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Pharmaceutical Packaging

   Rakesh Kumar Sharma
In the pharmaceutical industry it is vital that the
package selected adequately preserve the
integrity of the product.

The selection of a package therefore begins
with a determination of the product’s physical
and chemical characteristics, its protective
needs and its marketing requirements.
 The material selected must have the following
  characteristics
 They must protect the preparation from
  environmental conditions
 Must not reactive with the product
 Must not impart odor/taste to the product
 Must be non-toxic
 Must be FDA approved
 Must meet tamper-resistance requirements
 Glass containers
 Glass is commonly used in pharmaceutical
  industry because it possesses superior
  protective qualities, economical and containers
  are readily available in variety of sizes and
  shapes
 Chemically inert, impermeable and with proper
  closure system it provides excellent barrier
  protection except light (amber color can give
  protection against light).
 Disadvantage: its fragility and weight.
 Composition   of glass: glass is
 composed principally of sand, soda ash,
 lime stone, alumina and cullet. The sand
 is almost pure silica, the soda ash is
 sodium carbonate and lime stone,
 calcium carbonate. The cullet is broken
 glass that is mixed with the batch and
 acts as fusion agent for the entire
 mixture. Reduction in the proportion of
 sodium ion makes glass chemically
 resistant.
 However    without sodium, glass is
 difficult, expensive to melt. Boron
 oxide is incorporated mainly to aid
 in the melting process through
 reduction of the temperature
 required. Lead gives the clarity.
 Alumina to increase the hardness
 and resistance to chemical action.
   Colored glass
 Only  amber glass and red glass are
  effective in protecting the contents of a
  bottle from the effects of sunlight by
  screening out harmful ultraviolet rays.
 USP specification for light resistant
  container requires the glass to provide
  protection against 290-450nm of light.
  Amber color meets these above
  specifications but iron oxide added to
  produce this color, leach in to the product.
   Glass for drugs
 USP     describes the various types of glass
    and provide the powder glass and water
    attack tests for evaluating the chemical
    resistance of glass. The test results are
    measures of the amount of alkaline
    constituents leached from the glass by
    purified water under autoclave
    temperature conditions. Powder glass test
    is performed on glass particles and water
    glass test is performed on whole
 The water attack test is used only
 with type II glass that has been
 exposed to SO2 fumes under
 controlled conditions to remove the
 surface alkali, thereby rendering the
 glass more resistant chemically.
 However this resistance is lost if the
 container is subjected to repeated
 autoclaving, hot air sterilization
 Plastic  container
 Plastic in packaging have proved useful
  for a number of reasons including the
  ease with which they can be formed, their
  high quality and freedom of design.
 Plastic containers are extremely resistant
  to breakage and thus offer safety to
  consumers along with reduction in weight
  and breakage losses.
 Plastic containers for pharmaceutical
  products are primarily made from the
  following polymers
 Polyethylene,
 polypropylene,
 polyvinylchloride,
 polystyrene,
 polyamide  (Nylon),
   polycarbonate.
 The principle ingredients of the
 various plastic materials used for
 containers is the thermoplastic
 polymer along with substantial
 amount of plasticizer, fillers,
 antioxidants etc. these ingredients
 are not usually chemically bounded
 in the formulation and therefore may
 migrate out of the plastic and in to
 the product.
 Thermoplastic  polymers melt at
 elevated temperature. All plastic
 materials listed in the table except
 low density polyethylene and
 polystyrene can be autoclaved but
 almost all softens at autoclaving
 temperatures..
 Polypropylene   and the copolymer
 polyethylene-polypropylene is most
 widely used in parenteral because
 high melting point 165 0C, low
 permeability to gases and water
 vapor. It is translucent. It will
 withstand autoclaving temperature.
 Flexiblepolyethylene containers are used
 for ophthalmic solutions and flexible PVC
 bags for intravenous solutions
 The density of the plastic material directly
  determines the four basic physical
  characteristics
 Stiffness
 Moisture
 Stress cracking
 Gas
 As the density increases the material becomes
  stiffer, has higher melting temperature, become
  less permeable to gases and vapor and
  become less resistant to stress cracking.
 Polytetraphthalate   (PET): PET is a
 condensation polymer typically
 formed by reaction of tetraphthalic
 acid. Its excellent impact strength,
 gas barrier make it attractive for use
 in cosmetics and mouth washes as
 well as in other products.
