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P.Missier2017
SystemsResearchChallenges
Towards an authority-free marketplace for
personal IoT data (Personal Data from Things)
Paolo Missier
Jan 16th, 2017
Systems Research Challenges in the Internet of
Things Workshop
Ack: Dr. Michele Nati, DE Catapult
P.Missier2017
SystemsResearchChallenges
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About a year ago,
in a fancy Northumberland country house, ...
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IoT ∩ People  Personal Data from Things (PDT)
IoT vision: personal devices will make our lives better
They often also produce data that is also personal
As per the Data Protection Act 1998
• Are people aware of the trade-offs between privacy and benefits?
1. Ownership:
• What is “my” data? Who else has access to it? To what extent?
2. Awareness of third party use of personal data:
• Who has been doing what with my data?
3. Control.
• How much control can I have on the data that devices produce on my behalf?
Ownership + awareness + control  Trust
P.Missier2017
SystemsResearchChallenges
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Activity detection pattern
Accelerometry data
Indoor location data
Activity
Detection
Accelerometry data
Indoor location data
Activity
Detection
Aggregate
Analytics
03 January 2016 10:16
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Moving forward: brokered Personal Data exchanges
Working assumption: Personal data are assets with a value
fitness / health monitoring, energy metering, …
PDT: Control  trading
Primary
producers
(wearables…)
Value Added Services /
aggregators
Topics (minimal
data semantics)
What would an infrastructure for a PDT marketplace look like?
Sensor data streams,
batched into windows
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Baseline (personal) data marketplace scenario
1-hop Contract model between Primary producers PP and Primary
Consumers PC:
Each topic has an associated unit value: T  val(T)
For each batch of N messages from PPi, to PCj about Tk:
(PPi, PCj, Tk, N)  PCj owes (N . val(Tk)) coins to PPi
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Raw message logging, baseline
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Count cubes from messages, 1-hop
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Using count cubes to enforce contracts
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Baseline scenario, realisation – broker-based tracking
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Baseline scenario, realization - unilateral tracking
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Moving forward
Two directions for a more interesting marketplace:
1. Fully decentralised / unilateral message tracking without trusted authority
2. Multi-hop contracts:
Primary Consumer PC-VAS  [resell]  Secondary Consumer SC-VAS  …
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Decentralising and removing trust
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SystemsResearchChallenges
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What does the authority do?
1. Control the Tracker DB
1. Prevent fraud:
• Producers have an incentive to over-claim data production
• VAS have an incentive to deny receiving some of the data
• (Data ownership / data theft / Replay attack)
• A third party will have an interest in claiming ownership of messages sent by
others
• For instance, by copying data (possibly encrypted) and replaying it on the
channel, publishing it as its own
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Approach
Blockchain + smart contracts technology, used to:
1. Associate identity to marketplace participants
2. Agree on contract specification
3. Settlement of contractual disputes given unilaterally generated
count cubes
Concrete prototyping [in progress]: the Ethereum platform
“A blockchain is a globally shared, transactional database”
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Basic BitCoin protocol(*)
(*) Source:
A Next-Generation Smart Contract and Decentralized Application Platform
https://github.com/ethereum/wiki/wiki/White-Paper
State S: {<owner, balance>}
Transactions transfer ownership of (unspent) coins
APPLY(S,TX)  S' or ERROR
APPLY({ Alice: $50, Bob: $50 },"send $20 from Alice to Bob") =
{ Alice: $30, Bob: $70 }
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Ethereum transactions and smart contracts
external
accounts are
asset owners
contract accounts
also contain:
• contract code
• storage
BitCoin Transactions:
{ <owner, balance> } —> { <owner’, balance’> }
TX-eth: Transactions become messages
Messages carry arbitrary data
APPLY(S,TX-eth):
run the code associated with the destination (contract) account
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Smart contracts in the Ethereum Virtual Machine
http://solidity.readthedocs.io/en/develop/index.html
runtime environment
for smart contracts in
Ethereum
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Contracts for device registration / identity management
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Contracts for formalising agreements between parties
Note: this sets the list of topics st(PC) to which each PC subscribes
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Contracts used for reputation management
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Using smart contracts for unilateral reporting verification
Given N PP, M PC,
and R topics T1, T2, …, TR:
Each PPi and each PCj all report their unilateral count cubes for each window w
They all agree on the time interval that defines W (magic, to be dealt with later)
1) No trouble: 1. All PPi and / all PCj report independently and accurately
2. Some do not report, but reports are accurate
2) Trouble: 1. The reports from PPi and PCj do not “add up”
2. The reports do not sync on time / windows
Scenarios:
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Publishers transactions
CCs(w,i,k) = ni,k count of messages sent by PPi during w about Tk
Fragment of counts cube viewed by PPi:
This is one row of sender matrix SMw for w:
SMw[i,k] = CCs(w,i,k)
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Publishers transactions
Each of these fragments is sent to the Reconciliation Smart Contract as a
Ethereum blockchain transaction:
- The contract receives N messages associated with w
- For each PCj, the contract has access to the set of topics it subscribes to:
Credit PCj  PPi:
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Subscribers transactions
Fragment of counts cube viewed by PCj:
-- note: include senders as an extra dimension
Credit PCj  PPi:
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SystemsResearchChallenges
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Reports propagation
Settlements are straightforward when reports are partial but accurate
Matrices SM, RM, are two views of the same data exchanges:
C1. For each PPi and topic Tk:
SMw(i,k) = RMw(j,i,k) for each j:1..M such that Tk ∈ st(PCj)
C2. for i:1..N:
RMw(j,i,k) = SMw(i,k)
Q. Which subsets of reports are sufficient to complete the matrices?
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Fraud detection
Incentives to behave unfairly:
• Can fraudulent reporting be always detected?
• Can responsibility for the fraudulent reporting be ascribed to one or
more specific participants?
• Publishers: over-report
• Subscribers: under-report
1. Detection:
SMw(i,k) > RMw(j,i,k) for some j (1)
2. Ascribing responsibility:
Case 1: PC fraud
Case 2: PP fraud
P.Missier2017
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Fraud detection – initial thoughts on responsibilities
Case 1: PC fraud
It follows from C1, C2 (above) that:
If Tk ∈ PCj ∩ PCj then RMw(j,i,k) = RMw(j’,i,k) for i:1..N
let j’ such that Tk ∈ PCj ∩ PCj:
Suppose SMw(i,k) = RMw(j’,i,k)
This suggests that (1) may be due to PCj under-reporting on Tk, and
PPi reporting correctly
- The more topics the PCs share, the stronger the evidence...
Case 2: PP fraud
Suppose RMw(j,i,k) = RMw(j’,i,k) for all Tk
This suggests that PPi has over-reported
(1) SMw(i,k) > RMw(j,i,k)
P.Missier2017
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32
The last slide
Some novel uses for blockchain (amongst many others)
https://solarcoin.org
http://www.electricchain.org
http://www.mediachain.io/
https://www.coalaip.org
…
Personal data in the IoT space:
Mashhadi, Afra, Fahim Kawsar, and Utku Gunay Acer. “Human Data Interaction in IoT:
The Ownership Aspect.” In Internet of Things (WF-IoT), 2014 IEEE World Forum on,
159–162, 2014.
Vescovi, Michele, Corrado Moiso, Fabrizio Antonelli, Mattia Pasolli, and Christos
Perentis. “Building an Eco-System of Trusted Services through User Transparency,
Control and Awareness on Personal Data Privacy.” In Procs. W3C Workshop on
Privacy and User–Centric Controls. Berlin, Germany, 2014.
Multi-hop contracts and transitive credit management:
Missier, Paolo. “Data Trajectories: Tracking Reuse of Published Data for Transitive
Credit Attribution.” International Journal of Digital Curation 11, no. 1 (2016): 1–16.
doi:doi:10.2218/ijdc.v11i1.425.

