Presentation on International Marketing Prepared by, Pram od M .K. Reg.No. 028 FIM S C alicut
Newfoundland and Labradors permanent population rapidly expanded during the first half of the 19th century, largely due to an influx of English, Irish, and Scottish immigrants. During the early 1800s, however, the migratory fishery gave way to a resident one as more and more immigrants arrived from overseas to live in coastal communities on the island or in southern Labrador.
Overpopulation in many British towns caused some residents to move elsewhere, while others wished to escape economic hardships brought on by poor harvests, job losses due to increased mechanization, the failure of local industries, and other factors. In contrast, the early decades of the 19th century brought much economic prosperity to Newfoundland and Labrador. Well-established trade routes between the United Kingdom and Newfoundland and Labrador facilitated migration and made the latter a somewhat familiar destination to those wishing to leave their homes and settle elsewhere.
Push Factors Push factors encourage people to leave their points of origin and settle elsewhere, while pull factors attract migrants to new areas. For Example; High unemployment is a common push factor, while an abundance of jobs is an effective pull factor. The period of most intense migration occurred during the first three decades of the 19th century, when Newfoundland and Labradors population almost quadrupled from 19,000 in 1803 to 75,000 in 1836. Immigration into the country continued for the remainder of the 19th century, but not on as large a scale.
A variety of push factors existed in England and Ireland during the early decades of the 19th century that would have motivated residents to move elsewhere. In England, centralization and industrialization eliminated many regional jobs, particularly among the artisan class in the southwestern portion of the country. Unemployment also increased during the Napoleonic Wars (1803-1815), when trade between Britain and continental Europe collapsed under Frances foreign policy.
The collapse of the textile industry in the southeast and a series of poor farming seasons between 1770 and 1830 resulted in much economic hardship for members of the working class. During the first three decades of the 19th century, between 30,000 and 35,000 people left Ireland for Newfoundland and Labrador, often to escape hunger, poverty, and overcrowded living conditions.
Pull Factors Newfoundland and Labradors growing economy and small resident population made it more than capable of absorbing large numbers of immigrants during the early decades of the 19th century; these same factors also made it an attractive destination for migrants wishing to escape poverty and population congestion prevalent in their points of origin. The Napoleonic and Anglo-American wars of the early 1800s brought much economic prosperity to Newfoundland and Labrador and helped turn its inshore fishery into a resident rather than migratory industry.
As French and American fisheries declined between 1804 and 1815, Newfoundland and Labrador cod became more valuable on the international market and the colonys fish exports almost doubled from 625,519 quintals to approximately 1.2 million during the same time period. The growth of other industries supplemented the summer fishery and made permanent residence in Newfoundland and Labrador more attractive; these included a spring seal hunt, winter trapping season, and shipbuilding industry.
The United Kingdoms well-established shipping routes with Newfoundland and Labrador also made the colony a popular destination for British migrants. Alongside sending regular shipments of goods to Newfoundland and Labrador ports, merchants in southwest England and southeast Ireland also sent workers overseas who often took up permanent residence in the colony. In addition, British vessels could not enter American ports during the Anglo-American War (1812-1814), making Newfoundland and Labrador a convenient alternative to migrants wishing to leave the Old World for the New.