The Path To Soul


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An alternative to The Profit and Loss Paradigm in the determination of the ROI

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The Path To Soul

  1. 1. CONSULTANTSThe Path ToSoul Peter AnyebeW e b u ild P e o p le
  2. 2. The PathSoul To Toward aValue Creation Paradigm Peter Anyebe 2
  3. 3. The PathSoul To 3
  4. 4. Toward aValue Creation Paradigm An alternative toThe Profit and Loss Paradigm in thedetermination of the ROI 4
  5. 5. ©2011 Peter Anyebe.All rights reserved.Printed in Gboko, Nigeria.This publication may not be reproduced,stored in a retrieval system,or transmitted in whole or in part,in any form or by any means, electronic,mechanical, photocopying, recording, or otherwise,without the prior written permission of Agape Consultants, 8 De-Bangler Street, Gboko, Benue State Nigeria 5
  6. 6. To Nicolaus Copernicus Polish astronomerBirth February 19, 1473Death May 24, 1543Place of Torun, PolandBirth Proposing a heliocentric (sun-centered) model for the solarKnown for system, in which the Sun is stationary at the center, and Earth and the other planets orbit around itCareer 1491-1494 Studied mathematics at Kraków Academy (now Jagiellonian University) 1496 Went to Italy to study astronomy and law at the University of Bologna 1497 Began observations of the Sun, Moon, and planets 1514? Wrote Commentariolus, an outline of his astronomical ideas, but did not circulate it widely 1543 Published De Revolutionibus Orbium Coelestium (On the Revolutions of the Celestial Spheres), which held that Earth and the other planets orbit a centrally located SunDid You Before Copernican theory was accepted, astronomers believedKnow that Earth was stationary at the center of the solar system, and the Sun and planets revolved around it. Copernicus was best known to his contemporaries as a doctor and the Canon of Frauenburg Cathedral. Italian physicist and astronomer Galileo attempted to publicize Copernican theory in the early 1600s, and was convicted of heresy as a result. Copernican theory was not widely accepted until the late 17th century—over 100 years after Copernicuss death. Copernicuss book, De Revolutionibus Orbium Coelestium, was banned as heretical by the Catholic Church until 1835. Microsoft ® Encarta ® 2008 6
  7. 7. Table of Contents Pg.Cover ……………………………..…………1Title Pages………………………..………….2Dedication …………………………………..6Table of Contents ……………………..…….7List of Charts ………………………………..8List of Equations ……………………………9The List of Tables …………………………..11Foreword ..……………………….…………12Preface ………………………….…………..16Introduction …………………….…………..26The Natural Order ……………….…………30The Model of Mind …………….…………..38The Character Model…………….…………66The Model of Learning ………….…………75Science and Religion …………………….....83A Unitary History of Humanity …………....90Management of the Human Resources .......100The Adoption Process …………………….114The Execution Process ……………..……..114Selected Bibliography ……………………..115Back Cover ………………………………...118 7
  8. 8. List of Charts PgThe Growth Model …………………………………..20The Perception Continuum ………………………....22The Duality/Standard Procedure Series ………….…36The Work-Behaviour Model ………………….…….46The Appreciation Model ……….……….………52, 78The Relativity Continuum ………………..…………60The Absolute ………………………………..………60The Natural Order ……………………………..……60The Standard Procedure Series …….…………..61, 90Mental Space ………………………..……………...63The Character Model ……………..………….……..67A Model of Learning ……………..………….……..75The Appreciation Model ………………….…...52, 78The Path to Soul …………………..………….……..85The Standard Procedure Series …….………..…61, 88A Sample Standard Procedure Series: The Clock ....88A System of Gears ………………………………….88A Typical Clock …………………………………....88A History of Humanity: An Outline …………….…98The Character Series ………………………………108The Organisational Kit …………………………....111The Adoption Procedure …………..……………..114 8
  9. 9. List of Equations PgThe Character Model of Development, CMD …..13, 18The Energy Equation ….………………………...15, 30The Relativity Model of Humans, RMH …..15, 94, 105The Personality Model of Society, PMS …...15, 94, 105 The Character Model of Development, CMD ….14, 18The Growth Model ………………………….……….20The Behaviour Model? …………………………..23, 68The Performance Model ………………….………….23The Attitude Model? …………………………………25The Energy Equation? ………………………15, 30, 105The Synthesis Model …………………………………48The F-Scale ……………………………….…………..49The Concatenation Model? …………………...….50, 64The Power Model ……………………….……………54The Normality Model? ………………....…55, 102, 107The Simulation of the Normality Model …………….56The Attitude Model? …………………………………57The Perception Model of Mind, PMM. .………..58, 113The Normality Test ………………….……………….61The Concatenation Model? ………………………50, 64The Consciousness Model? …………………...…64, 80 9
  10. 10. The Behaviour Model? …………………………..23, 68The Phenomenology Model …………………………68The Personality Model of Society, PMS ………..15, 68The √n-Equation ………………………………,,,…..71The C-Equation ………………………...……………71The Fechner Equation ………………..……………..72The Need Profile ………………………...…………..73The Simulation of the Need Profile ………...……….74The Consciousness Model? ……………….……64, 80The Model of Spirit …………………..….………….83The Zero Model …………………….…….………...84The Equality of Imaginary Numbers ….…………...84The Black Box Model, BBM ………..……………..87The Relativity Model of Humans, RMH …15, 94, 105The Personality Model of Society, PMS ....15, 94, 105The Belief Model ……………………..….…………95The Duality Model …………………….………….102The Normality Model ……..……..……..56, 102, 107The Relativity Model ……………………………..102The Creativity Model ……………………………..102The Energy Equation …..………………...15, 30, 105The Relativity Model of Humans, RMH ...15, 94, 105The Personality Model of Society, PMS . .15, 94, 105The Normality Model ………………..…55, 102, 107The Reward Model ………………………..……..112The Position Model …………………….….…….113The Perception Model of Mind, PMM ..….…58, 113 10
  11. 11. The List of Tables PgThe Pareto-Performance Table …………….…………24The Simulation of the Concatenation Model .…....50, 77Sample Data from the Optimisation of theAppreciation Model …………………………….……53The Simulation of the Power Model ……………..55, 79The Simulation of the Perception Model of Mind …...57The Simulation of the Normality Model ……………..72The Simulation of the Need Profile …………….…….74The Simulation of the Concatenation Model …….50, 77The Simulation of the Power Model ………….….55, 79The Simulation of the Consciousness Continuum …..82 11
  12. 12. ForewordThis writer agrees with Edward Lee Thorndike (1874 –1949) then of the Columbia University, New York; andquoted by Raymond B. Cattell in his 1965 book, AScientific Analysis of Personality; in the followingthree, 3 dictums: Whatever exists, exists in some quantity, and can in principle be measured. The only things that can be known for sure are those that can be measured. All science rests upon and begins with accurate description and measurement.This means that wherever there are measurementdifficulties, the place to seek for solution would be in thearea of accurate description. Measurement involves thefollowing two, 2 processes: The reduction of phenomena into their essential components, to characterise and describe them. The mapping of these items into the number line, according to the relationships between them.When the engineer lists out the requirements for makingone hundred, 100 crates of Coca-Cola for instance, theyare usually very precise in their submission. The 12
  13. 13. accountant also estimates the financial implications ofthe project with the same precision. The HumanResource, HR manager has however not reached thelevel of precision that allows them to determine ahead oftime, what combination of personnel can make a pre-determined return on investment, ROI. This requires aclear perception of the following three, 3 value types: Organisational Value, ROI People Value, C The Value of the Business Environment, EBThe relationship between people value measured as thefactor-C, and organisational value measured as thefactor-ROI is presented below: ROI = 2X – 1, 1 X = 1 – 1/C, C = Character of Consistency ROI = Return on InvestmentGiven the factor-C therefore, the factor-ROI would bedetermined automatically, albeit subject to the value ofthe business environment. This relationship enablesLabour to be put on the shelf like other commodities.Then entrepreneurs can decide on the ROI they wish to 13
