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Database System Concepts

Ranilesh Raveendran
Ranilesh Raveendran
Ranilesh RaveendranLecturer at Sri Venkataramana Swamy College, Bantwal

MANGALORE UNIVERSITY FOURTH SEMESTER BBM UNIT II CHAPTER 2 Database System Concepts:

Database System Concepts

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Ranilesh Raveendran
Lecturer , Department of computer Science
Sri Venkataramana Swamy College
Bantwal D.K.
 Introduction
 Traditional approach to information processing
 Disadvantages of traditional approach
 Database Approach to Information Processing
 Logical versus PhysicalViews Of Data Storage
 Database
 DBMS Users
 Advantages of DBMS
 What is a Database?
 Elements of DBMS
 How does a DBMS work?
 Data Base Models
 Information is a key word in modern management.
 Having a large quantity of information on hand does
not guarantee ready access to any particular piece
of information.
 Perhaps the most important challenge facing
information systems is to provide users with timely
and versatile access to data stored in computer files.
 In a dynamic business environment there are many
unanticipated needs for information.
 The basic underlying data to satisfy the information
needs are contained in computer files but cannot be
accessed and output in a suitable format on a timely
basis.
 For effective decision-making, one should have access
to information whenever needed, and it should be up
to date and cost effective
 A Data Base Management System is an
effective data management tool, provides
invaluable help in coping with data organization
and access problems, and improves the quality
of information available to the management for
decision making.

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Database System Concepts

  • 1. Ranilesh Raveendran Lecturer , Department of computer Science Sri Venkataramana Swamy College Bantwal D.K.
  • 2.  Introduction  Traditional approach to information processing  Disadvantages of traditional approach  Database Approach to Information Processing  Logical versus PhysicalViews Of Data Storage  Database
  • 3.  DBMS Users  Advantages of DBMS  What is a Database?  Elements of DBMS  How does a DBMS work?  Data Base Models
  • 4.  Information is a key word in modern management.  Having a large quantity of information on hand does not guarantee ready access to any particular piece of information.  Perhaps the most important challenge facing information systems is to provide users with timely and versatile access to data stored in computer files.
  • 5.  In a dynamic business environment there are many unanticipated needs for information.  The basic underlying data to satisfy the information needs are contained in computer files but cannot be accessed and output in a suitable format on a timely basis.  For effective decision-making, one should have access to information whenever needed, and it should be up to date and cost effective
  • 6.  A Data Base Management System is an effective data management tool, provides invaluable help in coping with data organization and access problems, and improves the quality of information available to the management for decision making.
  • 7.  The traditional approach to information processing is file-oriented.  Prior to the advent of data base management systems(DBMS), each application maintained its own master file and generally had its own set of transaction files.  Files are custom-designed for each application, and generally there is little sharing of data among the various applications.
  • 8.  Programs are dependent on the files and vice- versa; that is, when the physical format of file is changed, the program also has to be changed.  The traditional approach is file oriented because the primary purpose of many applications is to maintain on the master file the data required to produce management information.
  • 9.  Therefore, the file is the centre-piece of each application.  Although the traditional, file oriented approach to information processing is still widely used, it does have some disadvantages.
  • 10. 1. Data Redundancy 2. Lack of data Integration 3. Program/ data independency 4. Lack of Flexibility
  • 11. Payroll file Personnel file Social Security Number Employee Name Pay Rate Year-to-Date- Earnings Department Social Security Number Employee Name Departmen t Age Date Hired occupation Payroll File
  • 12.  A DBMS is a set of programs that serve as an interface between application programs and a set of coordinated physical files called a database.  A DBMS provides the capabilities for creating, maintaining, and changing a data base.  A data base is a collection of data.  The physical files of the data base are analogous to the master files of the application files.
  • 14.  The data base management system stores, updates, and retrieves data for all application programs.  Data can be readily shared among these programs to prevent data redundancy Easy-to- use query languages allow users to produce ad- hoc reports
  • 15.  Physical view : Similar to traditional file systems. It deals with the actual location of bits and bytes on memory devices.  Logical view : Represents data in a format that is meaningful to the user and the application programmer.The emphasis here is on interrelating data fields and records such that they represent the underlying business reality.
