Smashing Heap by Free Simulation              Sandip Chaudhari          sandipchaudhari@gmail.com                    Ackno...
Abstract The exploit can be achieved without the need of any call  to the free() function. The overflowed memory is give...
Introduction Almost all the papers referenced in the References  section [1] through [7], discuss about heap overflows,  ...
Core Ideas Heap Overflow technique when the free() is being  called, is usually referred to as 4-byte overwrite. The cor...
Logical Constructs   Lets refer to the primitive logical constructs involving these pointer    assignments, that get exec...
What exactly is the                    Free Simulation? Free Simulation is the allocation of address space on simulated  ...
What exactly is the           Free Simulation? (contd.) An example of the usual state of heap with a few allocated  chunk...
What exactly is the         Free Simulation? (contd.)Heap                           Lets try to represent heap state at th...
What exactly is the                 Free Simulation? (contd.) After the overflow and the Free Simulation            Heap ...
Conditional Triggers The conditional triggers are instructions in the malloc  call that check if there is some previous o...
Free Simulation on Aix                  0x00000000 else                pointer to previously                              ...
Free Simulation on Aix (contd.) Usually, the PPF (Pointer to Previously Free’d chunk) is  NULL and NFP (Next Free Pointer...
Free Simulation on Aix (contd.) How about pointing PPF to the stack? Possible?  Yes! In a way, we are smashing the heap, ...
Free Simulation             conditional trigger for Aixif ( Pointer to Previously Freed chunk [PPF] != NULL    && requeste...
Free Simulation on Solaris – I                   [size < 40 bytes]                      Available chunk size or           ...
Free Simulation on Solaris – I              [size < 40 bytes] (contd.) On Solaris, 2 types of data-structures are involve...
Free Simulation on Solaris – I              [size < 40 bytes] (contd.) The freelists are structured like lists in bins of...
Free Simulation on Solaris – I            [size < 40 bytes] (contd.) As before in AIX, again, the simulated free  space c...
Free Simulation            conditional trigger for Solaris - IIf ( size.bit1 equals 1 )                      .... [B]{   A...
Free Simulation on Solaris – II                    [size >= 40 bytes] “Once upon a free()” paper [8] published in Phrack ...
Free simulation on Solaris – II                      [size >= 40 bytes] (contd.)We will refer the opensolaris site [9] for...
Free simulation on Solaris – II                       [size >= 40 bytes] (contd.)Sections of functions relevant to our exp...
Free simulation on Solaris – II                     [size >= 40 bytes] (contd.)Malloced heap chunk and overflow        All...
Free Simulation                conditional trigger for Solaris - II1. if ( size.bit0 equals 0 )                           ...
Free Simulation - Windows XP SP2 4-byte overwrite or arbitrary 4*n bytes  overwrite still possible on older windows =  (w...
Windows Heap Overflow Exploit           Research (Time Progression) Halvar Flake - "Third Generation Exploitation"  http:...
Free Simulation – Windows XP SP2 Presenters’ research did lead to possibility of heap  overflow exploitation on SP2 using...
Free Simulation – Windows XP SP2              Reaching Freelist[0] The malloc() calls try to allocate a chunk of requeste...
Free Simulation – Windows XP SP2             Library function calls Many library functions use malloc() internally.  Thes...
Free Simulation – Windows XP SP2               Library function calls In our example we exploit the malloc() called by  p...
Free Simulation – Windows XP SP2    Stack           Heap             HDS                                 HDS Header       ...
Free Simulation – Windows XP SP2               Conditional Trigger1. The allocation code must somehow reach Freelist[0]3. ...
Free Simulation – Windows XP SP2                    Demo! Though exploiting heap overflow using Free  Simulation on SP2 i...
Advantages of the Free Simulation   Relatively easy to exploit.   Provides a consistent and generic model to pursue the ...
Limitations of Free Simulation Usually works well and easily when the overflow  occurs in last malloced chunk. For overfl...
Preventive Measures Best preventive measure is at the code-implementation level itself by  altogether avoiding or by care...
References•   http://md.hudora.de/presentations/summerschool/2005-09-21/vansprundel-ctt-heapoverflows.pdf - Generic Heap  ...
Questions  ?            Slide 38 / 38
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Free simulation sandipchaudhari_2006

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The overflowed memory is given a value such that a previous call to free() is simulated, causing next malloc() call to misinterpret that the memory was free'd before. This technique is what we would call as - Free Simulation.