  14. 14. have at the planning stage of their business, with anacceptable level of precision.In a larger context however, this work holds the potentialbenefit of a more harmonious society; envisaged with thebetter and more assured knowledge of humans, who formthe kernel of the tripartite relationship between nature,humans, and society. It is people who make society, andcivilisation is entirely a human credit; usually accordingto their understanding of nature, as well as themselves.A better understanding of the ingredients that make upthe required recipe in this process would make it moredeliberate and rewarding. In this regard, knowledge isreduced into the following five, 5 essential elements thatneed to be present for the envisaged success: The knowledge of nature The knowledge of humans The knowledge of society Quantification LanguageNature, humans, and society define the content ofknowledge. Quantification justifies, to establish theacceptable quality of the content that is gathered. Andlanguage provides the medium for communicating suchmaterial. Albert Einstein (1879-1955), German-bornAmerican physicist and Nobel laureate, reduced natureinto the energy equation in the following relationship: 14
  15. 15. E = MC2, E = Energy M = Mass C = The Speed of LightIn this work, the following two, 2 models are presented,to define humans and society, respectively: L = 1/A2 F2, 1/A2 = A1 1/Fn = F2, L = Love Index of the human Potential A1 = Appreciation Index A2 = Evaluation Index F2 = Character Index Fn = Procedure Index F = Faith Index of the Mind Rn = F√n, Rn = Rationality Index √n = Standard Procedure Index F = Personality IndexTogether, these three, 3 models form the kernel of theCharacter Model of Development, CMD presented inthis work.Peter Anyebe is a DevelopmentConsultant. He is CEO of AgapeConsultants. He lives with his family inGboko, Benue State Nigeria.234(0)7034302486/234(0) 15
  16. 16. PrefaceAt Agape Consultants in Gboko, Nigeria the goal fortwenty-three, 23 years since 1988 to date (2011), hasbeen to enable sustained organisational growth. Theattainment of this goal has been approached from aperspective that is a little different from the commonapproaches. It is founded on a thought summarised byJac Fitz-enz about humans in his 2000 book, The ROI ofHuman Capital: Measuring the Economic Value ofEmployee Performance. He argued that the onlyeconomic component that can add value in and by itselfis the one that is the most difficult to evaluate. This is thehuman component, which is clearly the most vexatiousof assets to manage. The almost infinite variability andunpredictability of human beings make them enormouslymore complex to evaluate than one of theelectromechanical components that comes withpredetermined operating specifications. Nevertheless,people are the only element with the inherent power togenerate value. All other variables, including cash and itscousin credit, materials, plant and equipment, and energyoffer nothing but inert potentials. It depends on people topush these potentials to their limits, and to expand them,as the need may be. 16
  17. 17. But people also have potentials that have to bedeveloped. Following Jac Fitz-enz, all human abilitiesare either innate or acquired. Every person is born with aparticular set of genes, which determines his innateability. Attributes of acquired population quality, whichare valuable and can be augmented by appropriateinvestment, are treated as human capital. In businessterms human capital might be described as acombination of factors such as the following: The traits one brings to the job: intelligence, energy, a generally positive attitude, reliability, commitment One’s ability to learn: aptitude, imagination, creativity, and what is often called ‗‗street smarts,‘‘ savvy (or how to get things done) One’s motivation to share information and knowledge: team spirit and goal orientationIn this work, it is argued that when the human potentialis developed, then the organisation‘s potential isdeveloped automatically. Then organisational growth,ROI would progress at the same rate as the growth of thepeople value, C. And the sustenance of one woulddepend on the sustenance of the other. This thought isformalised in the following relation: 17
  18. 18. ROI = 2X – 1, 1 X = 1 – 1/C, C = Character of Consistency ROI = Return on InvestmentThis is the Character Model of Development, CMD. Bythis model, there are three, 3 value types as follows: Organisational Value, ROI People Value, C Value of the Business Environment, EBThen given the factor-C, the factor-ROI would bedetermined, subject to the factor-EB. It will be shownlatter in this work that the factor-EB is inclusive of thefactor-C. The factor-EB is therefore accounted for in themeasure of the factor-C.Recall the following dictums by Edward Lee Thorndike(1874 – 1949) then of the Columbia University, NewYork; and quoted by Raymond B. Cattell in his 1965book, A Scientific Analysis of Personality: The only things that can be known for sure are those that can be measured. Whatever exists, exists in some quantity, and can in principle be measured. 18
  19. 19. All science rests upon and begins with accurate description and measurement.The description and measurement of the factor-Cpresented in this work derives from an economicconception of the human person as a producer. Thiswriter studied for a Bachelor of Science degree inGeography, at the University of Ibadan between 1974and 1978. For the ten, 10 years following, up to1988, hetaught same. At that time production was commonlycategorised into the following four, 4: Primary production, including extractive industries Secondary production, which include manufacturing Tertiary production, covers services Quaternary production, involves informationThe information age was then in the future. Twenty-three, 23 mere years from 1988 to date, that future hasarrived. During the industrial age, the primaryproduction tools moved materials. In the informationage, the production tools move information, which inturn tells how and when to move the appropriatematerials and services. The real implication of thisobservation is that for now and in the future, a personwould need to be knowledgeable, to participate fully inthe community. A certain minimum threshold of 19
  20. 20. knowledge would be required to contribute positively tosociety. In agreement with the philosopher John Locke,humans have no innate knowledge, so at birth, thehuman mind is a sort of blank slate, tabula rasa, onwhich experience writes. This makes knowledge thehuman potential. Then, we are in an age when thispotential can, and needs to be fulfilled.It is argued in this work that nature is designed tostimulate humans into the development of this potential.By the second law of thermodynamics, nature tends fromgreater to lesser order. Then humans are expected tocontain this order, for their own comfort; which scienceand technology has done to date. This is like swimmingup a stream in flood. It would require twice the energy,L as the strength, F of the flood. The thought isformalised in the diagram below: L = 2F ± 1 F The Growth ModelKnowledge has been commonly described as justified,true, belief, JTB. Belief is the basis for all humanactions. And knowledge is foundational to the system ofbeliefs. Then, when knowledge does not satisfy the 20
  21. 21. condition of truth, this leads to the contribution of anequivalent amount of entropy, F to the organisation,community, or society. This is the creation of flux that issimilar to the one described by the second law ofthermodynamics. The factor-F is linked to the factor-Cby the following categorisation of knowledge into three,3 levels, in series: Knowledge, or the mere awareness of phenomena, which usually stops at the level of appearances. Understanding, is the depth of awareness that enables the derivation of the essential characteristics of phenomena, in which the procedure for making the phenomenon is outlined at once, thus reaching beyond appearances into the essentials Wisdom, is when understanding allows for repairs, in case of mal functionsFrom birth, humans are familiar with appearances,which dominate the psych. These bombard the five, 5senses continuously through out life. But the essentialsare intangible, despite the fact that they determine thetrue nature of phenomena. Essentials are unchanging.They are not ephemeral like appearances. Until they areidentified therefore, knowledge cannot be described astrue. 21