  • 16. Application programApplication program Logical view D B M S Physical view Database
  • 17.  Data base is the physical collection of data.  The data must be stored on direct-access devices like magnetic disks.  Well managed installations create backup copies of the data base on offline storage media such as magnetic tapes.
  • 18.  The hardware, then consists of the secondary storage volumes such as disks, drums, tapes, etc., on which the data base resides together with the associated devices, control units, channels, and so forth.  The security measures are extremely important in a data base environment, since departments and application programs may be dependent on a single, centralized data base.
  • 19.  The users of database system can be classified depending on their degree of expertise or the mode of their interactions with the DBMS.  Three classes of users are application programmer, end-user or traditional users(such as management), and database administrator.  Users interact with the DBMS indirectly via application programs or directly via simple query language.
  • 20.  The user’s interactions with the DBMS also include the definition of the logical relationships in the database(the logical view), and the input, alteration, deletion, and manipulation of data.
  • 21.  Centralized management and control of data.  The Database administrator is the focus of the centralized control.  Any application requiring a change in the structure of a data record requires an arrangement with the DBA, who makes the necessary modifications.  Such modifications do not affect other applications or users of the record in question.
  • 22. 1. Reduction of Redundancies 2. Sharing Data 3. Integrity 4. Security 5. Conflict Resolution 6. Data Independence
  • 23.  A database is an organized collection of information.  A DBMS allows you to enter, store, manipulate, and retrieves information organized into database.  A DBMS provides interactive access to your data bases and provides an easy way to create printed reports.
  • 24.  When a body of information becomes too large or the retrieval demands on it become too complex to manage manually, the information system should be computerized.  Every computer application has unique requirements.  Database management systems are general- purpose programs that dramatically reduce the time necessary to computerize an application.
  • 25.  The purpose of a DBMS is to provide two main functions:  A mechanism for organizing, structuring and storing data.  A mechanism for accessing data that provides a measure of data independence, i.e., to some extent it insulates application programs from changes to the data structures.
  • 26.  Data base management system is a complex software package that enables the user to communicate with the data base.  The DBMS interprets user commands so that the computer system can perform the task required.  The work of the system designer and the application programmer, the DBMS as viewed by its user, will normally consist of three main areas:
  • 27. 1. The data definition facility or data definition language(DDL). 2. The data manipulation facility or data manipulation language(DML). 3. Utilities and Ancillary Software.
  • 28.  This is the means by which the content and format of data to be stored is described and the structure of the data base is defined, including relationships between records and indexing strategies.  This definition of the data base is often known as schema.
  • 29.  DDL is essentially the link between the logical and physical views of the data base.  Logical refers to the way the user views data.  Physical refers to the way the data are physically stored.
  • 30.  The logical structure of a data base is sometimes called a schema.  A subschema is the way a particular application views the data from the data base.  There may be many users and application programs utilizing the same data base, and, therefore, many different sub schemas can exist.  Each user or application program uses a set of DDL statements to construct a subschema which includes only those data elements which are of interest.
  • 32.  DDL is used to define the physical characteristics of each record: the fields within the record, and each field's logical name, data type, and length.  The logical name (such as SNAME for the student name field), is used by both application programs and users to refer to a field for the purpose of retrieving or updating the data in it.  DDL is also used to specify relationships among the records.
  • 33. 1. Describe the schema and subschema's. 2. Describe the fields in each record and the record's logical name. 3. Describe the data type and name of each field. 4. Indicate the keys on the record. 5. Provide for data security restrictions. 6. Provide for logical and physical data independence. 7. Provide means of associating related data.
  • 34.  This is a powerful set of procedural commands that allow the programmer to easily store, retrieve and alter data on the data base using the most appropriate access strategies.  DML provides the techniques for processing the data base, such as retrieval, sorting, display, and deletion of data or records.  DML should include a variety of manipulation verbs and operands for each verb.
  • 36.  Most data manipulation languages interface with high- level programming languages such as COBOL or PL/I.  These languages enable a programmer to perform unique data processing that the DBMS's data manipulation language cannot perform.  A key feature of a DML is that it uses logical names (such as SNO for student number) instead of physical storage locations when referring to data.  The capability is Possible since the data definition provides the linkage between the logical view of data and their physical storage.