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Free simulation sandipchaudhari_2006

  1. 1. Smashing Heap by Free Simulation Sandip Chaudhari sandipchaudhari@gmail.com AcknowledgementsThanks to everyone in my Security Team for their support andencouragement, especially to Jonathan Leonard, Jeremy Jethroand Nick Seidenman. 19-21 October 2006
  2. 2. Abstract The exploit can be achieved without the need of any call to the free() function. The overflowed memory is given a value such that a previous call to free() is simulated, causing next malloc() call to misinterpret that the memory was freed before. We call this technique - Free Simulation. Though the Free Simulation technique demonstrated in this paper, has been tried successfully on AIX, Solaris and Windows XP SP2 it may be applicable on all systems having in-band heap memory management. Slide 2 / 38
  3. 3. Introduction Almost all the papers referenced in the References section [1] through [7], discuss about heap overflows, that seem to talk or provide sample code snippet where free() is being called. What if free() is never called and the process takes in user input that can lead to heap overflow? Is it still possible to exploit such a process that never calls free()? Answer to this is yes, and thats what this presentation is all about. Slide 3 / 38
  4. 4. Core Ideas Heap Overflow technique when the free() is being called, is usually referred to as 4-byte overwrite. The core idea is “to attack the memory management algorithm, first (publicly?) demonstrated by Solar Designer for a heap overflow found in the Netscape browser” [3], [1]. This attack on memory management algorithm always necessarily involves pointer assignment instructions. Slide 4 / 38
  5. 5. Logical Constructs  Lets refer to the primitive logical constructs involving these pointer assignments, that get executed on a call to free() [4 – Section: Anatomy of a Heap Overflow Exploit] & [5]. unlink() frontlink() #define unlink(P, BK, FD) { #define frontlink(A, P, S, IDX, BK, FD) { [1] FD = P->fd; [1] FD = start_of_bin(IDX); [2] BK = P->bk; [2] while ( FD != BK && S < chunksize (FD) ) [3] FD->bk = BK; { [4] BK->fd = FD; [3] FD = FD->fd; } } [4] BK = FD->bk; [5] FD->bk = BK->fd = P; }Note: Both the above macros are a set of logical statements that explain pointer assignments. Either or bothof these maybe executed on call to free(). “P” is the pointer that has been passed to be freed. Slide 5 / 38
  6. 6. What exactly is the Free Simulation? Free Simulation is the allocation of address space on simulated free region in the memory with our choice of length, and in certain cases may be located anywhere we choose in the process address space. Free Simulation can be differentiated broadly into 2 cases:  Arbitrary buffer allocation – The heap datastructure pointers are manipulated such that the simulated free buffer space, when allocated can exist arbitrarily anywhere in process memory address space (Free Simulation on AIX, Free Simulation on Solaris (<40 bytes buffer))  Arbitrary address over-write (4-byte i.e word-size overwrite) – The heap datastructure pointers are manipulated such that the pointer assignments causes an address to be overwritten arbitrarily anywhere in the process memory address space (Free Simulation on Solaris (>=40 bytes buffer), Windows XP SP-2) Slide 6 / 38
  7. 7. What exactly is the Free Simulation? (contd.) An example of the usual state of heap with a few allocated chunks. Heap allocated allocated allocated unallocated Slide 7 / 38
  8. 8. What exactly is the Free Simulation? (contd.)Heap Lets try to represent heap state at the moment of time when a number of chunks have been headers malloced and a few have been freed. allocated freed allocated unallocated Pointer to previously freed chunk Heap in-band header with pointers to previously freed chunks Slide 8 / 38
  9. 9. What exactly is the Free Simulation? (contd.) After the overflow and the Free Simulation Heap allocated allocated allocated unallocated [overflow] Pointer to previously freed chunk Stack Target Simulated free chunk Slide 9 / 38
  10. 10. Conditional Triggers The conditional triggers are instructions in the malloc call that check if there is some previous or last freed memory available (of appropriate size) that can be used to allocate the new chunk. if ( previous freed chunk available && requested size <= available freed size ) then ...‘ This logical free conditional primitive lies at the heart of successful Free Simulation. It triggers the execution of further pointer assignment instructions. Slide 10 / 38