  22. 22. This defines the path of growth into the humanpotential as the progress from the preoccupation withappearances, to the perception of essentials. Peoplemature into the contribution of lesser entropy, as theytraverse the perception continuum from appearances toessentials. Conversely, their creation of value, C andtherefore ROI would also increase, commensurately.This conception is put in proper perspective by referenceto Wundt (1832 – 1920), who has linked stimulus, f0 tomovement, √n tracing the consciousness continuumfrom stimuli, through feelings, attention duration,images, memory and then to movement. Then given thefactor- f0 the factor-√n would be determined. Thispresents one, 1 basis for establishing the conceptspresented in this work. The continuum has been reducedto include the following items: Interpret → Stimulus → Perception → Decision → ActionThis means that when people are stimulated, they do notrespond directly to the stimulus. Rather, they respond totheir interpretation of the stimulus. But interpretationsare based on what has been perceived, whether they aretrue or false; to determine the appropriateness of theactions, whether they are right or wrong; and the 22
  23. 23. contribution of entropy, whether maximum or minimum.Recall the behaviour model in psychology as follows: R = f(S, P), R=S P →1, R = Response S = Stimulus P = PersonalityThen the response, RES to stimulus would be right, RGTor appropriate, for R = S, when the person perceives itcorrectly, for P = 1. Equivalently: RES = RGT, Po →1The factor-Po measures the personality according to thenumber of essentials it is able to derive. This workestablishes the two, 2 parts of this model to confirm theconceptions presented. This is the Performance Model.By the Pareto Principle or 80-20 Rule, 80% of all thework in most organisations is done by 20% of thepersonnel. This makes the 20%ters the crème of theorganisation. For them therefore, the above relationshipshould hold true, for RES = RGT. This also defines thegrowth path in the organisation. The migration from80%ters to 20%ters would define the baseline of theorganisation‘s growth. 23
  24. 24. Pc Rn /n B Rw ROI F C S CWk CNd C Rgt Res Po Ps Pt 1.64 2.28 2.13 1.06 10.78 3.81 1.16 1.71 0.45 0.85 0.67 1.52 0.98 0.99 0.97 27.0 73.0 1.58 2.16 2.05 1.07 6.72 3.99 1.14 1.67 0.46 0.85 0.67 1.51 0.95 0.96 0.97 21.8 78.2 1.65 0.74 1.36 1.06 7.29 3.79 1.34 1.72 0.47 0.84 0.72 1.56 0.98 0.98 0.86 65.6 34.4 1.34 1.09 1.56 1.23 3.42 4.35 1.35 1.6 0.48 0.84 0.64 1.48 0.9 0.91 0.85 66.0 34.0 1.18 1.09 1.36 1.07 1.76 6.55 1.29 1.36 0.72 0.76 0.92 1.68 0.76 0.63 0.88 61.8 38.2 1.69 2.61 2.06 0.8 1.64 4.89 1.27 1.51 0.4 0.87 0.45 1.32 0.86 0.91 0.88 59.8 40.2 1.28 4.41 2.53 0.41 1.43 -16.68 1.42 0.89 0.15 0.95 -0.06 0.89 -0.48 0.8 0.74 79.4 20.6 1.66 3.57 1.26 -0.56 1.49 5.5 1.89 1.44 0.2 0.93 0.23 1.16 0.99 1.0 0.57 87.8 12.2 1.4 2.39 1.19 -0.01 1.25 8.42 1.55 1.27 0.32 0.89 0.21 1.1 0.59 0.84 0.69 83.0 17.0 2.65 3.1 1.89 0.26 1.23 9.57 1.5 1.23 0.39 0.87 0.22 1.09 0.52 0.77 0.77 77.2 22.8 1.32 2.2 1.1 0.0 1.19 10.27 1.53 1.22 0.33 0.89 0.18 1.07 0.5 0.8 0.69 83.0 17.0 1.8 2.6 2.35 1.06 1.43 3.4 1.19 1.83 0.42 0.86 0.7 1.56 1.07 1.05 0.95 36.4 63.6 1.95 2.89 2.55 1.06 1.41 3.12 1.22 1.95 0.39 0.87 0.72 1.58 1.15 1.1 0.94 42.0 58.0 2.85 2.74 2.81 1.05 1.33 2.23 1.16 2.62 0.37 0.88 0.97 1.85 1.42 1.33 0.83 69.2 30.8 2.33 3.66 3.08 1.06 1.36 2.62 1.27 2.23 0.34 0.89 0.75 1.64 1.34 1.21 0.91 51.0 49.0 2.6 4.7 3.7 1.06 1.32 2.39 1.32 2.44 0.28 0.91 0.7 1.61 1.55 1.28 0.88 60.0 40.0 3.64 6.29 4.89 1.06 1.26 1.9 1.35 3.22 0.25 0.92 0.85 1.76 1.91 1.44 0.88 61.4 38.6 5.37 7.29 6.03 1.05 1.22 1.57 1.32 4.52 0.26 0.91 1.13 2.04 2.11 1.65 0.91 53.6 46.4 2.14 4.79 6.03 3.27 1.15 1.75 1.03 3.67 0.2 0.93 0.8 1.73 2.35 1.49 0.82 72.0 28.025.78 1.13 10.36 1.02 1.08 1.11 1.49 19.59 0.1 0.97 1.3 2.27 5.63 2.11 0.81 72.8 27.233.09 1.21 13.14 1.02 1.06 1.08 1.49 25.07 0.08 0.97 1.29 2.27 6.89 2.14 0.81 72.8 27.218.31 35.62 25.05 1.04 1.08 1.15 1.45 14.23 0.1 0.97 1.13 2.1 5.6 1.96 0.83 70.0 30.0 The Pareto-Performance TableOn this data, only the first, 1st two, 2 people satisfy bothrequirements. Their responses to stimuli are appropriate,for RES = RGT. And their Po-scores are 0.97. At a Po-score of 0.98, the person is able to identify four, 4 of thefive essentials, which is sufficient for an acceptable levelof consciousness.Recall that Fechner (1801 – 1887) posited the principlethat for any stimulus to be registered as an impulse thatis strong enough to be perceived, P it must have acertain minimum strength that is a log function of thesensation, S that can be experienced. He formalised thisconcept in the following relationship: P = K log S. Thefactor-K in this equation is a constant. 24
  25. 25. When the Fechner principle is reversed, the focus is onthe sensitivity of the person, rather than the strength ofthe stimulus. Sensitivity is attitudinal. When a person ispositively disposed to a phenomenon, more attention isgiven, and greater effort is made to understand it. Thenattitude, A would be related to consciousness, C. Thisdefines a forth, 4th basis for establishing the conceptsdiscussed in this work. The following relationship existsbetween the two, 2 factors: A = 19(C-1), A = Attitude Index C = Consciousness IndexEffort is when the required attention is sustained,through out the period of time for identifying theessentials. This is relatively easy for learners, whowould also usually bring the basic traits that are requiredto the job, as well as the willingness to shareinformation. 25
  26. 26. IntroductionIt is generally understood that nature follows the line ofleast resistance. This dictum has bedevilled the study ofthe human nature. Thus the true understanding ofhumans has lagged behind the other sciences, likephysics and chemistry, and especially technology. Whilescience and technology have advanced to the point ofevolving our current civilisation, that propelled us intothe information age; humans have remained the mainsource of vermin that contaminates nature, threateningour annihilation.Psychology, the core discipline from which all the othersderive direction in this regard, has suffered its own shareof the fate that accompanies a science which‘s subjectmatter is elusive. This science, for methodologicaldifficulties, has carefully avoided the core issues thatlead to the understanding of the human person. Forinstance consciousness was by-passed as the core of thesubject matter of psychology because withmeasurements in this area, no two, 2 people could checkthe same observation. In a 1913 article, Watson stated,“I believe that we can write a psychology and never usethe terms consciousness, mental states, mind . . .imagery and the like.” Psychologists then turned almostexclusively to behaviour, as described in terms of 26
  27. 27. stimulus and response, and consciousness was totallyavoided as a subject. Consequently, the exact connectionof consciousness with behaviour, as talked about in theriddle of mind and matter, has remained an issue, likefree will vs. determinism; which current methods havebeen incapable of encompassing.More specific difficulties concerned concepts likerationality, spirit and soul which were traded off forprotoplasm. But the only things that can be known forsure are those that are measured. And measurementcomprises the following activities: Identify the essential elements of the phenomenon Map these into the number line, according to the relationships between themIf these are important essential elements, then the hopeto ever understand humans was doomed from the start.This hope has awaited the development of theappropriate methodology; having consciousness at itscore, yet allowing several people to check the sameobservation. This has involved the following: The definition of the Natural Order, N-O. The definition of Mind, to confirm that it is able to appreciate the N-O. The outline of the standard procedure for the performance at task. 27
