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“Tales from the Dark Side” – Dor Tumarkin

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Presentation delivered on DC9723 October Meeting, by Dor Tumarkin

NOTICE DIFFERENT LOCATION (SafeBreach)!
DC9723 October 2017 Meeting

When: 24 of October, 2017 from 19:00 to 22:00
Where: SafeBreach Offices in Tel-Aviv (Yosef Karo 18, 4th floor, Tel Aviv.) NOTICE DIFFERENT LOCATION!
Agenda:

“Review of the Ukraine cyber attack 2015” – Guy Barnhart-Magen
“Tales from the Dark Side” – Dor Tumarkin
"NATO war games, updating crypto vulns in IDs, and other stuff" - Hillar Aarelaid
As always, the talks are free and there is no need to register. Come and bring your friends.

*We need more talks, please consider submitting a talk for the next DC9723 meeting. For more details and questions, please contact cfp@dc9723.org

Abstracts:
Review of the Ukraine cyber attack 2015 – Guy Barnhart-Magen
The cyber-attack on the Ukraine power grid was unique in that it was public, and not that it happened.
In this talk, I will discuss some unique characteristics of the attack, its structure, and the possible ramifications.
As this attack was attributed as a “cyber” act of war, the interest in the techniques and the methodology used is considerable.

Tales from the Dark Side – Dor Tumarkin
Information Security is a battle fought on many varied fronts.
Join Dor, a researcher and former consultant, as he shares stories of his team’s astounding victories against the feeble forces of good in “Tales from the Dark Side”.


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“Tales from the Dark Side” – Dor Tumarkin