  11. 11. Free Simulation on Aix 0x00000000 else pointer to previously <__heaps+1040>: freed chunk [PPF] next free pointer Heap – User specified size of chunk [NFP]Malloced else real size of previously freed chunk Heap Data <__heaps+1056>: chunks total heap space allocated Structure [MC] [HDS] <__heaps+1064>: Actual malloced memory total number of heap chunks malloced <__heaps+1068>: pointer to current 0x00000000 else chunk [CP] pointer to previously freed chunk [PPF] <__heaps+1076>: pointer to the address Unallocated memory of pointer of else size of previously previous free chunk freed memory [PPPF] Unallocated memory Slide 11 / 38
  12. 12. Free Simulation on Aix (contd.) Usually, the PPF (Pointer to Previously Free’d chunk) is NULL and NFP (Next Free Pointer) points to the last PPF (NULL), indicating availability of free memory We will try to understand what happens if PPF is not NULL, which is very important for the success of exploitation by Free Simulation. The PPF which is usually NULL, is assigned the value of the address of previously freed chunk! The core idea is to overflow the malloc() allocated chunk by 2 words having the first word as an address so that it will be now interpreted as PPF and second word as some arbitrary size. Slide 12 / 38
  13. 13. Free Simulation on Aix (contd.) How about pointing PPF to the stack? Possible? Yes! In a way, we are smashing the heap, simulating free() and then smashing the stack! Thus the simulated free space can be located anywhere in the process writable memory address space. The reason this is possible is because the malloc() function trusts the address retrieved, as a valid heap address for memory allocation. Slide 13 / 38
  14. 14. Free Simulation conditional trigger for Aixif ( Pointer to Previously Freed chunk [PPF] != NULL && requested_size <= chunk_size ) ... [A]{ consider the value of PPF as an address of previously freed chunk and try to allocate memory on this freed chunk} The above [A] is mere a logical summary of conditional instructions or statements. The “if” condition may have been actually implemented as “while”. The conditional statements make it very clear that triggering Free Simulation on Aix is quite easy. Slide 14 / 38
  15. 15. Free Simulation on Solaris – I [size < 40 bytes] Available chunk size or allocated chunksize |OR| ed with flags. [bit0 and bit1] <List+4>: Next Free chunk Pointer Heap – 0x0 or junk [alignment word] or Previous Freed chunk Pointer Heap Data Malloced Data: if allocated else, Next Free Pointer Structure <freeidx>:chunks [MC] [NFP]: if unallocated else, Pointer to Previous Freed index or count of freed chunk in a bins list [HDS] chunk [PPF]: if freed Based on bit0 and bit1 of size Actual malloc memory <flist – flist+124>: Available chunk size or List of freed pointers allocated chunksize |OR| ed with flags. [bit0 and bit1] 0x0 or junk [alignment word] Next Free Pointer [NFP]: if unallocated else, Pointer to Previous Freed <Lfree>: chunk [PPF]: if freed List of bins / nodes of flists Based on bit0 and bit1 of size Unallocated Memory Slide 15 / 38
  16. 16. Free Simulation on Solaris – I [size < 40 bytes] (contd.) On Solaris, 2 types of data-structures are involved in the heap management, based on chunk size asked for. If the requested chunk size is less than 40 bytes then the linked-lists are involved and different section of code gets executed, while for sizes greater than 40 bytes, binary search tree structure is maintained. The decision to allocate or consider the previously freed chunk of memory for allocation is based primarily on the bit0 and the bit1 of the size word on the Solaris. The size is specified in bytes and we get the last 2 bits free.  bit0: 1 if chunk is allocated else 0.  bit1: 1 if a previous block has been freed in local list of the bin else 0. Slide 16 / 38
  17. 17. Free Simulation on Solaris – I [size < 40 bytes] (contd.) The freelists are structured like lists in bins of various chunk sizes. In case malloc finds that bit1 state is “1” it considers that there is a previously freed memory chunk. The word next to the immediate next word is considered as the address pointing to the previously free’d chunk. In case of Solaris, we overflow the allocated chunks boundary such that the bit1 of the size in the header of next chunk is set to “1” and the word next to immediate-next word maybe given the address where we would like to overwrite, on the next memory write operation. Slide 17 / 38