  28. 28. The derivation of the Model of Learning, to demonstrate the capacity of mind to adopt the standard procedure. The derivation of the Character Model, to link behaviourism and phenomenology. The derivation of the F-Scale, to measure the person against these standards.Then, it has been possible to trace the path to soul. Andto attempt a resolution of the age old philosophicaldifficulties with the riddle of mind and matter, and freewill vs. determinism. Additionally, the connexionbetween science and religion is clarified. So that indefining the soul as the concatenation of all humanactivities; from the first cry at birth, to the last breath atdeath; as well as a reservoir of energy, there is noconflict between both. Since the soul is fully formedonly at death, what happens afterwards is clearly thedomain of religion. The management of HumanResources, HR would however be content to tease outthe energy that is available for use, in the performance atspecific tasks. This is the part of soul energy that defineshuman capital.There exists an interface between science and religion,however. It is not possible to perfect Soul in theimperfect environment that characterises nature. But ifPlato is followed in his description of the worlds of formand objects, then the logical abode of soul would be the 28
  29. 29. world of forms. This demands that soul is perfected, ariddle for religion, which must be resolved within thelimits of the natural order, N-O that is the standardmode of operation in the world of objects. Both scienceand religion need to clarify this standard, for adoption.This work presents the initial faltering steps in thisdirection. 29
  30. 30. The Natural OrderPhilosopher John Locke wrote "An Essay ConcerningHuman Understanding," published in 1689. In thisessay, he wrote about how the human mind is a tabularasa at birth. According to Stanford University, "Book Iof Lockes essay argues that people have no innateknowledge. So, at birth, the human mind is a sort ofblank slate on which experience writes." This tabula rasatheory advocates that our experiences shape who webecome. Every experience would therefore present anopportunity for the acquisition of knowledge, which is afundamental distinguishing factor between people.But people are Souls. The Soul is conceptualised as theconcatenation of all human activities; from the first cryat birth, to the last breath at death. Following Einsteinhowever, soul is also a mass of energy in storage. Thenthe mass is accumulated by the activities in which peopleengage. Recall the energy equation as follows: E = MC2, E = Energy M = Mass C = The Speed of LightBy this model, energy and mass are equivalent concepts.This means that it would be possible to convert every 30
  31. 31. mass into its energy equivalent, given the appropriatemethod. When wood is burned for instance, the energythat is stored in it is released, and could be utilised toboil some water. When a fan is turned on, the blades setoff a breeze, according to the energy that is available toit. The equations of chromo-dynamics that resolved thismodel at the sub-atomic level gives a glimpse into howthe energy is accumulated in the form of mass.The atom is the fundamental building block of matter.And the nucleus of the atom is made of protons andneutrons. These in turn comprise smaller particlesknown as quarks, which are bound by gluons.According to a brainpower consortium of French,German and Hungarian physicists led by LaurentLellouch of Frances Centre for Theoretical Physics, theodd thing is that the mass of gluons is zero and the massof quarks is only 5% of the total. Where, then is themissing 95%? The answer, according to the studypublished in the U.S. journal Science today, is found inthe energy that accrues from the movements andinteractions (activities?) of the quarks and gluons.In principle therefore, to evaluate the soul, it would besufficient to put a value on the mass, or the energy that isstored there-in. This requires the identification of thecore activities that combine to build the soul. Then theprocedures for the performance at these activities need to 31
  32. 32. be standardised. This calibrates the F-Scale, to evaluatethe observed personal order, P-O against the standard.Procedures actually comprise sequences of events thatmust be carried out in a definite order. They thereforebetray the user‘s system of ordering phenomena, toportray their system of values. This system may beunique, and not reproduced by or acceptable to any otherperson. The derivation of a standard against which allother systems are evaluated would therefore be anecessity. The Natural Order, N-O presents thisstandard. It defines a nature-friendly procedure thatwhen used, introduces entropy that is equivalent to theone contributed, according to the second law ofthermodynamics. All others would contribute entropiesthat are progressively more, according to the extent ofdeviance from the N-O.Values refer to the social, artistic, moral, and otherstandards that people would like others, as well asthemselves to follow. Currently, in the plurality thatcharacterises our societies, there has been no commonlyacceptable system of values that all humans adhere to.Rather, moral behaviour has been conceptualised ascontext-bound, varying from situation to situation almostindependently of stated beliefs. Situational ethics hasemphasised the context in which they are made. It is asystem of ethics in which moral judgments are thought 32
  33. 33. to depend on the context in which they are to be made,rather than on general moral principles.This conception arose from the works of people likeDavid Hume (April 26, 1711 - August 25, 1776), whoargued that things as they are "in themselves" areunknowable. He concluded that belief rather than reasongoverned human behaviour, saying famously, in his1740 book; A Treatise of Human Nature: "Reason is,and ought only to be the slave of the passions."Immanuel Kant (1724 – 1894) a Prussian philosopher, inhis 1781work, Critique of Pure Reason, contradictedthis position by distinguishing between phenomena andnoumena. He made the following distinction: Phenomena describe things as they appear to our senses (including the inner sense of time) Noumena describe things in themselves that are purely objects of thought independently of sense perception, which, by definition, we can never experience. Thus, he differentiated the Natural Order, N-O from thePersonal Order, P-O; in terms of the essence of things,and their appearances respectively.This definition of the N-O enthrones reason, over andabove the human passion. Belief becomes subservient toreason. Reason must then be allowed to shape belief. 33
  34. 34. Facts cannot be believed safely, until they have beenjustified as true. This paves the way into the knowledgeof the essence of things, which had been accessible toonly a few mortals. The human race owes its civilisationto this elite group. It is this team that Pareto highlightedin the 80-20 rule, when he observed that 80% of thework in most organisations is done by 20% of thepersonnel. They point to the character of the modelhuman.The derivation of the N-O is based on the followingthree, 3 principles: Relativity Normality DualityAccording to Einstein‘s Relativity Principle, events inspace can be viewed from an infinite number ofpositions, each of which defines a perspective of theevent. This presents an infinite number of alternativesfrom which to choose, creating a dilemma. People areconfronted by choice every moment of the day. Everychoice leads in a different direction, with the associatedconsequences. The fear of unpalatable consequencescompounds the problem of alternatives, to make choice,which is a regular occurrence, a precarious and highlysensitive activity that must be done with utmost caution.People can go to sleep, after this dilemma is resolved 34
  35. 35. successfully. Moreover, to establish that choice isdeliberate resolves the conflict between free will anddeterminism. In choice people project themselves, valuesand all, unto phenomena. Every choice becomes animposition of the self. Where choice is not cleartherefore would be an indication of a crisis ofpersonality, a loss of the self.In this work relativity has been associated with thesecond law of thermodynamics, to highlight the fact ofentropy contribution that characterises wrong choices.Every wrong choice sets off a series of events thatincrease disorder, in a previously more orderlyenvironment. Then choice would do to the mentalenvironment, what thermodynamics has observed in thephysical environment. Relativity creates the linkbetween both occurrences, to harmonise mind andmatter.By the Normality Principle in Games Theory however, agame of infinite moves can be reduced into one, 1 unitmove, which is then iterated until the game ends. This isthe principle that underlies industry. Machines aredesigned to perform large scale tasks, piecemeal. Hugeassignments are reduced into a cycle of events, each ofwhich does a bit of the total work. At best, every cycle ofevent would be a repetition, monotonously eating up thework until completion. Industry standardises, allowing amultitude of participants to perform at tasks in unison 35