 Drug  – Plastic considerations
 A packaging system must protect the
  drug without in any way altering the
  composition of the product until the
  last dose is removed and or till the
  expiry date of the product .
 Drug  plastic considerations have
  been divided in to separate
  categories
 Permeation
 Leaching
 Sorption
 Chemical reaction
 Alteration in the physical properties
  of plastic or products.
   Permeation:- The transmission of gases,
    vapor or liquids through plastic packaging
    materials can have an adverse effect on
    the shelf life of a drug. Permeation of
    water vapor and oxygen through the
    plastic wall in to the drug can present a
    problem if the dosage form is sensitive to
    hydrolysis and oxidation. Temperature
    and humidity are important factors
    influencing the permeability of oxygen and
    water through plastic. An increase in the
    temperature reflects an increase in the
    permeability of the gas.
 Material such as nylon which is
  hydrophilic in nature is a poor barrier
  to water vapor.
 The formulations containing volatile
  ingredients might change when
  stored in plastic containers
   Leaching:- since most plastic containers have
    one or more ingredients added in small quantity
    to stabilize or impart a specific property to the
    plastic, the prospect of leaching or migration
    from the container to the drug product is
    present problems may arise with plastics when
    coloring agent in relatively small quantities are
    added to the formula. Release of a constituent
    from the plastic container may leads to drug
    contamination and necessitate removal of the
    product from the market.
   Sorption:- this process involves the removal of
    constituents from the drug product by the
    packaging material. Sorption may lead to
    serious consequences for drug preparation in
    which important ingredients are in solution.
    Since the drug substances of high potency are
    administered in small doses, losses due to
    sorption may significantly affect the therapeutic
    efficacy of the preparation.
A problem commonly encountered in practice
is the loss of preservatives from the
formulation. These agents exert their activity
at low concentration their loss through the
sorption leave the product unprotected against
microbial growth.
 Chemical   reactivity:- certain ingredients
 that are used in plastic formulation may
 react chemically with one or more
 components of a drug product and
 subsequently alter the appearance of
 plastic or drug product.
 Modification:-the physical and
 chemical alterations of the packaging
 material by the drug product is called
 modification. Deformation in
 polyethylene containers is often
 caused by permeation of gases and
 vapor from the environment or by loss
 of contents through the container
 walls.
 Some  solvent systems have been
 found to be responsible for
 considerable change in the
 mechanical properties of plastic. Oils
 for example have softening effect on
 polyethylene. Changes in the
 polyethylene caused by some surface
 active agents have been noted.
 Fluorinated hydrocarbon attack
 polyethylene and PVC
   Quality control tests for plastic containers
 Containers    for Non-injectables:
 Leakage test: Hold the pack under the
  water, apply the vacuum and observe
  for leakage.
 Clarity test: washed portion of the
  sample, add 250ml of distilled water,
  autoclave at 121oc for 30 minutes.
  The absorbance at 640 nm should be
  0.37 to 0.43.
 Non volatile residue: evaporate
 100ml of the extract obtained in
 the test for clarity of aqueous
 extract to dryness and dry to
 constant weight at 105oc. the
 residue weight not more than 12.5
 mg.
   Containers for injectables: In addition to the
    above tests
 Water vapor permeability:
5 containers filled to nominal volume,
 wt accurately and allow to stand for
 14 days with relative humidity 60%
 and temperature 20-25oc. reweigh
 the containers. The loss in weight in
 each container should not be more
 than 0.2%.
Collapsible tubes
   Metal: - Thecollapsible metal tube is
    an attractive container that permits
    controlled amounts to be dispensed
    easily, with good reclosure and
    adequate protection of the product.
    The risk of contamination of the
    portion remaining in the tube is
    minimal because the tube does not
    suck back. It is light weight and
    unbreakable.
 Tubes of tin, aluminum and lead are
 most commonly used. Laminates of
 tin coated lead provides the
 appearance and oxidation
 resistance. Aluminum hardens in use
 causing tubes to develop leaks.
Tin containers are preferred for food,
  pharmaceuticals because it is inert
  and compatible with a wide range of
  products.
 Lining: - if the product is not
  compatible with bare metal, the
  interior can be flushed with wax type
  formulations or with resin solutions. A
  tube with epoxy lining cost 25% more
  than the same tube uncoated.
