Unidad 2 parte 1

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Unidad 2 parte 1

  1. 1. UNIT 2 THE STONE AGE
  2. 2. • It is the dicipline that studies the past of human beings throught time and space •To establish the order and dates of historical events we use chronology. We group years as follows: 10 years= a decade 100 years = a century 1000 years a millennium •In Western culture, the birth of Christ divides this chronology into two parts: - Before Christ ( BC) - Anno Domini ( AD)
  3. 3. 1000 B.C 500B.C | | | 300 A.D 100 B.C | 1000 A.D | | NOW Birth of Christ B.C 2013 A.D A.D
  4. 4. To study the past it is necessary to observe, interpret and read the remains that human beings have left. These remains are the sources that historians study to reconstruct the history Not written Written • Monuments • Buildings • Human or physical remains • Tools • Oral testimonies • Photographs • Art • Newspapers • Books • Documents( letters, treaties..) • Inscriptions • Coins
  5. 5.  Prehistory: - Starts with the appearance of the first human beings ( 4 million??? years ago ) -Ends with the invention of writing around 3500 BC -It is divided into stages: Paleolithic Age Neolithic Age Metal Age - Starts with the invention of writing and leads up to present time  History - It is divided into four stages: Ancient history : goes up to the fall of the Roman Empire The Middle Ages: goes up to the discovery of America The Modern Age: goes up to the French Revolution The Contemporary Age: is the age in which we live.
  6. 6. DEFINITION: Long period of time that starts with the appearance of the first human beings ( 4 million?? years ago) and ended with the invention of writing around 3000 BC. The only data we have about Prehistory are obtained through archaeology and art. Paleolithic THE STONE AGE 4 million B.C to 10.000 B.C Neolithic 10ooo B.C -3500 BC It is divided into stages Copper Age THE METAL AGE Bronze Age Iron Age
  7. 7. Paleolithic Neolithic
  8. 8. 2. ORIGIN A EVOLUTION OF HUMAN BEINGS Characteristics that distinguish hominids from apes are: More developed brain: think, speak, make tools Bipedalism: long legs, shorter arms, curve spine Cranial Changes: chin, vertical forehead, smaller jaw and teeth Changes in hands: opposable thumb
  9. 9. AUSTROLOPITHECUS SKULL SAPIENS SKULL
  10. 10. Which of these hominids used tools? Which of these hominids knew about fire?
  11. 11. AUSTRALOPITHECUS Brain not very developed- small Biped-erect walk but still climbed trees They used tools but did not make them Location: Africa
  12. 12. LUCY
  13. 13. HOMO HABILIS • Small brain, but bigger than Australopithecus • Biped- better adapted to walking upright • First hominid to make tool- very simple • Location: Africa
  14. 14. HOMO ERECTUS Bigger brain Made fire and more developed tools Bifaces. Wore animal hides Location: Africa- Asia
  15. 15. Biface
  16. 16. HOMO ANTECESSOR •Bigger Brain •Mix of physical features: Some similar to humans ( fine jaw) and other from an older time ( protruding eyebrows) •More developed tools •Location: Europe Atapuerca Burgos
  17. 17. HOMO NEANDERTHALENSIS Bigger Brain- similar to our brain Strong complexion Big face, protruding eyebrow, sunken forehead, No chin Buried their dead Location: Africa, Europe , Asia
  18. 18. HOMO SAPIENS Spherical skull, straight forehead Prominent chin Developed intelligence Tools made of stone, bone and animal horns Art Location: all the continents
  19. 19. 3. LIFE IN THE PALEOLITHIC AGE : Economy and society Food Climate There were very cold periods and milder periods They were predators: they live from hunting, fishing and gathering Where did the live? Society They were nomads and lived in caves or shelters. There was a hierarchy: some people were more important They lived in groups: Task were shared: women and men had different tasks. hordes tribe Beliefs They had religious beliefs: -buried their dead -deified forces of nature
  20. 20. 3. LIFE IN THE PALEOLITHIC AGE : Skills Working with stone • First: they didn´t know how to make tools , so they used stones and sticks • Later: they made very simple tools hitting one stone against another . Tools: Bifaces: (stone axes) and chips Making and controlling fire • First: they didn't know how to make fire. They got it from nature. • Later: They learnt to make it hitting stones • rubbing two sticks • Important for cooking, light, heat, chasing away or trapping animals Animal hides • Hides were used as: clothes, shoes, bags,, to sleep on, vessels… • It was important to look after them to keep them flexible.
  21. 21. HOW TO MAKE A TOOL
  22. 22. needles drill harpoon knives Arrow heads
  23. 23. 3. LIFE IN THE PALEOLITHIC AGE : Art a) CAVE PAINTINGS Where did they paint? Walls Ceilings Why did they paint? 2 theories: 1-They would be able to hunt them( magic effects) 2.They wanted to paint what they had seen ( a way of entertainment) Characteristics: 1.Painted individually 3. They used: fingers, brushes ´2. Realistic paintings 4.Painted on protruding rocks to give impression of relief. Examples: Altamira cave ( Cantabria) Lascaux cave ( Francia)
  24. 24. ALTAMIRA
  25. 25. LASCAUX
  26. 26. b) PORTABLE ART PORTABLE ART VENUS STATUES Symbols of fertility Feminine features very exaggerated BATONS Made of: Ivory Stone Bone Examples: Willendorf Venus Pieces of bone or horn Shape: head of a horse or deer
  27. 27. Venus
  28. 28. Baton

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