  36. 36. and with minimal conflict. Work is optimised when it isreduced into a system of related tasks that are performedin series.The Platonian Duality Principle suggests the unitperspective that is sought, to resolve the dilemma thatcharacterises choice in a relative world. The dualityseries in Operations Research is presented as follows: 1. Maxima, L2 Phenomenon, F 2. Minimax, A1 6. Object, A 3. Maximin, A2 5. Form, L 4. Minima, L1 The Duality/Standard Procedure SeriesEvery one, 1 of the six, 6 items on the series is uniquelylocated. They represent individual tasks that must beperformed in a definite sequence. This takes away theburden of selecting, and there after, ordering the eventson the series. It reduces the burden from that of re-creation, to that of re-construction. The standard isalready available and does not need to be invented. Itonly needs to be discovered. This is indeed a lighteningof the burden that choice places on humanity.This is the challenge that nature presents. It is the reasonfor thermodynamics. Despite the apparent chaos, peopleneed to find the order that is inherent in nature. Andthere after to adopt it, for harmony, and the longevity 36
  37. 37. that derives from it. But this had to wait for theappropriate time in the history of humanity, like all theother discoveries. David Hume and Immanuel Kantsuffered paucity in the information that is required to re-construct the N-O. They had Plato and the dualityprinciple. But the normality and relativity principlescame later, with games theory and Einstein respectively.The three, 3 principles present a more comprehensivepicture of the whole phenomenon, in a way that onlyone, 1 could not have done. This is much like theproverbial three, 3 blind men who described the elephantin three, 3 different perspectives, according to the partthat each contacted. It needed a sighted person however,to connect these into a whole, for a better picture of theelephant. The full picture however has to wait for moreinformation than the three, 3 that the blind mensuggested. The tusk and the trunk need to be included, tomake it more complete. Similarly, the following modelsare also required, to paint a more comprehensive pictureof the N-O: The Model of Mind, The Character Model, and The Model of Learning 37
  38. 38. The Model of MindA comprehensive picture of mind would include thefollowing features: Consciousness Intelligence MemoryMemory defines processes by which people and otherorganisms encode, store, and retrieve information.Encoding refers to the initial perception and registrationof information. Storage is the retention of encodedinformation over time. Retrieval refers to the processesinvolved in using stored information. Whenever peoplesuccessfully recall a prior experience, they must haveencoded, stored, and retrieved information about theexperience. Conversely, memory failure, for exampleforgetting an important fact, reflects a breakdown in oneof these stages of memory.Memory is critical to humans and all other livingorganisms. Practically all of our daily activities liketalking, understanding, reading, and socializing dependon our having learned and stored information about ourenvironments. Memory allows us to retrieve events fromthe distant past or from moments ago. It enables us tolearn new skills and to form habits. Without the ability toaccess past experiences or information, we would beunable to comprehend language, recognize our friends 38
  39. 39. and family members, find our way home, or even tie ashoe. Life would be a series of disconnected experiences,each one new and unfamiliar. Without any sort ofmemory, humans would quickly perish.Philosophers, psychologists, writers, and other thinkershave long been fascinated by memory. The questionsthey have asked include: How does the brain store memories? Why do people remember some bits of information but not others? Can people improve their memories? What is the capacity of memory?Memory also is frequently a subject of controversybecause of questions about its accuracy. An eyewitness‘smemory of a crime can play a crucial role in determininga suspect‘s guilt or innocence. However, psychologistsagree that people do not always recall events as theyactually happened, and sometimes people mistakenlyrecall events that never happened.Memory and learning are also closely related, and theterms often describe roughly the same processes. Theterm learning is often used to refer to processes involvedin the initial acquisition or encoding of information,whereas the term memory more often refers to laterstorage and retrieval of information. However, thisdistinction is not hard and fast. After all, information islearned only when it can be retrieved later, and retrievalcannot occur unless information was learned. 39
  40. 40. Intelligence is a term that usually refers to a generalmental capability to reason, solve problems, thinkabstractly, learn and understand new material, and profitfrom past experience. Intelligence can be measured bymany different kinds of tasks. Likewise, this ability isexpressed in many aspects of a person‘s life. Intelligencedraws on a variety of mental processes, includingmemory, learning, perception, decision-making,thinking, and reasoning. Fundamental questions thathave been asked about this concept include thefollowing: Is intelligence one, 1 general ability or several independent systems of abilities? Is intelligence a property of the brain, a characteristic of behaviour, or a set of knowledge and skills?The above sets of questions are better answered whenthe concept of consciousness is clarified.Most of the philosophical discussions on consciousnessarose from the mind-body issues posed by the Frenchphilosopher and mathematician René Descartes in the17th century. Descartes asked the following questions: Is the mind, or consciousness, independent of matter? Is consciousness extended (physical) or unextended (nonphysical)? 40
  41. 41. Is consciousness determinative, or is it determined? English philosophers such as John Locke equatedconsciousness with physical sensations and theinformation they provide, whereas Europeanphilosophers such as Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz andImmanuel Kant gave a more central and active role toconsciousness.For Wundt, the task of psychology was the study of thestructure of consciousness, which extended well beyondsensations to include feelings, images, memory,attention, duration, and movement.Following the lull that Watson‘s ideas created,humanistic psychologists, with a concern for self-actualization and growth, emerged after a long period ofsilence. Throughout the development of clinical andindustrial psychology, the conscious states of persons interms of their current feelings and thoughts were ofobvious importance. The role of consciousness,however, was often deemphasized in favour ofunconscious needs and motivations. Trends can be seen,however, toward a new emphasis on the nature of statesof consciousness.As the concept of a direct, simple linkage betweenenvironment and behaviour became unsatisfactory, theinterest in altered states of consciousness may be takenas a visible sign of renewed interest in the topic of 41
  42. 42. consciousness. For instance it has become increasinglyclear that persons are active and intervening participantsin their behaviour. And environments, rewards, andpunishments are not simply defined by their physicalcharacter. In addition, memories have been found to beorganized, and not simply stored. An entirely new areacalled cognitive psychology has emerged that centres onthese concerns.For the purpose of this work however, recall ÉmileCoué‘s 1920 work titled Self Mastery ThroughConscious Autosuggestion, which identified thefollowing three, 3 memory spaces of the mind: The Conscious Mind, F The Sub-Conscious Mind, L The Unconscious Mind, AThe unconscious mind controls the visceral systems, tomaintain the tradition of the reflex alone behaviour. Theprogrammes that control these systems have beeninstalled without recourse to humans. The sensitivenature of these systems easily explains why this had tobe so. They run without human volition. These systemsinclude the following: Circulatory Respiratory Digestive 42