 Plastic:-Plastic tubes have a number of
 practical advantages over other containers
 they are low in cost, light wt, flexible,
 odorless and inert, unbreakable, they
 have a unique suck-back features which
 prevents product ooze. but this feature
 has a disadvantage of fear for
 contamination. The most common
 material currently employed in plastic
 tubes are low and high density
 polyethylene.
 Laminations
 Permeation problem associated with plastic
  tubes and corrosion problems with metal tubes
  have lead to the emergence of a third type of
  collapsible tube, the laminated tube. This tube
  constructed of a lamination containing several
  layers of plastic, paper and foil. This lamination
  is welded in to a continuous tube by heat
  sealing the edges of the lamination together in
  a machine called sideseamer. The tube is cut
  in to length and the head is molded on to the
  tube.
   Closures
 Effective   closure must prevent the
    contents from escaping and allow no
    substance to enter the container. In
    evaluating an effective closure system
    the major considerations are the type
    of container, the physical and
    chemical properties of the product
    and the stability-compatibility
    requirements for a given period under
    certain conditions .
 closures are available in
 screw on, thread or lug
 crimp-on (crown)
 press-on (snap)
 Roll-on and Pilfer proof roll-on
 Thread screw cap: when the screw
 cap is applied, its thread engages with
 the corresponding threads molded on
 the neck of the bottle. A liner in a cap,
 pressed against the opening of the
 container, seals the product in the
 container. The screw cap is
 commonly made of metal or plastics.
 Lug cap: the lug cap is similar
 to the thread screw cap and
 operates on the same principle
 but it is an interrupted thread
 on the glass finish, instead of a
 continuous thread
 Crown   cap: This style of cap is
  commonly used as crimped
  closure for beverage bottle and
  has remained unchanged for more
  than 50 years.
 Press-on:- the cap is applied by
  application of pressure from the
  top.
                                   aluminium
    Roll-on and rolled on pilfer proof
    metal caps consists of a plain metal shell
    containing a wadding or flowed-in system,
    which is placed over the container neck
    and top pressure applied to give a good
    impression on the wad. While the
    pressure is still held, the threads are
    formed by mechanical inward pressure. In
    case of pilfer proof closure an additional
    perforated collar is rolled under a lower
    bead.
Tamper-resistant packaging
 As defined by FDA a temper resistant
  package is one having an indicator or
  barrier to the entry which if breached
  or missing, can reasonably be
  expected to provide visible evidence
  to consumers that tempering has
  occurred.
 Tamper  resistant packing may involve
 immediate container/ closure system
 or secondary container closure
 systems or any combination thereof
 intended to provide a visual indication
 of integrity when handled in a
 reasonable manner during
 manufacturing, distribution and retail
 display.
   The following package configuration have been
    identified by FDA as examples of packaging systems
    that are capable of meeting the requirements of
    temper resistant packaging.
   Blister package
   Strip package
   Bubble pack
   Shrink banding
   Bottle seal
   Tape seal
   Breakable caps
   Sealed tubes
   Aerosol container
   Blister package
 The    blister package is formed by heat
    softening a sheet of thermoplastic and
    vacuum drawing the softened sheet in
    to a mould. After cooling the sheet is
    released from the mould and
    proceeds to the filling station of the
    packaging machine.
 The   semi rigid tray previously formed
 is filled with the tablets/ capsules and
 lidded with a heat sealable backing
 material. The backing material is
 usually heat seal coated aluminium
 foil. The plastic material used
 includes PVC, PVC/ polyethylene
 combination. For added moisture
 protection polyvinylidene fluoride
 (saran)  or polychlorotrifluoroethylene
  (aclar) films may be laminated to
  PVC. The moisture barrier of PVC/
  Aclar is superior to that of saran
  coated PVC.
 Advantages:-Unit dosing,
  convenience, child-resistant, pleasing
  appearance, tamper-resistant
 Strip   package
 Strip
      package is a form of unit
 dose packaging that is commonly
 used for the packaging of tablets
 and capsules. A strip package is
 formed by feeding two webs of a
 heat sealable flexible film through
 a heated crimping roller.
 The  product is dropped in to the
 pocket formed prior to forming the
 final set of seals. a number of
 different packaging materials are
 used for strip packaging. For high
 barrier applications a
 paper/polyethylene/foil/polyethyle
 ne laminations commonly used.
 Bubble  pack
 The bubble pack can be made in
  several ways but is usually formed by
  sandwiching the product between a
  thermoplastic film and a rigid backing
  material similar to as in the blister.