  • 37.  Provide the techniques for data manipulation such as deletion, replacement, retrieval, sorting or insertion of data or records.  Enable the user and application programs to process data by using logically meaningful data names rather than physical storage locations.
  • 38.  Provide interfaces with programming languages. A DML should support several high-level languages such as COBOL, PL/I, and FORTRAN.  Allow the user and application programs to be independent of physical data storage and data base maintenance.  Provide for the use of logical relationships among data items.
  • 39.  DBMS are normally provided a range of products that fall into three main categories: 1. Those that aid the physical administration of the data base such as dumping, logging, recovery, re -organization, data base initialization and fast initial load utilities.
  • 40. 2. Those that help the data base administrator and systems designer to coordinate and keep track of the data on the data base, such as data dictionaries. 3. Those that help to reduce the effort of system development and implementation by providing powerful generalized facilities such as Report Generation and Query Packages.
  • 41.  DBMS has a compiler or translator program that accepts source definitions of the data base and produces a machine readable data definition which is almost always stored on a disk library file.
  • 43.  Data manipulation facilities are provided by procedural commands that are usually used in conjunction with a conventional programming language such as COBOL or PL/I known as the 'Host Language'.  The DBMS supplier then provides a pre-processor to translate the DML commands into the Host Language so that the whole program can then be compiled, using the standard compiler or assembler.  The rest of the program logic for processing transaction files and carrying out mathematical or logical functions is, thus, written in the normal way.
  • 45.  1.The load stage in which the data descriptions are accessed and linked to the program definitions.This allows data base changes without having to re -compile programs.  2.The execute stage in which the DBMS routines are accessed by 'CALL' statements actually carry out the commands. Generalized functions such as logging and privacy checking are carried out by the DBMS, routines.
  • 46.  Data bases from the real world are frequently described within the framework of data models.  Usually there are two classes of data models associated with data base management system software: one is referred to as the conceptual or semantic data model and the other is called physical data model.  The conceptual data model provides an environment to the user for interacting with the data base.
  • 47.  The user can formulate his queries pertinent to the data base within the frame of the conceptual data model.  Thus, conceptual models are the basis for development of high-level query languages.  The physical data model helps the data base administrator (i.e., users authorized to change physical data) to organize the data and store them in the computer so that subsets of the relevant to the user's request can be processed efficiently.
  • 48.  1) Relational model  2) Hierarchical model and  3) Network model.
  • 49.  The relational model is based on the concepts of relational theory and the hierarchical and network models are based on the concepts of graph theory.  Each of these types of models has some advantages over the others.  Some real -world data base management systems allow users to model and implement data on a tree, network, or relational basis; others allow only one model, such as relational.
  • 50.  The basic concepts of relational models were introduced by Dr. E. F. Codd in the early nineteen seventies.  In the relational model, the data are viewed as a collection of nonhierarchical time- varying relations.  These are special constructs of mathematical relations and are different from the traditional data processing files and tables.
  • 51.  This view of the data enables the user to apply the powerful operations and expressions of relational algebra to data manipulations.  This model provides a means of describing data with its natural structure only, that is, without superimposing any additional structure for machine representation purposes.
  • 52.  It provides a basis for a higher -level data language that yields maximal independence between the machine representation and organization of data.  It also provides a sound basis for treating derivability, redundancy, and consistency of relations.  In this model, relational algebra has been used to decompose a complex logical structure into a collection of simple relations so that complex relations of the real world can be expressed; also accessing and updating of data can be made simple and efficient.
  • 53.  A relational data base is composed of one or more relations. Each can be visualized as a table of data or file.  Each row (tuple) in the relation represents one entity (such as a student in a student data base or an employee in a personnel data base).  Each column (attribute) 'name' is drawn from the domain of names in the data base.  The value of an attribute is called an item. In any relation no two rows can be identical, and the ordering of the rows should not be significant.
  • 54.  An attribute or set of attributes whose values uniquely identify a row of a relation is called a key.  If a relation has more than one key, it -is preformed to designate one of them as the primary key.  In relational data base systems you can enter data without too much regard for how you are going to use it; that is, you do not have to know how records will be combined when you enter the data.