  43. 43. Excretory Reproductive Endocrine Nervous Muscular SkeletalFollowing De la Cruz et al, in their 1981 book,Physiological Basis of Human Behaviour, behaviourcan be observed in the following three. 3 categories: Spinal Reflex Hypothalamic Instinctive Reactions Motivated Voluntary BehaviourThese are reduced into the following two, 2 categories inthis work: Reflex alone Motivated VoluntaryThen these two, 2 are distinguished by the followingcritical components: Physiological background Motor Function Reflex alone Sensory Function Learning and Memory - Voluntary Motivated 43
  44. 44. The reflex alone behaviour is easily observed in babies.When a finger is placed in the hand of a baby forinstance, it clasps its hand automatically. In the sameway, when a finger is passed over the sole of its foot, itfans out instinctively. But these responses soon begin todisappear as the baby matures and learns to controlcertain bodily functions. However, reflexes and reflexchains do not disappear totally with the emergence ofvoluntary behaviour in humans; rather they simplybecome subject to voluntary control and are organizedinto complex behavioural acts. Reflexes becomeintegrated into conscious voluntary behaviour, whichactually constitute a higher level of development.The voluntary motivated is distinguished from the reflexalone behaviour because it involves learning andmemory. While reflexes are automatic, the reactionsbeing already programmed; the voluntary motivatedreactions have to be learned, and stored in memory forfuture re-use. Every person has to write theseprogrammes for themselves. Then the challenge wouldbe to approximate the programmes that are already inmemory, which control the reflexes. This challenge isreduced into the problem of finding the standardprocedure. In this case, the concept of activity isidentified as the link between the two, 2 types ofbehaviour. The common ground between reflex-only 44
  45. 45. behaviour and motivated voluntary behaviour is theactivity. When activities are reduced into tasks, and theprocedure for the performance at these tasks isstandardised, then they become a basis for evaluatingsoul-mass or how much energy has been stored in thesoul.This solution model derives from linking work withbehaviour. Thus to work, is to improve upon, which iseffective only when the person involved is adequatelymotivated. Then it would be sufficient to evaluatemotivation against the standard procedure for theperformance at task. In this case, the task is the unit ofwork. And the person who is adequately motivatedwould perform at task by the standard procedure. Thisimplies that sufficient attention and effort was devotedto learning the required procedure. This model isoutlined on the Work-Behaviour diagram below. Andthis conception of learning is further amplified later inthis work. 45
  46. 46. Reflex Alone (Behaviour) Voluntary (Work) Jobs Physiology Duties Motor Sensation Activities (Rn, Pc, Vc, √n) Tasks, f0 Procedures (Sn, n = 1 to 4) The Work-Behaviour ModelThe sub-conscious mind is the store house for all theprogrammes that people write for themselves. In thiscase every learning experience culminates in thederivation of a procedure for responding to theobserved stimulus. This is stored in the sub-consciousmemory for use when needed. Thus all human actionsare directed from the sub-conscious mind. This is doneautomatically without recourse to the conscious mind,when the required procedure is already available. It isalso a residue of the reflex alone tradition.The conscious mind is the seat of learning. Every newresponse to stimulus has to be learned here, before it isstored in the sub-conscious memory. The critical factorhere however is the fact that 100% attention is requiredfor the effective learning of a new procedure. This can be 46
  47. 47. observed very easily in children learning to walk for thefirst time. In adults, simply recall the first attempt atcycling, driving, using the GSM phone or any similarcomplex learned behaviour for that matter. Then acertain amount of effort is also required, according to thelength of time that concentrated attention must bedevoted to the process. It is this combination ofattention and effort that determines how well a newprocedure is learned, and how much energy or mass isacquired equivalently.Émile Coué suggested a square relationship between theconscious, F and the sub-conscious, L minds; for L =F2. Thus, the sub-conscious mind is more powerful thanthe conscious mind by a square function. This sustainsthe reflex tendency in which the conscious mind is by-passed during responses to stimuli. This has thefollowing implications: Every future action would depend on how well the procedure was learned the first time. When an action has to be re-learned therefore, this would involve an un-learning of the inadequate procedure, which would be successful only to the extent that the new procedure is convincingly superior to the first, 1st alternative.Following the observed relationship between theconscious, F and the sub-conscious, L minds, L = F2, at 47
  48. 48. least ten, 10 points would be required for the anticipatedconviction. The ten, 10 points derive from the followingarguments: The factor-F is best at a unity, for F = 1. When the relationship between the conscious and sub-conscious, L = F2, is differentiated to make it functional, we derive as follows: L = 2F + 1 L = 3, F=1 Then for the conscious, F and the sub-conscious, L to be equal functionally, for L = F, the factor- F would be equal to three, 3 for F = 3. So, L = F2 = 9 For a stronger factor-F therefore, it would be sufficient for 9 + 1 = 10.This requirement is captured on the F-Scale forevaluating the approximation of the standard procedure.Ten points are scored at full marks, when the standard isapproximated exactly.The F-Scale is presented on the following model: 48
  49. 49. f0 = 1/10ΣSn, Sn = X – D D = Abs|E – B| X = G: G ≤ A X = A Otherwise G=5–E A=5–B f0 = Objectivity Index Sn = Score on the Item-n (n = 1 to 4) D = Observed Deviance X = Expected Deviance E = Expected Rank on Item-n B = Observed Rank on Item-nThe learning and response activities that distinguish theconscious from the sub-conscious minds respectively, isconfirmed on the Concatenation Model.Thus when the conscious mind is idle and the learningor analytic function, F1 is nil, for F1 = 0.00, then the subconscious mind with its response or synthetic function,F2 would be optimum, for F2 = 5.00. This happensduring voluntary actions, when the conscious mind isby-passed.The analytic function, by which the processes that havebeen stored in the sub-conscious memory are derived,is optimum when the mind operates by the Black BoxModel, BBM (F = LA), for F1 = 2.00. Then thesynthetic activity would be a unity, for F2 = 1.00, 49
  50. 50. during which the sub-conscious or emotional memoryis credited with the learned procedure. Optimum valueis therefore created in people when the sub consciousmind or emotional memory, L is re-programmed tocomprise the standard procedure for the performanceat task. F1 A L F F2 S/N P1 P2 P3 P4 ƩPm 67/ƩPm 1 0.0 1.0 3.0 9.0 13.0 5.15 2 0.1 1.2 3.6 10.8 15.7 4.27 3 0.2 1.4 4.2 12.6 18.4 3.64 4 0.3 1.6 4.8 14.4 21.1 3.18 m 5 0.4 1.8 5.4 16.2 23.8 2.82 Pm + 1 = 2 ( ∑ Pm ) + 1, m =1 6 0.5 2.0 6.0 18.0 26.5 2.53 P1 = F1 7 0.6 2.2 6.6 19.8 29.2 2.24 8 0.7 2.4 7.2 21.6 31.9 2.10 9 0.8 2.6 7.8 23.4 34.6 1.94 10 0.9 2.8 8.4 25.2 37.3 1.80 11 1.0 3.0 9.0 27.0 40.0 1.68 12 2.0 5.0 15.0 45.0 67.0 1.00 The Concatenation ModelThe sub-conscious memory has also been referred to asthe emotional memory because when the learnedprocedure is stored, the storage includes all theemotions that are associated with it. It is also synthetic,to the extent that the procedure is stored in asynthesised ready-to-use form, rather than the analyticform that characterises conscious memory.Recall that energy is released by fission, when the atomis split. Thus learning is analytic to the extent that the 50
  51. 51. phenomenon that is learned is analysed, to derive itsessential components. This has the following two, 2implications: The energy that is expended in the learning process is the same as the energy that is credited to the soul-mass. When the standard procedure is known, the observed procedure can be evaluated against this standard, to measure the soul or energy in storage. This is done on the F-Scale.While the concatenation model establishes thedistinction between the conscious, F and sub-conscious,L memories, the Appreciation Model establishes thepoint at which learning happens. This is when peoplecan be expected to turn what they know, into what theydo.The appreciation model is actually an optimisation ofthe F-Scale and the Perception Model of Mind, PMM.It seeks to find the point at which the learning functionof the conscious mind coincides with the responsefunction of the sub-conscious mind. While the curve ofthe F-Scale evaluates learning, the PMM curvemeasures action or response behaviour. Both measuresare determined as the number of essentials, N that havebeen identified. 51