Shrink banding
 The shrink band concept makes
 use of the heat shrinking
 characteristics of a stretch
 oriented polymer usually PVC.
 The heat shrinkable polymer-PVC
 is manufactured as a tube in a
 diameter slightly larger than the
 cap and neck ring of the bottle to
 be sealed.
 Thisis then placed over the bottle cap
 and the package is passed through a
 heated tunnel, which shrinks the
 plastic cover around the cap,
 preventing the disengagement of the
 cap without destroying the shrink
 band.
Pharmaceutical Packaging Selection Factors

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Pharmaceutical Packaging Selection Factors

  • 1. Pharmaceutical Packaging Rakesh Kumar Sharma
  • 2. In the pharmaceutical industry it is vital that the package selected adequately preserve the integrity of the product. The selection of a package therefore begins with a determination of the product’s physical and chemical characteristics, its protective needs and its marketing requirements.
  • 3.
  • 4.  The material selected must have the following characteristics  They must protect the preparation from environmental conditions  Must not reactive with the product  Must not impart odor/taste to the product  Must be non-toxic  Must be FDA approved  Must meet tamper-resistance requirements
  • 5.  Glass containers  Glass is commonly used in pharmaceutical industry because it possesses superior protective qualities, economical and containers are readily available in variety of sizes and shapes  Chemically inert, impermeable and with proper closure system it provides excellent barrier protection except light (amber color can give protection against light).  Disadvantage: its fragility and weight.
  • 6.
  • 7.  Composition of glass: glass is composed principally of sand, soda ash, lime stone, alumina and cullet. The sand is almost pure silica, the soda ash is sodium carbonate and lime stone, calcium carbonate. The cullet is broken glass that is mixed with the batch and acts as fusion agent for the entire mixture. Reduction in the proportion of sodium ion makes glass chemically resistant.
  • 8.  However without sodium, glass is difficult, expensive to melt. Boron oxide is incorporated mainly to aid in the melting process through reduction of the temperature required. Lead gives the clarity. Alumina to increase the hardness and resistance to chemical action.
  • 9. Colored glass  Only amber glass and red glass are effective in protecting the contents of a bottle from the effects of sunlight by screening out harmful ultraviolet rays.  USP specification for light resistant container requires the glass to provide protection against 290-450nm of light. Amber color meets these above specifications but iron oxide added to produce this color, leach in to the product.
  • 10. Glass for drugs  USP describes the various types of glass and provide the powder glass and water attack tests for evaluating the chemical resistance of glass. The test results are measures of the amount of alkaline constituents leached from the glass by purified water under autoclave temperature conditions. Powder glass test is performed on glass particles and water glass test is performed on whole
  • 11.  The water attack test is used only with type II glass that has been exposed to SO2 fumes under controlled conditions to remove the surface alkali, thereby rendering the glass more resistant chemically. However this resistance is lost if the container is subjected to repeated autoclaving, hot air sterilization
  • 12.
  • 13.  Plastic container  Plastic in packaging have proved useful for a number of reasons including the ease with which they can be formed, their high quality and freedom of design.  Plastic containers are extremely resistant to breakage and thus offer safety to consumers along with reduction in weight and breakage losses.  Plastic containers for pharmaceutical products are primarily made from the following polymers
  • 14.  Polyethylene,  polypropylene,  polyvinylchloride,  polystyrene,  polyamide (Nylon),  polycarbonate.
  • 15.  The principle ingredients of the various plastic materials used for containers is the thermoplastic polymer along with substantial amount of plasticizer, fillers, antioxidants etc. these ingredients are not usually chemically bounded in the formulation and therefore may migrate out of the plastic and in to the product.
  • 16.  Thermoplastic polymers melt at elevated temperature. All plastic materials listed in the table except low density polyethylene and polystyrene can be autoclaved but almost all softens at autoclaving temperatures..
  • 17.  Polypropylene and the copolymer polyethylene-polypropylene is most widely used in parenteral because high melting point 165 0C, low permeability to gases and water vapor. It is translucent. It will withstand autoclaving temperature.  Flexiblepolyethylene containers are used for ophthalmic solutions and flexible PVC bags for intravenous solutions
  • 18.
  • 19.  The density of the plastic material directly determines the four basic physical characteristics  Stiffness  Moisture  Stress cracking  Gas  As the density increases the material becomes stiffer, has higher melting temperature, become less permeable to gases and vapor and become less resistant to stress cracking.
