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Xiangzheng Deng


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Project kick-off meeting
Beijing - April 2016

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Xiangzheng Deng

  1. 1. Eco-Urbanisation: Promoting Sustainable Development in Metropolitan Regions of China Xiangzheng Deng Chinese Academy of Sciences Cecilia Wong The University of Manchester Research Design
  2. 2. Outline of this presentation l Context of study l Research design l Research plan l Expect outputs l Message of our projects
  3. 3. Context of Study The introduction of the ‘National New-type Urbanisation Plan’ by the Chinese government in March 2014 signifies a shift in its urban development strategy towards a more human-centred and environmentally sustainable pathway. The ‘New-type Urbanization Plan’ will result in the construction of 30 million units of housing, with associated public amenities and infrastructure, over the next seven years. As the urban form and associated infrastructure are not locked in yet, this rapid development presents challenges and opportunities to move towards a new type of urbanisation that is financially and environmentally sustainable.
  4. 4. Context of Study In order to accommodate the rapid increase in urbanisation, the concept of a ‘new’ type of urbanisation is introduced for: • Coordinating urban and rural development; • Supporting an urban lifestyle for ecological production and consumption; • Making basic urban public services available to all permanent urban residents; • Optimizing macro-level city layouts; • Integrating ‘ecological civilization’ into the urbanization process.
  5. 5. Context of Study • There are however inherent tensions among these core principles as increasing service provision, housing and infrastructure development will increase the built-up area and urban land cover and could have major implications on future energy use and emissions; • The 2014 IPCC (p.940) report argues that the income gap in China between urban and rural areas has caused major differences in consumption and that there is a positive relationship between economic growth and CO2 emissions of urban areas in China.
  6. 6. Context of Study • Rapid urbanization of China is exerting environmental impact • Impact aggregated on population health and human well- being in cities particularly in poor communities • China has strict environmental codes and standards however these are often not adhered to, and they have sometimes been placed second to economic goals • Whether the efficiency gains from urbanisation can offset the scale of environmental challenges brought by the associated growth consumption and infrastructure construction?
  7. 7. Context of Study • Chinese cities, like cities across the globe face challenges of resource use, green space, species conservation, biodiversity, pollution, security, public service provision, population growth and adapting to climate change. • There is an opportunity for Chinese policymakers to learn from the experiments and best practices of other urban areas in developing effective strategies to enhance the urban environments and sustainability in future.
  8. 8. Relevant definitions • Urban ecosystem:a complex artificial-socio-economic-ecosystem. • Ecological communities: the modern ecological communities which with the human and the nature harmonious as the core and can play an ecological function. • Integrated urban eco-communities management from multidimensional and interdisciplinary research on:planning, industrial structure, resource utilization and allocation policy, eco-environmental protection, for urban adaptation and ecosystem sustainability. The kernel is the relationships between human well-being and eco-environmental sustainability which drives and be interacted by economic production, conscience of life cycling, and environmental conservation for green development.
  9. 9. Context of Study l Avoid vicious cycle of urbanization in future China; l Predict resource utilization and environmental capacity; l Implicate co-design of urban transformation and eco-environmental adaptation. New-type urbanization l Balance between high speed of economic growth and resource consumption; l Coordination on the trade-offs and synergies of multiple benefits between current and future generation. Eco-civilization
  10. 10. Outline of this presentation l Context of study l Research design l Research plan l Expect outputs l Message of our projects
  11. 11. Key research questions • What kind of eco-environment can grantee a better living standard of urban residents? How to quantitatively assess the impacts from their changing consumption patterns? • Where an integrated management options can be formulated and concentrated for efficiently and effectively allocating resources and improving using their using efficiency as well ? • How policy interventions can be enforced to coordinating conflicts between resource supply and demand in urban or potential urban area? How could we enhance our actions in a clear order?