  18. 18. Free Simulation on Solaris – I [size < 40 bytes] (contd.) As before in AIX, again, the simulated free space can be located anywhere in the process writable memory address space. Again, the reason this is possible is because the malloc() function trusts the address retrieved, as a valid heap address for memory allocation. Slide 18 / 38
  19. 19. Free Simulation conditional trigger for Solaris - IIf ( size.bit1 equals 1 ) .... [B]{ After size checks, consider address next to immediate-next word as previously freed chunk and assign it to the Next Pointer of Heap Data Structure. Again, after size checks this simulated free space will be used to allocate memory on any call to malloc() in the future.} As stated before in case of AIX, the above [B] is mere logical summary of conditional instructions for Solaris. The conditional “if” is logical and it may be a conditional “while” in actual implementation. Slide 19 / 38
  20. 20. Free Simulation on Solaris – II [size >= 40 bytes] “Once upon a free()” paper [8] published in Phrack magazine demonstrates heap-overflow exploit by calls only to malloc() that further calls realfree(). The focus is on creation of the fake-chunk that leads to 4-byte overwrite when the heap-management data is manipulated. The paper also clearly mentions that -- “Overflowed chunk must not be the last chunk”. Again before, we will simulate free() by overflowing the last malloced chunk. This is achieved using the 4-byte overwrite technique. We take advantage of delayed free calls and achieve 4-byte overwrite in the realfree()s coalesce operation. This is similar to exploit mentioned in [8] but differing by overflowing last malloced chunk. Slide 20 / 38
  21. 21. Free simulation on Solaris – II [size >= 40 bytes] (contd.)We will refer the opensolaris site [9] for source code to better understand the exploit.Source: mallint.h80 /* the proto-word; size must be ALIGN bytes */81 typedef union _w_ {82 size_t w_i; /* an unsigned int */83 struct _t_ *w_p[2]; /* two pointers */84 } WORD;86 /* structure of a node in the free tree */87 typedef struct _t_ {88 WORD t_s; /* size of this element */89 WORD t_p; /* parent node */90 WORD t_l; /* left child */91 WORD t_r; /* right child */92 WORD t_n; /* next in link list */93 WORD t_d; /* dummy to reserve space for self-pointer */94 } TREE;Few important macros.Source: mallint.h98 #define RSIZE(b) (((b)->t_s).w_i & ~BITS01)112 /* set/test indicator if a block is in the tree or in a list */113 #define SETNOTREE(b) (LEFT(b) = (TREE *)(-1))114 #define ISNOTREE(b) (LEFT(b) == (TREE *)(-1))121 #define NEXT(b) ((TREE *)(((char *)(b)) + RSIZE(b) + WORDSIZE)) Slide 21 / 38
  22. 22. Free simulation on Solaris – II [size >= 40 bytes] (contd.)Sections of functions relevant to our exploitSource: malloc.c – realfree()511 /* see if coalescing with next block is warranted */512 np = NEXT(tp);513 if (!ISBIT0(SIZE(np))) {514 if (np != Bottom)515 t_delete(np);516 SIZE(tp) += SIZE(np) + WORDSIZE;517 }Source: malloc.c – t_delete()756 /* if this is a non-tree node */757 if (ISNOTREE(op)) {758 tp = LINKBAK(op);759 if ((sp = LINKFOR(op)) != NULL)760 LINKBAK(sp) = tp;761 LINKFOR(tp) = sp;762 return;763 } Note, the above highlighted assignments in orange (760 and 761) are the two word assignments, where user controlled data (8-byte overwrite in this case, but we will still refer it as 4-byte) can be injected. We can summarize above operation in instructions as: 0xff2c7808 <t_delete+52>: st %o0, [ %o1 + 8 ] 0xff2c780c <t_delete+56>: st %o1, [ %o0 + 0x20 ] Slide 22 / 38
  23. 23. Free simulation on Solaris – II [size >= 40 bytes] (contd.)Malloced heap chunk and overflow Allocated memory We have 2 structures involved: t1.t_* and t2.t_* t1.t_s [ > - 4 < 0 ] t_s : Size. We assign this to - 2 so that np = NEXT(p) will return np pointing to t1.t_j and bit0 is t1.t_j t2.t_s 0 for both t1.t_s and t2.t_s. t1.t_p t2.t_j t_j : As every pointer in this structure occupies 2 words t1.t_j t2.t_p owing to alignment logic, we can consider all t_j as t1 t1.t_l t2.t_j junk. t1.t_j t2.t_l t_p : Pointer to previous node, can be junk for t1.t_p, and t2.t_p t2 t1.t_r t2.t_j can be the address with which the return address on the t1.t_j t2.t_r stack is to be replaced. t_l : can be junk for t1.t_l but must be “-1” for t2.t_l, thus t1.t_n t2.t_j guarantee that malloc() would not interpret the node as a t1.t_j t2.t_n tree node but would interpret it as a list node. t1.t_d t2.t_j t_r : can be completely ignored and hence can be junk. t2.t_d t_n : t1.t_n can be junk but t2.t_n will be the address we would like to overwrite – 8. t_d : Maybe ignored and can be junk for both t1.t_d and Unallocated memory t2.t_d. Slide 23 / 38