  • 20.  Polytetraphthalate (PET): PET is a condensation polymer typically formed by reaction of tetraphthalic acid. Its excellent impact strength, gas barrier make it attractive for use in cosmetics and mouth washes as well as in other products.
  • 21.  Drug – Plastic considerations  A packaging system must protect the drug without in any way altering the composition of the product until the last dose is removed and or till the expiry date of the product .
  • 22.  Drug plastic considerations have been divided in to separate categories  Permeation  Leaching  Sorption  Chemical reaction  Alteration in the physical properties of plastic or products.
  • 23. Permeation:- The transmission of gases, vapor or liquids through plastic packaging materials can have an adverse effect on the shelf life of a drug. Permeation of water vapor and oxygen through the plastic wall in to the drug can present a problem if the dosage form is sensitive to hydrolysis and oxidation. Temperature and humidity are important factors influencing the permeability of oxygen and water through plastic. An increase in the temperature reflects an increase in the permeability of the gas.
  • 24.  Material such as nylon which is hydrophilic in nature is a poor barrier to water vapor.  The formulations containing volatile ingredients might change when stored in plastic containers
  • 25. Leaching:- since most plastic containers have one or more ingredients added in small quantity to stabilize or impart a specific property to the plastic, the prospect of leaching or migration from the container to the drug product is present problems may arise with plastics when coloring agent in relatively small quantities are added to the formula. Release of a constituent from the plastic container may leads to drug contamination and necessitate removal of the product from the market.
  • 26. Sorption:- this process involves the removal of constituents from the drug product by the packaging material. Sorption may lead to serious consequences for drug preparation in which important ingredients are in solution. Since the drug substances of high potency are administered in small doses, losses due to sorption may significantly affect the therapeutic efficacy of the preparation.
  • 27. A problem commonly encountered in practice is the loss of preservatives from the formulation. These agents exert their activity at low concentration their loss through the sorption leave the product unprotected against microbial growth.
  • 28.  Chemical reactivity:- certain ingredients that are used in plastic formulation may react chemically with one or more components of a drug product and subsequently alter the appearance of plastic or drug product.
  • 29.  Modification:-the physical and chemical alterations of the packaging material by the drug product is called modification. Deformation in polyethylene containers is often caused by permeation of gases and vapor from the environment or by loss of contents through the container walls.
  • 30.  Some solvent systems have been found to be responsible for considerable change in the mechanical properties of plastic. Oils for example have softening effect on polyethylene. Changes in the polyethylene caused by some surface active agents have been noted. Fluorinated hydrocarbon attack polyethylene and PVC
  • 31. Quality control tests for plastic containers  Containers for Non-injectables:  Leakage test: Hold the pack under the water, apply the vacuum and observe for leakage.  Clarity test: washed portion of the sample, add 250ml of distilled water, autoclave at 121oc for 30 minutes. The absorbance at 640 nm should be 0.37 to 0.43.
  • 32.  Non volatile residue: evaporate 100ml of the extract obtained in the test for clarity of aqueous extract to dryness and dry to constant weight at 105oc. the residue weight not more than 12.5 mg.
  • 33. Containers for injectables: In addition to the above tests  Water vapor permeability: 5 containers filled to nominal volume, wt accurately and allow to stand for 14 days with relative humidity 60% and temperature 20-25oc. reweigh the containers. The loss in weight in each container should not be more than 0.2%.
  • 34. Collapsible tubes  Metal: - Thecollapsible metal tube is an attractive container that permits controlled amounts to be dispensed easily, with good reclosure and adequate protection of the product. The risk of contamination of the portion remaining in the tube is minimal because the tube does not suck back. It is light weight and unbreakable.
  • 35.  Tubes of tin, aluminum and lead are most commonly used. Laminates of tin coated lead provides the appearance and oxidation resistance. Aluminum hardens in use causing tubes to develop leaks.
  • 36. Tin containers are preferred for food, pharmaceuticals because it is inert and compatible with a wide range of products.  Lining: - if the product is not compatible with bare metal, the interior can be flushed with wax type formulations or with resin solutions. A tube with epoxy lining cost 25% more than the same tube uncoated.
  • 37.  Plastic:-Plastic tubes have a number of practical advantages over other containers they are low in cost, light wt, flexible, odorless and inert, unbreakable, they have a unique suck-back features which prevents product ooze. but this feature has a disadvantage of fear for contamination. The most common material currently employed in plastic tubes are low and high density polyethylene.