  12. 12. Conceptual framework - explore spatial distribution - analyze driving indicators or impact factors -integrated modelling - management and policy implication in hierarchical frameworks
  13. 13. Key research issues 1. Eco-community construction constrained by supply and demand of resources o Eco-environmental indicators assessment o Comprehensive life cycle assessment 2. Urban management for decision making o Urban resource and ecosystem assessment o Eco-asset valuation and assessment 3. Eco-efficiency and environmental effects o Data Envelopment Analysis on eco-environmental effects o Modelling eco-efficiency of environmental effects 4. Urban adaptation and policy implication o Stochastic frontier approach for eco-environmental management o Integrated modelling of urban eco-environmental optimization process for ecologically adaptive management strategies
  14. 14. 1. Eco-community construction given resource supply and demand • An overview of the evolving contexts of urban development in terms of the interactions among the economic, socio-cultural, and environmental aspects, and the changing institutional and legal frameworks that have evolved in response to the challenges brought by globalization, climate change and rapid urbanization. • A meta-analysis of the literature review will be produced; and the conceptual framework will be refined by adapting relevant theories and methods to the rapid development context of China to examine the relationship between urban development, lifestyles, resource consumption, and environmental impacts and to identify the key characteristics of a ‘well-being’ oriented urban future. Eco-environmental indicators assessment
  15. 15. 1. Eco-community construction given resource supply and demand Life cycle assessment Analysis of lifestyle and consumption patterns in typical eco-cities and their impacts on the urban and regional environment by conducting integrated life cycle assessment.
  16. 16. 2. Urban management for decision making Urban resource and ecosystem assessment In-depth quantitative study on the efficiency of urban ecology, environment, and resource utilisation for sustainable development and the selected local communities to identify key impact factors of environmental changes brought by regional economic development and urbanisation.
  17. 17. 2. Urban management for decision making Eco-asset valuation and assessment Identifying formal legislation and regulations, financial and other incentives, investment and strategies in relation to economic growth, service and infrastructure provisions and environmental management in Chinese cities.
  18. 18. 3. Eco-efficiency and environmental effects Data Envelopment Analysis on eco- environmental effects Evaluate the comprehensive efficiency of ecological community by conducting a data envelopment analysis.
  19. 19. 3. Eco-efficiency and environmental effects Modelling eco-efficiency of environmental effects • Based on the literature review and field research, the research parameters such as urban size, spatial scale, study period, etc. will be chosen to finalize the data collection methodologies and analytical framework of the trend patterns of eco-management. • Undertaking a compilation of secondary statistics to construct sector-based indices and performing an analysis (e.g. shift-share analysis to ascertain the relationship between innovation-economic-environmental performance to contextualize and benchmark the state of sustainable development) that can be used in the integrated model. • Analysis of lifestyle and consumption patterns in typical eco-cities and their impacts on the urban and regional environment by using methods such as index decomposition method and DEA.
  20. 20. 4. Urban adaptation and policy implication Stochastic frontier approach for eco-environmental management Applying SFA to calculate eco-efficiency and to assess the ecological adaption management patterns to figure out a series of adaptive and feasible measurement strategies. The findings can then inform the development of eco-city policy and urban land use planning to meet the objectives of sustainable urbanization. D B )}(/:{),( yLxsupyxDI   x x y P(x) A x1 L(y) x2 Isoq(y) /x 投 入 距 离 函 数 C
  21. 21. 4. Urban adaptation and policy implication Integrated modelling of urban eco- environmental optimization process for updating managerial strategies Synthesizing the findings to provide insights to inform the design of institutional frameworks, governance structures, and policy and monitoring measures on the planning and management of ecological environmental performance of rapid urban growth, including beyond the Chinese context.
  22. 22. Outline of this presentation l Context of study l Research design l Research plan l Expect outputs l Message of our projects
  23. 23. Research plan
  24. 24. Outline of this presentation l Context of study l Research design l Research plan l Expect outputs l Message of our projects
  25. 25. Expect outputs • Integrated approach: § Comprehensive life cycle assessment methods § Input-Output methods § Stochastic frontier approach • Optimized management: § Community planning, industrial structure, resources and policy § Community ecology management control path § Community ecological integrated management method • Scientific decision-making: § Data, parameters, models § Research results § Expert knowledge
  26. 26. Expect outputs • Web-based platform to visualize the research findings Tables (3) • Input-Output table • Urban’s eco-efficiency • Resource use and environmental efficiency Criterions (4) Spatial planning Industrial structure Resource management Adjustment measures Platform (1)
  27. 27. Impacts 1. Knowledge exchange via accessible methods and media; 2. Active engagement with policy elites; 3.Research capacity building with key eco- urbanization stakeholders; 4. Dialogue between academics and local and national stakeholders.