  1. 1. Tales from the Dark Side Dor Tumarkin, Application Security Researcher Checkmarx
  2. 2. 2 Presentation Agenda • Introduction • Penetration-Testing, Red-Teaming in a nutshell • COOL STORIES • Questions
  3. 3. 3 • • • • • 2.5 years in Cisco Advanced Services Research New Tricks Write ReportsHave Fun at Someone Else’s Expense
  4. 4. 4 • • •
  5. 5. 5 • Identify all vulnerabilities in a well- defined scope • Exploit and demonstrate risk to environment • “Can you pick the lock on my front door? Are my windows secure?” Penetration Testing Red Team • Identify all vulnerabilities on a path to a specific goal within an organization • • Exploit anything in your way – computers, employees, nice security guards • “Can you steal the jewels from the safe inside this locked building?”
  6. 6. 6 Mind the Air-Gap
  7. 7. 7 Mind the Air-Gap • A Red Team on a big vendor (let’s call them E-Corp) • Hundreds of thousands of internet facing IPs • Behind a firewall, an IPS • Mostly updated • Dozens of web-applications • With Web Application Firewalls • Many interesting vulnerabilities, but no massive show-stoppers • Remote access has 2-factor authentication, so phishing is limited • …And we are looking for a solid way in
  8. 8. 8 Mind the Air-Gap • Multiple “presales labs” – blank demo environments owned by E-Corp, accessible via VPN • One ESX server with multiple virtual E-Corp appliances inside • No sensitive information • No configurations • No access to/from E-Corp’s network • …but all passwords are either default or simple (ecorp123) • VPN • ESX • Remote Desktop • SSH
  9. 9. 9 Mind the Air-Gap • But what use to us is an empty lab? • Well… • So we log in, aaaand… Boom.
  10. 10. 10 Mind the Air-Gap • This means that this ESX server for this lab is physically in a rack at some E-Corp site • But we’re not in quite yet
  11. 11. 11 Mind the Air-Gap Where are we going to get credentials in an empty lab??? Ooooh nooooo…
  12. 12. 12 Mind the Air-Gap • Account credentials are SSO, double as Wi-Fi credentials • And we got into corporate, just like that, over the air. • And like every fairy-tale, it had a happy ending… • …where we scored domain admin rights a few days later (LLMNR, etc.)
  13. 13. 13 Conclusions • No such thing as a “useless” or “harmless” environment • Particularly – no such thing as “doesn’t need security”! • “Remember my Password” on an untrusted computer in an untrusted lab? Come on, man.
  14. 14. 14 King without a Crown
  15. 15. 15 King without a Crown • Sometimes, though not often, challenges present themselves INSIDE organizations • Endpoint security • Network security • Tripwires • This time challenges were presented as policies
  16. 16. 16 King without a Crown • We’re inside a massive organization – Umbrella Corp. • Main objectives complete with time to spare • Infiltrated from outside • Collected most prized data – business development and finance • Nobody noticed • Collected a handful of domain user accounts on the way • Secondary objective: own the domain - be a domain administrator!
  17. 17. 17 King without a Crown • We’ve searched ceaselessly for such accounts or employees by crawling a central management application that manages user accounts • Everything is finely distributed between employees • Company policy - No domain administrators!
  18. 18. 18 King without a Crown • Wait a minute – a central management web-application? • Built using proprietary code! • If it can manage all accounts – then it must have a really powerful active directory user! • Maybe even… a domain admin? • Comb the code repositories!
  19. 19. 19 King without a Crown • The dev code repo environment was very easy to find • Code repository contains config files! • Config file contains credentials! #LDAP user Username=KCD3A08381467823D4013960E75E465F0B00C5E3BAEFBECBB Password=JFJA90BVM2ZO0YJF67NQ72YUVN7B71POCZM3098FABVDADG3Q • Wait, that doesn’t look right…
  20. 20. 20 King without a Crown • Config file contains encrypted credentials  • Company policy – passwords at rest MUST be encrypted or hashed
  21. 21. 21 King without a Crown • But the central management web-application isn’t the SERVER receiving these credentials • It is a CLIENT of the active directory when using them User Web Server Backend Client Client ServerServer • Password-driven authentication requires Clients to have the actual password!
  22. 22. 22 King without a Crown • Server has to have credentials in “plaintext” at some point… • Therefore - It must be able to decrypt this file!