  • 55.  However, if you do not plan how you are going to use data and enter it according to that plan, you have to spend some time getting the information out as the data base program searches through your data base files, makes the proper combinations, and records the results.
  • 56.  If you knew ahead of time how you wanted your information served, you could have recorded it accordingly in a single file and saved yourself a lot of time when you retrieved it.
  • 57.  A company maintains an education and training department whose function is to run various training courses. Each course is offered at different locations within the company.The details of education data base is as follows:  1) For each course; Course number (unique), course title, course description, details of prerequisite course, and details of all offerings (past and planned).  2) For each prerequisite course; Course number and title.
  • 58.  3) For each offering of a given course: Date, location, format, details about teachers and students,  4) For each teacher of a given offering: Employee number and name.  5) For each student of a given offering: Employee number, name and grade.
  • 60.  In relational data base, one can combine records from different files as long as the records in the different files have one field in common.  Under this system one can, theoretically, combine retrieve selected records using a common field from an unlimited number of files with command- as SELECT, PROJECT and JOIN.  SELECT operation selects a record or set of record- corresponding to the value of a field.  PROJECT creates subset records from existing records whereas JOIN command combines records into new records.
  • 61.  Data is represented by a tree -structure type of organization.  The hierarchical tree specifies what record types are allowed to be included in the data base and the permissible relations between record types.  Any record other than the root of the tree must be connected with a superior record (the parent).  Thus, to insert a record the user must select the parent record first .  When a record is deleted, all the descendants of the record are also deleted.
  • 62.  The hierarchical data base is made up -of records, as is the relational data base, except that the records in a hierarchical data base do not have to be broken up into fields.  The records can look like relational records with several fields per record like a one-dimensional array of data items.  In a hierarchical system, however, the connections between files do not depend on the data in the files.
  • 63.  The connections are defined at the start and are fixed for the life of the data base.  In this system, fileA is always linked to file B, no matter what the contents of these two files are. And, naturally enough, the connection between record types is hierarchical.
  • 64.  These connections are called the structure of the data, and a diagram of them looks like an upside-down tree.  Figure shows the data structure of the hierarchical data base.
  • 66.  The file at the top is called the parent or owner file, while the files at the bottom are called the child or member tiles:The identifying characteristic of this system is the one -to -many connection between the owner and the member files.  In other words the member files have only one owner file.
  • 67.  To implement a hierarchical data base, the designer must first specify how the records are related to one another.  One common method of implementation is the use of pointers to maintain the relationship between tiles whose contents have similar characteristics.
  • 69.  COURSE is a root segment type, the other segments are dependent segment type.  Each dependent has a parent (segment type), e.g., the parent ofTEACHER is OFFERING.  Each parent has at least one child (segment type).  Retrieval of information from any segment type requires specifying the hierarchical path from the root to the required segment.
  • 70.  Network model is the generalization of the hierarchical model.  In the network model, a segment can have multiple parent segments.  In general, the segments are grouped as levels but logical associations can exist between segments belonging to any level.  Although the logical associations are directional in nature, any two levels can have both types of directional associations.
  • 71.  In general, many -to -many logical associations can exist between any two segments and also their instances.  The diagrammatic representation of the different logical associations between the segments resembles in a graph.
  • 72.  In general, these logical associations between instances are implemented by pointers the data set or by creating connecting relations that reflect the many -to -many associations bet the instances.  Most of the current interest in the network approach can be traced back to the publication of the final report of the CODASYL Data BaseTask Group (DBTG) in April 1971.  The report noted that one of the most important aspects of the DBTG logical model is the set concept.
  • 73.  Each occurrence of a set, represents a hierarchical relationship between the owner record in the set and the corresponding members.  Connections are made by a chain of pointers that start from the owner, pass through all the members and finally return to the owner record.  Set types are also represented using the Bachman 'data structure diagram' technique.
  • 75.  In the diagram, the names on the arrows are set names; each set has a type of record as its owner; another record as its members.  In the set calledCOURPRE, the record COURSE is the owner and the record PREREQ is the member.