" -o $ORACLE_HOME $ srvctl config asm ASM home: /u01/app/oracle/grid/11.2.0.2 ASM listener: LISTENER_ASM Spfile: /u01/app/oracle/grid/11.2.0.2/dbs/spfile+ASM.ora ASM diskgroup discovery string: 11gR2
  • 32. Oracle Restart – Contd. $ crsctl stat res -t -------------------------------------------------------------------------------- NAME TARGET STATE SERVER STATE_DETAILS -------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Local Resources -------------------------------------------------------------------------------- ora.LISTENER_ASM.lsnr ONLINE ONLINE gildv248 ora.LISTENER_DB.lsnr ONLINE ONLINE gildv248 ora.ORAARCH.dg ONLINE ONLINE gildv248 ora.ORADATA.dg ONLINE ONLINE gildv248 ora.asm ONLINE ONLINE gildv248 Started ora.ons OFFLINE OFFLINE gildv248 -------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Cluster Resources -------------------------------------------------------------------------------- ora.cecordev.db 1 ONLINE ONLINE gildv248 Open ora.cefsgdev.db 1 ONLINE ONLINE gildv248 Open ora.cssd 1 ONLINE ONLINE gildv248 ora.diskmon 1 ONLINE ONLINE gildv248 ora.evmd 1 ONLINE ONLINE gildv248 11gR2
  • 33. SYSASM Privilege • Improves security by separating ASM administration from DB administration. • Needed to stop/start ASM Instance, create diskgroups in 11gR2. • New OSASM group, similar to OSDBA and OSOPER. • Remote authentication possible using syntax sys@"myhost.mydomain.com:1521/+ASM" AS SYSASM 11gR2
  • 34. ASMCA – Manage ASM • ASM Configuration • Command line using Assistant the –silent option • supports installing • dbca not available in and configuring ASM GI home instances, disk groups, volumes (ASMDVM), and Oracle ASM Cluster File System (ACFS) 11gR2
  • 35. Rename ASM Diskgroup • Possible to rename diskgroup when dg is not mounted. • Database file names must be manually renamed. • Old diskgroups in Oracle Restart configuration must be removed manually. $ srvctl stop diskgroup -g oops1 $ renamedg dgname=oops1 newdgname=good1 verbose=true $ srvctl start diskgroup –g good1 11gR2
  • 36. 11gR1 [11.1.0.x] Features Quick Review of Oracle11gR1 Must-know non-Top Features
  • 37. Alert log, Trace file Location • Automatic Diagnostic Repository (ADR) keeps all the log and trace files. • DIAGNOSTIC_DEST parameter replaces BACKGROUND_DUMP_DEST, USER_DUMP_DEST and CORE_DUMP_DEST parameters. • DIAGNOSTIC_DEST defaults to ORACLE_BASE if set, else ORACLE_HOME/log. • Alert log is under DIAGNOSTIC_DEST/diag/rdbms/database/instance/trac e. The XML version is under ../alert. 11gR1
  • 38. Passwords are Case Sensitive • New users created in Oracle11g have case sensitive password. • When upgrading from pre-11 release, case sensitivity takes effect when you change password. • PASSWORD_VERSIONS and PASSWORD columns in DBA_USERS. • Disable case sensitivity by setting SEC_CASE_SENSITIVE_LOGON to FALSE. • ORAPWD has a new parameter – IGNORECASE. • For database links, the account in Oracle11g should have password in uppercase when linking from pre-11g database. 11gR1
  • 39. Changes to DEFAULT Profile • PASSWORD_LIFE_TIME is 180 • PASSWORD_LOCK_TIME is 1 • PASSWORD_GRACE_TIME is 7 • FAILED_LOGIN_ATTEMPTS is 10 • ?/rdbms/admin/utlpwdmg.sql creates VERIFY_FUNCTION_11G, with enhanced password complexity checking. • $ORACLE_HOME/rdbms/admin/secconf.sql changes DEFAULT profile, and enables default auditing. 11gR1
  • 40. Default Auditing • AUDIT_TRAIL parameter is set to DB • ALTER SYTEM, ALTER USER, ALTER DATABASE, ALTER PROFILE actions are audited. • CREATE USER, DROP USER, DROP PROFILE actions are audited. • Logins are audited (CREATE SESSION). • Most “ANY” privilege actions are audited. • Delete on AUD$ is audited and such records cannot be deleted.