  23. 23. 23 King without a Crown 1. Identify what part of code opens the encrypted credentials config file $filename = 'config.ini'; open($fh, $filename) or die "Could not open file '$filename'!"; *Pseudo-Code *
  24. 24. 24 King without a Crown 2. Trace code from that point to see where file is read, and where it is decrypted while ($row = $fh.readline()) { if ($row.startsWith('Username=')) { $username = crypto.decrypt($row[9:]); } if ($row.startsWith('Password=')) { $password = crypto.decrypt($row[9:]); } }
  25. 25. 25 King without a Crown 3. Reverse-engineer encryption! Function decrypt($encrypted) { $encrypted = reverseString($encrypted); $encrypted = $encrypted << 8; $magic = blowfish($encrypted, $keyOne); $decrypted = doMagic($magic,$keyTwo); return $decrypted; } $keyOne = ‘tQ@vH8dM%agy6Y4RO’; $keyTwo = ‘!#YCEKiMKijFtgcyZ’; This is very interesting and all but… Keep it simple! Grab their crypto!
  26. 26. 26 King without a Crown 4. “Develop” a decryption tool [stolen code goes here] print(“User:” + decrypt(“KCD3A08381467823D4013960E75E465F0B00C5E3BAEFBECBB”)); print(“Pass:” + decrypt(“JFJA90BVM2ZO0YJF67NQ72YUVN7B71POCZM3098FABVDADG3Q”)); User: admin1user Pass: 9m5!4G4GaZ1VU@oi9Xh 5. Profit
  27. 27. 27 King without a Crown • And that is how we became the first human domain admin they’ve seen in years • Was the “No domain admins” policy adhered?
  28. 28. 28 Conclusions • A lock is meaningless if you attach the keys to it – ditto for encryption and its keys • Keeping actionable information, such as passwords, in a dev environment is dangerous exposure • Bending policies is not a way to solve problems, it’s a way to obscure them (barely)
  29. 29. 29 The Phish that Kept on Phishing
  30. 30. 30 The Phish that Kept On Phishing • Most phishing awareness exercises involve employee awareness, which is very important • Access that the average user has • Would clicking a suspicious link mean the user will also submit their password? • Or download and install a file? • “Spear-Phishing” – are employees aware of more sophisticated, targeted attacks? • But most phishing awareness exercises aren’t concerned with the risk of a successful attack
  31. 31. 31 The Phish that Kept On Phishing • Our client, a bank, wanted to find out what are the risks it faces from phishing • We’ll call them Hacme, because why not • They also required us to build a system for keeping track of phishing targets • Each targeted e-mail received a link with a token • This token was saved along with every action *Illustration, it actually looked nothing like this User Token IP User Agent Action Debbie M. ja1Kd2moXpP2mJ xxx.xxx.90.3 Mozilla/5.0 (iPhone; CPU iPhone OS…) Clicked Link yyy.yyy.10.12 Mozilla/5.0 (Windows NT 6.1; WOW64) Clicked Link yyy.yyy.10.12 Mozilla/5.0 (Windows NT 6.1; WOW64) Logged in! Andrew R. u0IL9aZxQmnV3a yyy.yyy.10.12 Mozilla/5.0 (Windows NT 6.1; WOW64) Clicked Link yyy.yyy.10.12 Mozilla/5.0 (Windows NT 6.1; WOW64) Downloaded File John U. 73aBVlkq9Arq8nb zzz.zzz.90.114 Mozilla/5.0 (Linux; Android 4.0.4;…) Clicked Link
  32. 32. 32 The Phish that Kept On Phishing • Good credentials to phish for should: • Lead to as many sensitive environments as possible (SSO) • Lead to sensitive data • Lead to MORE ACCESS
  33. 33. 33 The Phish that Kept On Phishing • OWA is likely to contain sensitive information • Accessible online • Easy to impersonate by either installing your own server, or just replicating the login • Seamless Phishing – user submits credentials, credentials are saved by attacker, client is forwarded seamlessly into their real OWA inbox • Never know what hit ‘em
  34. 34. 34 From: it-guy@hacme-mail.com To: [target]@hacme.com Please forward. ---Forwarded Message--- From: it-manager@hacme.com Subject: Testing New OWA Login To All Employees, As many of you know, we were recently the targets of a large scale phishing attack[…] We are transitioning to a new & secure environment[…] https://owa.hacme-mail.com/owa/auth/login.aspx[…]
  35. 35. 35 The Phish that Kept On Phishing • Using our tracking system, we met our favorite victim ever - Debbie. • Debbie is the best! • We sent out 41 e-mails • How many users did we phish within 2 hours?
  36. 36. 36 117 That’s 300% (98 different users phished using Debbie’s token)
  37. 37. 37 The Phish that Kept On Phishing • On that day we celebrated Debbie, and all Debbies everywhere • In retrospect we found out it was way worse than we thought • …Debbie actually pulled this e-mail out of her spam box, before sending it to 300+ people. • Because despite this phishing e-mail successfully passing through our testing spam filters…
