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HKBU POLS 3620 Bandits On The Sea


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Bandits on the Sea: A study of Pirates in China and England

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HKBU POLS 3620 Bandits On The Sea

  1. 1. BANDITS ON THE SEA: PIRACY IN CHINA AND ENGLAND 06012434 CHEUNG Hoi Yuen, Zoie 07001665 IP Ching, Leo
  2. 3. PHOTO2 <ul><li>Johnny Depp </li></ul>
  3. 4. PHOTO3 <ul><li>Shaw’s Movie </li></ul>
  4. 5. DIFFERENCES BETWEEN EAST AND WEST China England Period 1790 - 1810 1692 - 1725 Who robbed? Fishermen, Dan Ka Ex-privateers Whom to be robbed? Trading vessels coming back from South East Asia Trading vessels coming back from the colonies Business: Active area South Eastern Coast of China Mediterranean, Caribbean and Atlantic Ship size Smaller Larger Income sources Robbery, Kidnapping and Protection fee Robbery with Permission Icon Chang Pao-Tsai Blackbeard The End of Piracy Golden Age Recruited into the authority Letters of Marquee no longer issued
  5. 6. RISE OF PIRACY: CHINA <ul><li>Poor economic situation - Chinese population increased 3.5 times from 1710 to 1811 - No enough resources to raise the extra public - Poverty found everywhere </li></ul><ul><li>Decline of Authority - Corrupted officials in local level - Other than corruption, Yamens (Government office) were always understaffed for the large population </li></ul>
  6. 7. RISE OF PIRACY: CHINA (CONT’D) <ul><li>Discrimination against Dan Ka - Dan Ka, people lived in boat and made their living by fishing - Poor, illiterate and discriminated by the others - Easily turned into pirates when poor </li></ul><ul><li>Vietnamese from Pirates - Vietnamese court used to habour Chinese pirates as its navy - They came back to China after the Vietnamese court collapse </li></ul>
  7. 8. RISE OF PIRACY: ENGLAND <ul><li>Legacy of the wars </li></ul><ul><li>-‘Letters of marquee’ -to attack and pillage foreign ships in the name of England </li></ul><ul><li>-Ranks of piracy exploded with ex-privateers since peace was made </li></ul><ul><li>-Downsized navies caused a widespread unemployment among sailors </li></ul>
  8. 9. RISE OF PIRACY: ENGLAND (CONT’D) <ul><li>Poverty suffered -poor living condition suffered by the low-class citizens </li></ul><ul><li>Poor working environment on board -harsh and unjust disciplines -suffered from humiliating punishments </li></ul><ul><li>Tempting treasure -Huge amount of wealth was shipped from the foreign colonies to the nations </li></ul>
  9. 10. SHIPS USED BY CHINESE PIRATES <ul><li>Smaller Junk: From 30 to 100 feet </li></ul><ul><li>Fishing boats, Sanpan even </li></ul><ul><li>Maximum 10 cannons on broad </li></ul><ul><li>Manned with 10 to 30 pirates </li></ul>
  10. 11. ACTIVE AREAS <ul><li>Southern China </li></ul><ul><li>Mediterranean, Caribbean and Atlantic </li></ul>
  11. 12. PIRATE CONFEDERATION IN CHINA <ul><li>More organized </li></ul><ul><li>Six “Flag” of South China </li></ul><ul><li>Each Flag was similar to a Trial Society on land </li></ul><ul><li>Code of conduct, shares of income and sphere of influence </li></ul><ul><li>Mob wars between flags were happened sometimes </li></ul>
  12. 13. PIRACY PRACTICE IN CHINA: ROBBERY <ul><li>Chinese - Operated along the coast - Sending out a fishing boat to scouting victims - Pretending itself as trading or fishing boats - Sending few pirates disguising as passengers and cooperated with those waiting along the route - Never work alone </li></ul>
  13. 14. PIRACY PRACTICE IN CHINA: (CONT’D) <ul><li>Kidnapping - Pirates would took hostages and the robbed vessels away - Ransom was required for the release - Biggest source of “Income” other than robbery </li></ul><ul><li>Protection Fee in ports - With cooperation of trial members along the coast, protection fee were collected from vessels in smaller ports and fish markets, with no navy stationed </li></ul>
  14. 15. SHIPS USED BY EUROPEAN PIRATES <ul><li>Any ships </li></ul><ul><li>Speed and maneuverability were preferred </li></ul><ul><li>Allowing pirates to board a superior vessel quickly, steal the loot and retreat to safe waters </li></ul>
  15. 16. PIRACY PRACTICE IN ENGLAND: ROBBERY <ul><li>English -Flags showed identity - Strategy 1 : -hoisting the flag to pretend victim -showing their real identity once the ships were within the firing range -surrender or fight? - Strategy 2 : -appearing as a slow lumbering ship -declaration of intent once the unsuspecting vessel drew near enough </li></ul>
  16. 17. ICONS <ul><li>Cheung Po Tsai </li></ul><ul><li>Blackbeard the Pirate </li></ul>
  17. 18. END OF GOLDEN AGE OF PIRACY IN CHINA <ul><li>Reached cease-fire agreement with the authority </li></ul><ul><li>Heavy damage in the battle in Lantau, 1810 </li></ul><ul><li>Surrendered and recruited into the authority - Recruited into the navy - Returned to fishing or transporting business </li></ul>
  18. 19. END OF GOLDEN AGE OF PIRACY IN ENGLAND <ul><li>European governments ceased issuing letters of marquee </li></ul><ul><li>The excess of trained sailors were hired by the nation navies </li></ul><ul><li>Greater degree of protection was offered to the merchants </li></ul><ul><li>Cracking down on piracy and rooting out corruption in colonial governments </li></ul>
  19. 20. THE END