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Towards an authority-free marketplace for personal IoT data (Personal Data from Things)

Editor's Notes

  1. (*) EPSRC funding, £25k staff + travel what happened previously: plasma state at last year's workshop has matured into a technical collaboration with the DE Catapult Centre in London my motivation there is to explore opportunities for early-impact system research in the IoT space this has generated a short-term research visiting position at the Catapult...
  2. How much of the data used in a certain computation is my data?? What has its contribution been to the analytics?
  3. Note: message semantics currently described only using broker topics (*) Work being developed in collaboration with the DE Catapult Researcher in Residence programme
  4. Therefore, the authority must be able to verify that the data observed on the channels is originated by their respective owners as claimed. Therefore, the authority must able to recognize when data is not genuine. However this cannot be determined directly, because as long as the data is verified on the channel, we cannot know how it is actually produced. One idea is to leverage the traces and past marketplace transactions for trust assessment on each of the parties, for instance based on past record of certified data handling. There is incentive to alter the content of otherwise genuine messages with a payload that is expected to have a higher value to consumers than the original one.
  5. Ethereum (*) extends the BitCoin protocol in several ways
  6. This scenario effectively amounts to collecting the senders matrix SMw, piecemeal, one row from each PCj, and then reconstruct the counts cubes for w from it.
  7. \sum_{T_k \in \mathit{st}(PC_j)} CC_r(w,j,i,k) \cdot \mathit{val}(T_k)