  28. 28. Outline of this presentation l Context of study l Research design l Research plan l Expect outputs l Message of our projects
  29. 29. Message of our projects (Dataset) Socioeconomic indicators: 6 types and 140 sub-types 城市社会经济 国民经济 人口 就业人员和工资 能源 资源和环境 人民生活 产业 科技、文化、教育 城市概况 …… 国民生产总值、三大产业构成、居民消费水平、投入产出消耗系数 人口普查数据、人口抽样调查数据 经济活动人口、分产业就业人数、城镇就业人数、城乡就业人数 能源弹性系数、能源消费总量、综合能源平衡表 水资源分布、森林资源、自然灾害、环境污染治理投资 城市居民家庭收入、居民收入恩格尔系数、城市居民家庭基本情况 城市农产品产量、工业产品产量、建筑业总产值等 科技教育基本情况、城市高等院校数量、文化机构数量、医疗保障情况等 城市供水、城市燃气、城市公共交通、城市绿地与园林、城市设施水平等 土地利用 全球土地覆盖数据 我国土地覆盖数据 …… 全球地表覆盖5套LUCC数据(USGS、UMD、BU、GLC2000、ESA) 1988、1995、2000、2005、2010年5期土地利用转移数据,主要地类包括(耕地、林/草地、 建设用地)1km、10km县域内面积占比数据 气候参数 气温 降水 日照时数 相对湿度 …… 1961~2010气温空间数据 1961~2010降水空间数据 1961~2010日照时数数据 1961~2010相对湿度数据 生态参数 潜热 显热 …… 站点潜热数据 站点显热数据 社区社会经济 生态参数数据产品 城市环保协会 城市产业结构及资源利用 社区生态管理模式 家庭对政策的相应行为 社区自然资源禀赋 社区经济地理指标 …… 多传感器模拟或记录的生态参数数据产品 基础地理环境、 城市支柱产业、产业结构 生态环境管理制度、法律制度、社区管理方式 家庭对生态管理的反应行为 劳动力投入、土地投入、技术投入、资本投入、自然禀赋 农地流转数据、产业组织形式、产品流通、作物生产结构 社区管理 社会系统 经济系统 交通系统 设施系统 土地系统 管理系统 社会结构与人口健康、社会经济发展规划、政府工作报告 活力、经济结构与效率、社会经济统计数据、 服务功能和交通压力、交通发展规划 服务功能、能源和资源利用效率 景观恢复力、土地利用工体规划 管理与监管效率、生态保护规划 已 收 集 待 调 研 Data collection
  30. 30. Message of our projects (Dataset) The classification of urban land is based on remote sensing data, land use data, and analysis and modelling of correlativity of industrial structure.
  31. 31. We have extensive experience in household survey and empirical study. Message of our projects (Survey)
  32. 32. Message of our projects (Model and methods) Intermediate inputs Final demand output Land use Water supply sector 1 sector… sector N residents export sector 1 sector… sector N Primary factors import input Land use Water resource Input-output table Industry instruction Resource utilization Environment factors Planning and allocation We developed a type of input-output table with extensive accounts.
  33. 33. Crude Oil Gas Electricity This model (REEE) is used as a tool to analyze household production and consumption. Local resource-environmental-ecological-economic model Message of our projects (Model and methods)
  34. 34. Models for assessing urban ecosystem health. Models for assessing unobserved pollution among cities. Message of our projects (Publications)
  35. 35. Dynamics, features and impacts of urban land use in different models of urbanization. Urbanization, lifestyle and consumption The importance of urban’s production and consumption system for sustainable development. Message of our projects (Publications)
  36. 36. The impact of ecological management model on resource utilization. Review of ecological management model of communities and cities Interaction between residents’ behavior and ecological environment of communities. Message of our projects (Publications)
  37. 37. Urbanization and its ecological impact Message of our projects (Publications)
  38. 38. Urbanization and resource utilization Message of our projects (Publications)
  39. 39. Thank You! Xiangzheng Deng and Cecilia Wong on behalf of the team Research Design