  38. 38. 38 The Phish that Kept On Phishing • We were able to prove that spam filters aren’t a good defense • Also that their phishing mitigation did not work • But also – how easy it is to compromise employee e- mails • We got a very broad user-base coverage – HR, PR, IT users • IT users apparently shared passwords over e-mail, too.
  39. 39. 39 The Phish that Kept On Phishing • Lets talk about Debbie• Is Debbie REALLY a ? • She may have messed up in her awareness • She may have set the bar low • But anyone can fall for the right lie
  40. 40. 40 Conclusions • Remember this acronym: N.B.D. Never. Be. Debbie. • Even people who practice N.B.D. daily can be fooled – always know your risks. • 2-factor authentication, in this case, would have made a huge difference.
  41. 41. 41 A Crowbar for Binary
  42. 42. 42 A Crowbar for Binary • A big financial institute had us engage their online assets and hack in • We’ll call them Golden Calf Investments • Not that many online assets • Most interesting ones were scoped out because: • No testing accounts or environments • “Federal Regulations” (pfffff)
  43. 43. 43 A Crowbar for Binary • How do we get in if we’re told to stay away?? • Some canned marketing applications… • Skin deep customer service applications… • …Outsourced, not even part of the organization • A couple of old employee-only applications… • Wait a minute, that last one sounds promising!
  44. 44. 44 A Crowbar for Binary The New Target: • Application with known exploits • Got App-Admin in… 5 minutes? • Got code running on web-server within a couple of hours
  45. 45. 45 A Crowbar for Binary • Realize web-server is boring, except for one database connection • Database is internal, beyond DMZ? • New goal: we own the database • Wrote code to go through web- server and directly talk to DB (SQL)
  46. 46. 46 A Crowbar for Binary • So what database are we really attacking here? • MSSQL • Database running as “sa” (lol) • VERY strict firewall rules • Can’t pull malware. • Can’t do much from inside out, really. • So we HAVE to push!
  47. 47. 47 A Crowbar for Binary Challenge #1 – OS Commands: • MSSQL feature - use xp_cmdshell to execute OS commands • There’s a character restriction in SQL queries however • Binaries would never fit
  48. 48. 48 A Crowbar for Binary Challenge #2 – Writing to Disk: • Introducing the latest in computer hacking technology: THIS GUY!
  49. 49. 49 A Crowbar for Binary Challenge #3 – Normalization: • Binary is binary • It’s 99% garbage to (most) humans • May contain bytes that break requests, or get altered on the way • Normalize with Base64 – all bytes converted to alpha-numeric
  50. 50. 50 xp_cmdshell ‘ ‘; SQL Query A Crowbar for Binary Hello World! Code SGVsbG 8gV29yb GQh Base64 echo SGVsbG8gV29ybGQh >> evil.b64.txt Echo to File • Now that we know how to get binaries unto the server, let’s do it! • Convert code to base64 • Chunk to segments that fit size restriction • For every segment – create command • For every command – execute with SQL
  51. 51. 51 A Crowbar for Binary • Great job getting a junk base64 file on the server! • How do we convert it back to binary without tools? • Maybe something that is naturally stored as either? • A certificate can be either a binary or base64. • It would be great if there was some sort of, I don’t know, a utility in Windows?util cert .exe -decode evil.b64.txt evil.exe
  52. 52. 52 A Crowbar for Binary • Score! • We’ve demonstrated executing a binary • From the internet • Riding a web server • Pass through the database with queries • And right into the DB’s operating system • Can install tools to scan internal network • Can have remote control with malware over DNS • In retrospect – this DB was co-hosted with their main business transaction OraDB. Double Score!
  53. 53. 53 Conclusions • A small misconfiguration behind an outdated system can be crowbarred into a gaping hole • Always patch your things, no matter how insignificant they seem • The Principle of Least Privilege
  54. 54. 54 (re)Applied Sciences
  55. 55. 55 (re)Applied Sciences • Reinventing the wheel is usually not recommended when unnecessary • With the myriad of technologies out there, though, you never know what you’ll come across • Sometimes, it’s all about taking something you know and understand and applying it to something you don’t
  56. 56. 56 (re)Applied Sciences • We were working on a large shipping company, let’s call them “Planet Express” • We’ve found an application that behaves very oddly • Landing page is empty • Dorking “site:” leads to a directory listing