  24. 24. Free Simulation conditional trigger for Solaris - II1. if ( size.bit0 equals 0 ) ....[C] { consider this as a free chunk, check if next chunk is also free and if coalesce is possible. }2. if ( next chunk size.bit0 equals 0 ) { Next chunk in contiguous memory block is free proceed with coalesce. }3. size should be such that NEXT(p) calculation will return our fake-chunk as next chunk.4. The returned fake chunk should bypass is-bottom check [np != Bottom]. Would be automatically taken care of.5. The value of left-node pointer t_l of fake chunk must be -1 for interpretation as list node rather than tree node.6. If ( value of left-node equals -1) ....[D] { interpret it as list-node and proceed further with coalesce operation involving pointer assignments. } As stated before for AIX, the above [C] and [D] are mere logical summaries of conditional instructions for Solaris. Step [C] indicates Free Simulation. The remaining steps including [D] indicate the trigger to coalesce, the fake-chunk creation, and the coalesce operation that involves pointer assignments for the linked-list. Slide 24 / 38
  25. 25. Free Simulation - Windows XP SP2 4-byte overwrite or arbitrary 4*n bytes overwrite still possible on older windows = (windows < XP-SP2) Since SP-2 MS introduced Heap Protection Is Free Simulation still possible on XP SP2? Slide 25 / 38
  26. 26. Windows Heap Overflow Exploit Research (Time Progression) Halvar Flake - "Third Generation Exploitation" http://www.blackhat.com/presentations/win-usa-02/halvarflake-winsec02 David Litchfield - "Windows Heap Overflows" http://www.blackhat.com/presentations/win-usa-04/bh-win-04-litchfield/b Matt Conover, Oded Horowitz - "Reliable Windows Exploits" http://cansecwest.com/csw04/csw04-Oded+Connover.ppt Alexander Anisimov - "Defeating Windows XP SP2 Heap protection and DEP bypass" http://www.maxpatrol.com/defeating-xpsp2-heap-protection.pdf Nicolas Falliere - A new way to bypass Windows heap protections http://www.securityfocus.com/infocus/1846 Brett Moore - Exploiting Freelist[0] on Windows XP Service Pack 2 http://www.securiteam.com/securityreviews/5MP020UHFI.html Slide 26 / 38
  27. 27. Free Simulation – Windows XP SP2 Presenters’ research did lead to possibility of heap overflow exploitation on SP2 using Free Simulation. It turned out though, to be very similar to something that has been discussed in Brett Moore’s paper, with few minor differences. Similar to the examples shown in previous slides, we will be overwriting 4-byte word on stack address having a function return address, with an address now pointing to heap. The value overwritten is partially controlled, pointing back to address containing the [stack’s address – 4]. Slide 27 / 38
  28. 28. Free Simulation – Windows XP SP2 Reaching Freelist[0] The malloc() calls try to allocate a chunk of requested size in certain order shown below for chunks < 512k: 1. Lookaside (for size <1k) 2. Freelist [indices > 0] (for size <1k) 3. Freelist[0] (for size >1k or if none found in 1, 2 for <1k) 4. When not pointing to any free’d chunk, Freelist[0] points to the free-region beyond last chuck. If such a case or when no free’d chunk in Freelist[0] with size big enough of the requested size, allocation takes place in the free-region, beyond last chunk Our focus would be to make malloc() reach Freelist[0] and re-apply the concepts of Free-Simulation for successful exploitation. Slide 28 / 38
  29. 29. Free Simulation – Windows XP SP2 Library function calls Many library functions use malloc() internally. These functions usually need varying chunk sizes. Such functions form excellent candidates for this exploit technique, as they have greater chance of hitting Freelist[0]. Slide 29 / 38
  30. 30. Free Simulation – Windows XP SP2 Library function calls In our example we exploit the malloc() called by printf() function. We will focus on exploitation and change of control flow using only one overflow. Brett Moore’s paper aptly hints, that such technique if used, needs the address to constitute a valid instruction We will see, one of the address of low level function on stack called by malloc() itself does form valid instruction that gets executed, in our example. Our shell-code starts right from the next word! Slide 30 / 38
  31. 31. Free Simulation – Windows XP SP2 Stack Heap HDS HDS Header Chunk Header Freelist[0] Chunk Data_heap_alloc_dbg Freelist[1] malloc Shell Code Lookaside[0] Lookaside[1] printf Simulated Free Chunk Slide 31 / 38