  52. 52. The two, 2 curves coincide at N = 3.9, which isapproximately four, 4. Then the Po-score would be0.9740, which is also approximated to 0.98, theequivalent Po-score for N = 4.By plotting the F-Scale and PMM on the same axes, thetwo, 2 curves cross at two, 2 points. At the lowercrossing, Nu and No coincide at 0.2. At the uppercrossing the point of coincidence is 3.9. The lower of thetwo, 2 points defines doubt, below which unbelief isdominant. The upper junction defines assurance, abovewhich faith is absolute. Between these points, what isexperienced is confusion. In this case, the confusion isexpressed in the inconsistency of swinging betweendoubt and assurance. The confidence level however risessteadily between the two, 2 points, as confusion drops.See the chart of the Appreciation Model and the sampleddata from the optimisation model presented below: 6 The Appreciation Model 5 Growth, f1 Conversion Point 4 3 Learning Change 2 1 0 -0.2 0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1 Change, f1 0.21 0.25 0.31 0.43 0.66 1.31 5 Learning, f0 0 0.67 1.33 2 2.67 3.33 4 Development, f0 52
  53. 53. Nu: 3.9165  No = (10f0 + 2)/3  Nu = (1/(4 – Z))2, No: 3.9133 Z = 2(1/(1 – f0/4))2 Confusion: -0.0032 Confidence: 3.8519 Integrated: Confident, Po: 0.9740 Consistent, Assured; Nu = 4 Nu: 2.9469 No: 3.8000 Confusion: 0.8531 Confidence: 2.0938 Top Adjustment: Po: 0.9400 Continued growth; Nu = 3 Nu: 1.7763 No: 3.5400 Confusion: 1.7637 Confidence: 0.0126 Mid Adjustment: Po: 0.8620 Confidence becomes positive; Nu = 2 Nu: 0.9541 No: 3.0700 Confusion: 2.1159 Confidence: -1.1618 Lower Adjustment: Po: 0.8620 Confusion begins to drop; Nu = 1 Nu: 0.6470 No: 2.6433 Confusion: 1.9963 Confidence: -1.3493 Adaptation: Po: 0.5930 Inconsistency begins to drop; Nu < 1 Sampled Data from the Optimisation of the Appreciation ModelThe sufficiency of the four, 4 items to determine theoccurrence of learning is established on the Need Model,as well as the Appreciation Model. The need model issummarised on the following relation: 53
  54. 54. Po = Nd + (N-S) The factor-Po measures the power, Po that is stored in the personality, P for response, R to stimuli, S. It is evaluated as the number of essential items that are identified. Need, Nd is then evaluated as the observed short fall from the standard. And Need Satisfaction, N-S is the capacity to make-up for the observed need.Then for learning to occur, the Po-score would need toexceed, or at the least, equal the sum of Nd and N-S, forPo ≥ Nd + (N-S). This is when the person has sufficientpower in storage, to at once satisfy, and contain theunsatisfied need. This is an indication that it is thehuman need that disrupts the capacity to learn, so thatpeople can not turn what they know into what they do.In general therefore, it would be sufficient to identifyfour, 4 of the essential items, to have learned. This iswhen it becomes possible to turn what is known, intowhat is done. 54
  55. 55. F Po Ps Pt Sv% Nd N-S Po’ 1.05 0.9756 20.48 79.52 59.64 40.36 57.62 97.98 1.06 0.9709 23.83 76.17 57.39 42.61 54.84 97.44 Po‘ = Nd + (N–S), 1.07 0.9662 26.93 73.07 55.64 44.36 52.54 96.89 1.10 0.9525 34.93 65.07 52.32 47.68 47.56 95.23 Po‘ = Power Index (empirical) 1.20 0.9091 52.49 47.51 50.06 49.94 40.07 90.01 Nd = Need Index 1.30 0.8716 62.50 37.50 48.41 51.59 32.94 84.52 N-S = Need-Satisfaction Index 1.40 0.8373 68.82 31.18 46.32 53.68 24.85 78.53 1.50 0.8062 73.13 26.87 44.33 55.67 16.49 72.16 1.60 0.7782 76.23 23.77 42.57 57.43 8.11 65.54 1.70 0.7526 78.55 21.45 41.05 58.95 -0.22 58.73 Po/Po‘: r = 0.9854; t = 15.5399 1.80 0.7292 80.35 19.65 39.74 60.26 -8.47 51.79 t12 (.01; 2-tailed) = 3.055 1.90 0.7077 81.78 18.22 38.60 61.40 -16.66 44.74 2.00 0.6880 82.94 17.06 37.61 62.39 -24.77 37.61 The Power ModelRecall that learning is a function of the followingphenomena: Attention EffortRecall also that a hundred percent, 100% attention isrequired to learn a new procedure. And for effort that isadequate, the attention has to be sustained, for as long asis required to accomplish the process. This is evaluatedas the Attitude, A or disposition to the phenomenon, asfollows: A = LF2, A = Attitude of Mind L = Love Index of the Sub-conscious Mind F = Faith Index of the Conscious MindIn this case, the measure of attitude is evaluated againstthe disposition of mind that derived the procedures thatrun the visceral and reflex systems. Given the factor-fo, 55
  56. 56. which is measured on the F-Scale, the factors A, L, andF are determined. This is demonstrated on the simulationof the PMM, to re-constructs the derivation of thesefactors. Formally: A = LF2, L = 1/A2 F2 A2 = f1f0 F = √(F1/F2), F2 = 1/∑(Pm) x 67.00, m Pm + 1 = 2 (∑Pm ) + 1 m=1 F1 = 2√ ( R) – 1, P1 = F1 R = 1/f f1 = tT, : 1. t = 1/ F2; t = Timing 2. T = √fo; T = Tolerance 3. f1 = Perception f = 1 - 1/ Fo : fo ≥ 0.50, f =1/Fo otherwise Fo = √ (Lo Ao) Lo = 1/(1-f0) Ao = 1/f0 fo = Sensation: Measured on the F-ScaleThe simulation data is presented as follows: 56
  57. 57. f0 Lo Ao Fo f R F1 0.90 10.00 1.11 3.33 0.70 1.43 1.39 0.80 5.00 1.25 2.50 0.60 1.67 1.58 0.70 3.33 1.43 2.18 0.54 1.85 1.72 f = 1 - 1/ Fo : fo ≥ 0.50, 0.60 2.50 1.67 2.04 0.51 1.96 1.80 f =1/Fo otherwise 0.50 2.00 2.00 2.00 0.50 2.00 1.83 Fo = √ (Lo Ao) 0.40 1.67 2.50 2.04 0.49 2.04 1.86 Lo = 1/(1-f0) Ao = 1/f0 0.30 1.43 3.33 2.18 0.46 2.17 1.95 0.20 1.25 5.00 2.50 0.40 2.50 2.16 fo = Sensation: 0.10 1.11 10.00 3.33 0.30 3.33 2.66 Measured on the F-Scale Table - 1 4 P1 P2 P3 P4 ∑(pm) F2 t T f1 m=1 F2 = 1/∑(Pm) x 67.00, 1.39 3.78 11.34 34.02 50.53 1.33 0.75 0.95 0.71 M Pm + 1 = 2 (∑Pm ) + 1 1.58 4.16 12.48 37.44 55.66 1.20 0.83 0.89 0.74 m=1 1.72 4.44 13.32 39.96 59.44 1.13 0.88 0.84 0.74 F1 = 2√ ( R) – 1, 1.80 4.60 13.80 41.40 61.60 1.09 0.92 0.77 0.72 P1 = F1 R = 1/f 1.83 4.66 13.90 41.94 62.41 1.07 0.94 0.71 0.67 f1 = tT, : 1.86 4.72 14.16 42.48 63.22 1.06 0.95 0.63 0.60 1. t = 1/ F2; 1.95 4.90 14.70 44.10 65.65 1.02 0.98 0.55 0.54 t = Timing 2. T = √fo; 2.16 5.32 15.96 47.88 71.32 1.94 1.07 0.45 0.48 T = Tolerance 2.65 6.30 18.90 56.70 84.55 0.79 1.27 0.33 0.42 3. f = Perception Table - 2 SN A2 F2 L A S F n R 1 0.64 1.03 1.61 1.66 0.79 1.02 1.96 1.43 2 0.59 1.32 2.24 2.95 0.67 1.15 2.13 1.67 3 0.52 1.52 3.03 4.59 0.57 1.23 2.27 1.85 4 0.43 1.64 3.87 6.34 0.51 1.28 2.33 1.96 5 0.34 1.72 5.07 8.74 0.44 1.31 2.35 2.00 A = LF2, 6 0.24 1.75 5.93 10.40 0.41 1.32 2.38 2.04 L = 1/A2 F2 A2 = f1f0 7 0.16 1.92 12.02 23.12 0.29 1.39 2.44 2.17 F = √(F1/F2) 8 0.10 2.27 22.73 51.66 0.21 1.51 2.78 2.50 S = 1/√(L) 9 0.04 3.33 70.00 233.33 0.12 1.83 3.03 3.33 n = (R/F)2 Table - 3 Simulation of the PMMThis simulation traces the serial link between the factorsf0 for sensation, and A for attitude; through the factor-f1 57
  58. 58. that defines perception. It also defines the theoreticalvalues of the factors F for personality and S for soul.Then the factors A and C are related by this model: A = 19(C – 1)Recall that attitude defines the disposition towardsphenomena. When it is positive, then the requiredattention and effort would be given, for optimumconsciousness; as evidence of the attainment of thehuman potential.The PMM is summarised on the following relation: f0 = 4(1 – 1/√z), z = ½(4 – 1/√f1) f1 = Perception Index, N = 5 f0 = Sensation Index, N= 1By the Perception Model of Mind, PMM a mind that isperforming optimally would be capable of reducingphenomena into the five, 5 essential components. Whenthese items are concatenated, so that they cumulate intothe phenomenon that is described, which then becomesthe sixth, 6th item, the series becomes the StandardProcedure Series.The mind analyses to characterise phenomena. Itsynthesises to outline the procedure for making thephenomenon. The kernel element in this case would bethe perceptual acuity. At optimum performance, the 58