  57. 57. 57 (re)Applied Sciences • Directory listing contains… e-mail files? • E-Mail files created very recently • E-Mail contents seem automated, and contain links back to the site itself • Links are to actual order information
  58. 58. 58 (re)Applied Sciences (Sophisticated Recreation) • Why is this application so weird? • Assumption: application is fully functioning when approached from internal network – externally, only links to orders can be accessed by clients
  59. 59. 59 (re)Applied Sciences • So of course, we test the only parameter we can access in this app by setting “orderId” to “1’ A ‘” (Sophisticated Recreation) • …Pardon? • Not like any SQL error I have ever seen
  60. 60. 60 (re)Applied Sciences • And so a quick Google search taught us that this is, in fact…
  61. 61. 61 CacheIntersystems SQL Who?? What?? Ok, at least we know this word
  62. 62. 62 (re)Applied Sciences • What is this database, even?? • For one – it’s SQL, so it probably adheres to the same syntax: • SELECT columns FROM database.table WHERE condition • At the same time – it exhibits the exact same behavior a “common” SQL error would: • Injected apostrophe (‘) breaks the syntax of the query • Additional verbs after ‘ error out • We can probably add more to the query, and get data!
  63. 63. 63 (re)Applied Sciences • So we can probably inject… • …but the internet is clueless • Very rare • No tools • No exploits • Not even a tutorial I DON’T KNOW WHO YOU ARE BUT I WILL READ ABOUT YOU AND I WILL HACK YOU
  64. 64. 64 (re)Applied Sciences • Which injection type do we choose? • UNION based – unite columns to create new tables, hope web server renders right • Error based – trigger an error that reflects information in it’s contents • Boolean based – identify true and false conditions, use these as an oracle for data • Boolean based are the only ones that require very little prior knowledge
  65. 65. 65 (re)Applied Sciences True statement False statement Give me orderId “AH0010-015” if 1=1 Give me orderId “AH0010-015” if 1=0
  66. 66. 66 (re)Applied Sciences • So what do we need for a Boolean SQL injection to work? • We need to establish the injection variables for what we want to retrieve: • SELECT columns FROM database.table WHERE boolean • How do we find the database name? • Table name? • Column name? • The right condition to help us retrieve data?
  67. 67. 67 (re)Applied Sciences • SQL usually has a table of tables, a table of databases, a table of columns etc. • These are all mapped out in a known way • Tools like SQLMap can automate the process because, once they fingerprint the database, they know where to find metadata • But they’ve never even heard of “Intersystems Cache SQL”
  68. 68. 68 (re)Applied Sciences • Research – from documentation: • Databases - SELECT SqlSchemaName FROM %dictionary.compiledclass WHERE SqlSchemaName LIKE ‘%’ • Tables - SELECT SqlSchemaName FROM %dictionary.compiledclass WHERE SqlSchemaName = 'db_name' AND SqlTableName LIKE 'table_name'
  69. 69. 69 (re)Applied Sciences • Research roadblock – no documentation of columns? Not in the same Dictionary.compiledclass?? • Ask an expert on StackOverflow!
  70. 70. 70 (re)Applied Sciences • We know where to get all the metadata we need to get all the stored data we want • Now for a condition, and we’re good to go • Keep it simple! • WHERE parameter LIKE ‘[inject]%’ • WHERE parameter LIKE ‘p%’ • WHERE parameter LIKE ‘pa%’ • WHERE parameter LIKE ‘pas%’…
  71. 71. 71 (re)Applied Sciences • Final injection form: orders.planetexpress.com/orders/manage/orders.jsp?orderId=AH00010-015' AND EXISTS (SELECT SqlSchemaName FROM %dictionary.compiledclass WHERE SqlSchemaName = 'db_name' AND SqlTableName LIKE 'table_name‘) • Building this into a Python script that enumerates letters and numbers on the condition replicates the principles of SQLMap’s Boolean-based SQL injection
  72. 72. 72 (re)Applied Sciences • We never made it into a nice “tool” form • We knew we’re not likely to see this system ever again… • But we dumped enough of the database to demonstrate we could get all shipping information on every single client
  73. 73. 73 Conclusions • Exotic technology is still technology • Obscure is not Secure • A simple external test would have revealed the information leakage which has lead to this exploitation
  74. 74. 74 Final Thoughts • Hacking is a lot more than just known vulnerabilities and available tools – it’s also a creative process • Never underestimate your opponents • Understanding & knowing risks and impact is as important as mitigating vulnerabilities in your network
  75. 75. 75 Questions?
  76. 76. Thank you.

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