  32. 32. Free Simulation – Windows XP SP2 Conditional Trigger1. The allocation code must somehow reach Freelist[0]3. Freelist[0] must point to the header of our simulated free chunk5. The simulated free chunk’s size must be greater than the size of the requested chunk+8. This would trigger the re-link and our 4-byte overwrite.7. The stack address at the function return pointer is overwritten with address pointing back to heap, should be interpretable as valid instruction. Slide 32 / 38
  33. 33. Free Simulation – Windows XP SP2 Demo! Though exploiting heap overflow using Free Simulation on SP2 is still a possibility, Heap Protection definitely puts forth many limitations. Slide 33 / 38
  34. 34. Advantages of the Free Simulation Relatively easy to exploit. Provides a consistent and generic model to pursue the heap overflow-based exploits. For processes / applications where free() is never called, Free Simulation maybe the best technique to exploit. Usually data-write follows after a chunk from malloc has been obtained, favoring Free Simulation exploitation. Some heap algorithms do not actually free the memory at the free() call. This delayed/lazy free() is feasible due to certain supportive free-structures like free- list / flist (Solaris). Whenever a malloc() is called it internally calls free() or rather the realfree() (especially on Solaris) that actually frees the memory. Hence focus on malloc() calls might provide easier approach and save time. Usually, malloc() and realloc() calls are called more frequently compared to free(). Exploitation can be triggered at a considerably earlier stage in a processs life cycle because of the fact that the malloc() (memory allocation) always precedes free(). Enables arbitrary overwrites anywhere in the process memory regions including stack, heap, function pointers, Procedure Linkage Table. Slide 34 / 38
  35. 35. Limitations of Free Simulation Usually works well and easily when the overflow occurs in last malloced chunk. For overflows in in-between malloced chunks, depends on implementation of the memory allocation algorithm. On Windows XP SP2, can be triggered only for allocation of chunks in free-space pointed by the Freelist[0]. Slide 35 / 38
  36. 36. Preventive Measures Best preventive measure is at the code-implementation level itself by altogether avoiding or by careful usage of function calls that may potentially lead to the memory overflows. Implementation of heap algorithm with total removal of in-band memory management information between data can completely protect against any manipulation. Many such implementations are already available for *nix platforms and can be linked with the systems’ library. Some have also integrated such protection schemes into default distros (OpenBsd). At system level NX [Non Executable pages], non-executable data region (that includes heap with stack, on AIX – sedmgr), cookies, write protected guard bands between heap data segments and heap management structures, can make heap overflow exploitation almost impossible. Implementation and integration of such preventive measures by various operating systems is already pushing (4*1) or (4*n) memory over-writes in history. Slide 36 / 38
  37. 37. References• http://md.hudora.de/presentations/summerschool/2005-09-21/vansprundel-ctt-heapoverflows.pdf - Generic Heap Overflow Exploitations.• http://www.blackhat.com/presentations/win-usa-02/halvarflake-winsec02.ppt – Third Generation Exploitation.• http://www.openwall.com/advisories/OW-002-netscape-jpeg/ - Solar Designer• https://www.usenix.org/publications/library/proceedings/lisa03/tech/full_papers/robertson/robertson_html/ - Run-time Detection of Heap-based Overflows (Anatomy of a Heap Overflow Exploit, Logical Constructs).• http://doc.bughunter.net/buffer-overflow/heap-corruption.html• http://www.w00w00.org/files/articles/heaptut.txt• http://cansecwest.com/csw04/csw04-Oded+Connover.ppt• http://www.phrack.org/phrack/57/p57-0x09 – Once Upon a free()• http://cvs.opensolaris.org/source/ - Solaris source code on OpenSolaris website http://www.blackhat.com/presentations/win-usa-04/bh-win-04-litchfield/bh-win-04-litchfield.ppt David Litchfield - "Windows Heap Overflows"• http://www.maxpatrol.com/defeating-xpsp2-heap-protection.pdf Alexander Anisimov - “Defeating Windows XP SP2 Heap protection and DEP Bypass” http://www.securityfocus.com/infocus/1846 Nicolas Falliere - A new way to bypass Windows heap protections http://www.securiteam.com/securityreviews/5MP020UHFI.html Brett Moore - Exploiting Freelist[0] on Windows XP Service Pack Slide 37 / 38
  38. 38. Questions ? Slide 38 / 38

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