  • 38.  Laminations  Permeation problem associated with plastic tubes and corrosion problems with metal tubes have lead to the emergence of a third type of collapsible tube, the laminated tube. This tube constructed of a lamination containing several layers of plastic, paper and foil. This lamination is welded in to a continuous tube by heat sealing the edges of the lamination together in a machine called sideseamer. The tube is cut in to length and the head is molded on to the tube.
  • 39. Closures  Effective closure must prevent the contents from escaping and allow no substance to enter the container. In evaluating an effective closure system the major considerations are the type of container, the physical and chemical properties of the product and the stability-compatibility requirements for a given period under certain conditions .
  • 40.  closures are available in  screw on, thread or lug  crimp-on (crown)  press-on (snap)  Roll-on and Pilfer proof roll-on
  • 41.  Thread screw cap: when the screw cap is applied, its thread engages with the corresponding threads molded on the neck of the bottle. A liner in a cap, pressed against the opening of the container, seals the product in the container. The screw cap is commonly made of metal or plastics.
  • 42.  Lug cap: the lug cap is similar to the thread screw cap and operates on the same principle but it is an interrupted thread on the glass finish, instead of a continuous thread
  • 43.  Crown cap: This style of cap is commonly used as crimped closure for beverage bottle and has remained unchanged for more than 50 years.  Press-on:- the cap is applied by application of pressure from the top.
  • 44. aluminium Roll-on and rolled on pilfer proof metal caps consists of a plain metal shell containing a wadding or flowed-in system, which is placed over the container neck and top pressure applied to give a good impression on the wad. While the pressure is still held, the threads are formed by mechanical inward pressure. In case of pilfer proof closure an additional perforated collar is rolled under a lower bead.
  • 45. Tamper-resistant packaging  As defined by FDA a temper resistant package is one having an indicator or barrier to the entry which if breached or missing, can reasonably be expected to provide visible evidence to consumers that tempering has occurred.
  • 46.  Tamper resistant packing may involve immediate container/ closure system or secondary container closure systems or any combination thereof intended to provide a visual indication of integrity when handled in a reasonable manner during manufacturing, distribution and retail display.
  • 47. The following package configuration have been identified by FDA as examples of packaging systems that are capable of meeting the requirements of temper resistant packaging.  Blister package  Strip package  Bubble pack  Shrink banding  Bottle seal  Tape seal  Breakable caps  Sealed tubes  Aerosol container
  • 48. Blister package  The blister package is formed by heat softening a sheet of thermoplastic and vacuum drawing the softened sheet in to a mould. After cooling the sheet is released from the mould and proceeds to the filling station of the packaging machine.
  • 49.  The semi rigid tray previously formed is filled with the tablets/ capsules and lidded with a heat sealable backing material. The backing material is usually heat seal coated aluminium foil. The plastic material used includes PVC, PVC/ polyethylene combination. For added moisture protection polyvinylidene fluoride
  • 50.  (saran) or polychlorotrifluoroethylene (aclar) films may be laminated to PVC. The moisture barrier of PVC/ Aclar is superior to that of saran coated PVC.  Advantages:-Unit dosing, convenience, child-resistant, pleasing appearance, tamper-resistant
  • 51.
  • 52.  Strip package  Strip package is a form of unit dose packaging that is commonly used for the packaging of tablets and capsules. A strip package is formed by feeding two webs of a heat sealable flexible film through a heated crimping roller.
  • 53.  The product is dropped in to the pocket formed prior to forming the final set of seals. a number of different packaging materials are used for strip packaging. For high barrier applications a paper/polyethylene/foil/polyethyle ne laminations commonly used.
  • 54.
  • 55.  Bubble pack  The bubble pack can be made in several ways but is usually formed by sandwiching the product between a thermoplastic film and a rigid backing material similar to as in the blister.
  • 56. Shrink banding  The shrink band concept makes use of the heat shrinking characteristics of a stretch oriented polymer usually PVC. The heat shrinkable polymer-PVC is manufactured as a tube in a diameter slightly larger than the cap and neck ring of the bottle to be sealed.
  • 57.  Thisis then placed over the bottle cap and the package is passed through a heated tunnel, which shrinks the plastic cover around the cap, preventing the disengagement of the cap without destroying the shrink band.