  • 41. Read-Only Table • New ALTER TABLE clause to make a table read-only. • If you try to perform insert or update or delete on read- only table, you get an ORA-12081 error. • Flashback, Truncate not allowed. • Drop table, drop indexes, drop constraints allowed. ALTER TABLE <table_name> READ ONLY; ALTER TABLE <table_name> READ WRITE; select owner, table_name, tablespace_name from dba_tables where read_only = 'YES'; 11gR1
  • 42. Tablespace for Temporary Tables • In pre-Oracle11g releases, the global temporary table segments where created in the user’s default temporary tablespace. • In Oracle11g, you can specify a tablespace for global temporary tablespace segments. create global temporary table customer_stage ( cust_name number (10), col1 varchar2 (40), col2 varchar2 (60)) on commit preserve rows tablespace temp; 11gR1
  • 43. Invisible Indexes • If you want to test the implications of creating an index without affecting the application, you can make the index invisible. After testing, you may drop the index or make it visible. • To make the optimizer use invisible index, set the OPTIMIZER_USE_INVISIBLE_INDEXES to TRUE in the session. • INVISIBLE/VISIBLE clause is added to CREATE INDEX and ALTER INDEX statements 11gR1
  • 44. Invisible Indexes – Contd. SQL> create index hr.employee_test on hr.employee (first_name) invisible; Index created. SQL> select index_name, visibility from dba_indexes 2 where owner = 'HR' and table_name = 'EMPLOYEE'; INDEX_NAME VISIBILIT ------------------------------ --------- PK_EMPLOYEE VISIBLE EMPLOYEE_TEST INVISIBLE SQL> select first_name, last_name from hr.employee 2 where first_name = 'John'; ------------------------------------------------------------------------------ | Id | Operation | Name | Rows | Bytes | Cost (%CPU)| Time | ------------------------------------------------------------------------------ | 0 | SELECT STATEMENT | | 3 | 78 | 3 (0)| 00:00:01 | |* 1 | TABLE ACCESS FULL| EMPLOYEE | 3 | 78 | 3 (0)| 00:00:01 | ------------------------------------------------------------------------------ SQL> alter session set optimizer_use_invisible_indexes = true; Session altered. SQL> select first_name, last_name from hr.employee 2 where first_name = 'John'; ------------------------------------------------------------------------------- | Id | Operation | Name | Rows | Bytes | Cost (%CPU ------------------------------------------------------------------------------- | 0 | SELECT STATEMENT | | 3 | 78 | 2 (0 | 1 | TABLE ACCESS BY INDEX ROWID| EMPLOYEE | 3 | 78 | 2 (0 |* 2 | INDEX RANGE SCAN | EMPLOYEE_TEST | 3 | | 1 (0 11gR1 -------------------------------------------------------------------------------
  • 45. DB Protection Levels • DB_ULTRA_SAFE parameter controls the protection level. • OFF: Values specified for DB_BLOCK_CHECKING, DB_BLOCK_CHECKSUM and DB_LOST_WRITE are taken. • DATA_ONLY: DB_BLOCK_CHECKING=MEDIUM, DB_BLOCK_CHECKSUM=FULL, DB_LOST_WRITE_PROTECT=TYPICAL • DATA_AND_INDEX: DB_BLOCK_CHECKING=FULL, DB_BLOCK_CHECKSUM=FULL, DB_LOST_WRITE_PROTECT=TYPICAL 11gR1
  • 46. DDL Lock Timeout • New parameter to specify the DDL lock wait time – DDL_LOCK_TIMEOUT • Value specified in seconds, default is 0, max 1,000,000. • Parameter can be changed using ALTER SYSTEM or ALTER SESSION. • When the timeout expires, error returned as in previous releases. ORA-00054: resource busy and acquire with NOWAIT specified or timeout expired 11gR1
  • 47. WAIT in LOCK TABLE • The LOCK TABLE statement is enhanced to include a WAIT clause. • You can now specify how many seconds you want the database to wait before returning the “resource busy” error. LOCK TABLE <table_name> IN EXCLUSIVE MODE WAIT 120; 11gR1
  • 48. DDL Logging • To log all DDL operations in the alert log file, set the parameter ENABLE_DDL_LOGGING. • The default value is FALSE, means DDL logging is disabled. • Can be changed using ALTER SESSION or ALTER SYSTEM Sun Jan 30 11:21:11 2011 create table bthomas.test_table (nn number) Sun Jan 30 11:27:34 2011 alter table bthomas.test_table modify (nn varchar2 (10)) Sun Jan 30 11:29:43 2011 drop table bthomas.test_table 11gR1
  • 49. Automatic Memory Configuration • New parameters – MEMORY_TARGET and MEMORY_MAX_TARGET. • No need to specify SGA size (SGA_TARGET) and PGA size (PGA_AGGREGATE_TARGET) separately. • If SGA and PGA parameters are not set, the default initial allocation is 60% SGA and 40% PGA. • New view – V$MEMORY_TARGET_ADVICE. 11gR1
  • 50. Automatic Memory Configuration - Contd • The V$MEMORY_DYNAMIC_COMPONENTS view shows the summarized information on all resize operations and shows the current sizes of all SGA components. • If you set the MEMORY_TARGET to a non-zero value, Oracle will manage memory automatically. The MEMORY_MAX_TARGET will default to the value of MEMORY_TARGET. • If you have also set SGA_TARGET and PGA_AGGREGATE_TARGET parameters, those values will be considered the minimums. 11gR1
  • 51. Parameter File from Memory • In pre-Oracle11g releases, we can create pfile from spfile or spfile from pfile. • In Oracle11g, we can now create spfile or pfile from memory CREATE PFILE='/u01/oracle/admin/DB1/pfile/initD B1.ora' FROM MEMORY; CREATE SPFILE FROM MEMORY; 11gR1
  • 52. Misc: SQL*Plus Error Logging • SQL*Plus error logging to write ORA, PLS and SP2 errors – Default table name is SPERRORLOG. SET ERRORL[OGGING] {ON|OFF} [TABLE [schema.]tablename] [TRUNCATE] [IDENTIFIER identifier] SQL> desc sperrorlog Name Null? Type ---------------------- -------- ---------------- USERNAME VARCHAR2(256) TIMESTAMP TIMESTAMP(6) SCRIPT VARCHAR2(1024) IDENTIFIER VARCHAR2(256) MESSAGE CLOB STATEMENT CLOB SQL> set errorlogging on 11gR1
  • 53. Questions….??? And… Thank You For Your Time • Please complete the session evaluation form – Biju Thomas – Oracle11gR2 for Oracle10gR2 DBA – Session # 313 • Further questions, comments… – Stop by Booth #939 – WWW.ONENECK.COM