  59. 59. mind goes beyond appearances to perceive essentials.This is when it approximates the N-O exactly. Then theperson will have risen above the object, to perceive theform of phenomena. And they would have beenpositioned to overcome the vagaries of the environment.The Perception Model of Mind, PMM presents themodel of a mind that is able to appreciate the N-O, to re-construct the standard procedure. Thus the mindengages in the following two, 2 functions: Analysis SynthesisIn analysis, the mind uses the Black Box Model, BBMto derive the components of the standard procedureseries. The model is iterated twice to derive the six, 6items on the series. In the first, 1st iteration thephenomenon, F is fissioned into its dual components, Land A. This procedure is repeated in the second iterationto reduce these two, 2 into the other four, 4 itemsincluding L1, L2, A1, and A2 respectively. Recall thatPlato reduced Nature into the following two, 2 worldsby the Duality Principle: The World of Forms, L The World of Objects, ADuality is presented here as the resolution of thedilemma that Relativity poses, in Choice. The infinite 59
  60. 60. number of alternatives that relativity presents is trimmedinto a mere five, 5. And then these are ranked accordingto a definite order, to arrive at a single series. Thisconcept is presented on the number line below. -∞ 0 +∞ A L F The Relativity Continuum F F A L The Absolute Maxima L Minimax F Maximin Minima A The Natural OrderThe numbers on the line are squared, to transform therelative into the absolute. This derives the NormalCurve, in agreement with the Normality Principle.The Normality Model presented earlier is used toquantify the accuracy of the standard procedure series. In 60
  61. 61. this case the factor-A is predicted to determine thereliability of the series. This is done according to thefollowing relationships: A’ = LF2, A = √ (AL) L = √ (A1A2) F = √ (L1L2) The Normality Model 1. L2 F 2. A1 5. A 3. A2 6. L 4. L1 The Standard Procedure SeriesThe more closely the factor-A is predicted the better thestandard procedure series will have been approximated.In Synthesis, the four, 4 items that are derived in thesecond iteration of the BBM are arranged uniquely, sothat they outline the procedure that has been learned.Recall that when confronted with a stimulus, S or whenmotivated voluntarily, F to act in a certain way, therequired response, R needs to follow a definiteprocedure, √n. This is worked out in the conscious mindas described above, and stored in the sub-consciousmind or heart, from where all actions originate. Then theperformance at task, or behaviour, would be optimum 61
  62. 62. when the procedures that are stored in the heart memoryare the standard form. This would be reflected in themeasure of soul. The more thorough the learningprocess, the better the standard procedure isapproximated, and the better the quality of soul thatemerges.Then a mind that is able to appreciate the N-O wouldreduce phenomena into the five, 5 essential components,to describe them. Recall the dictum that all science restsupon and begins with accurate description andmeasurement. Recall also that measurement involves thefollowing two, 2 processes: The reduction of phenomena into their essential components. The mapping of these items into the number line, according to the relationships between them.A mind that operates by the principles presented in thiswork would therefore be quantitative in orientation, andwould have been nurtured to know, for sure. Recall thedictum that the only things that can be known for sureare those that can be measured. Recall also that thequality of mind is evaluated on the F-Scale, and thefactor-F would be a unity, for F = 1, when the standardprocedure is approximated exactly. But not all the six, 6items of the standard procedure series, SPS need beidentified. Neither is it necessary to identify all the five, 62
  63. 63. 5 essentials demanded by the PMM. It would besufficient to identify the first, 1st four, 4 items of theStandard Procedure Series, SPS. On the F-Scale, thelast two, 2 items 5 and 6 are given as guides. Only thefirst, 1st four, 4 are scrambled. And the subject isexpected to unscramble them, so that they cumulate intothe other two, 2 serially.A model of mental space is constructed from thesimulation data on the PMM. The factors L, F, and Arepresent the emotion, L will, F and intellect, Frespectively. Emotion, L : 2.8 - 10.8 Intellect, F : 2.0 - 18.0 Will, A : 1.2 - 25.2 L F A 0 5 25 26 10 15 20 Mental SpaceNotice the basis for the concatenation model, followingwhich the mind imposes its nature on phenomena. Thus,phenomena are perceived in three, 3 dimensions, 3-daccording to these three, 3 components of the mind,including the emotion, L intellect, F and will, A.The emotion is in direct contact with the physical worldof objects. It is also the sub-conscious memory, theabode of desires, and the procedures for attaining them. 63
  64. 64. Its function is subsumed in the activities of both theintellect and the will. It cannot function apart from thesetwo, 2 components. It is defined by the factor-P1 on theconcatenation model.The intellect performs its own functions, alongside thefunctions of the emotion. It perceives the world ofobjects through the emotion. Its main function howeveris analytic. But it has to do it against the featuresobserved in the objects. It is the conscious memory.The will is the unconscious memory. It does the work ofall three, 3 components of the mind. It must be in touchwith them, to veto, according to the inputs from the othertwo, 2. Recall the concatenation model as follows: 4 Pm +1 = 2 ( ∑ Pm ) + 1, m =1 P1 = F1 or L P2 = F P3 = A P4 = SThe factor-S defines the Soul. Recall the measures ofCWk and C as follows: CWk = 1 – 1/3 * S S = 1 – 1/3 * C 64
  65. 65. Both these measures derive from the soul. But soul isconcatenated from the activities of the mind. And themind has three, 3 components that are concatenated. Thisis reflected in the division of the factors by three, 3. 65
  66. 66. The Character ModelIn order to put back consciousness at the heart ofpsychology where it belongs, Wundt‘s conception of thisconcept was selected. Then it became necessary to tracethe link between stimulus, f0 and movement, √n. Thelink needed to encompass perception, f1 and memory, Lfor the sake of defining the personal input in the process.Recall the dissatisfaction with the concept of a direct andsimple linkage between environment and behaviour;evident in the inability to define environments, rewards,and punishments by their physical character. Recall alsothe observation of organised memory, the product ofdecisive deliberations in the learning process. Thedeliberate component in the learning process has beenattributed to the attitude of will, which controls theattention and effort that is accorded the process. So far, alink has been defined, that connects stimulus, f0 to theattitude, A. It needs to be extended, to reach movement,√n as represented by the performance at task. Theconnection between attitude and consciousness still hasto be summarised. And the person characterised,according to the quality of their responses to stimuli.To make the connection between stimulus, f0 andattitude, A involved the following two, 2 manoeuvres: The derivation of the Natural Order, N-O 66
  67. 67. The derivation of the Perception Model of Mind, PMMThe link established the fact that a certain effort isrequired, for the mind to appreciate the N-O. This issufficient evidence of deliberation and free will, ratherthan determinism. And the will defines a mentalphenomenon. Now the investigation must shift from theinternal environment of the mind, to include movement,which is acted out on the physical environment, outsidethe mind. The connection is achieved by the CharacterModel, presented on the diagram below: Stimulus Given the factor-Pc,  Rn = 2Pc – 1  √n = 1/C Pc2 Attitude, A C = (3Pc + 1)/4  F = Rn/√n Motivation, F Rn  Vc = 2F - 1 Pc Ability, f0 Pc = Phenomenological Compression Index Personality, F Rn = Rationality Index √n = Standard Procedure Index Response C = Character Index F = Index of Personality Vc = Index of Core Values √n The Character Model 67
  68. 68. This model defines the connection betweenconsciousness and behaviour. It does this by establishingthe complementarity between phenomenology andbehaviourism. The two, 2 models are juxtaposed asfollows: R = f(S, P), √n = f(Rn, F), R=S √n = Rn P →1 F →1 R = Response √n = The Standard Procedure S = Stimulus Rn = Rationality P = Personality F = Personality The Behaviour Model The Phenomenology ModelThus the response, R to stimulus, S would beappropriate, for R = S, when the personality factor-P is aunity, for P = 1. This is when the person has perceivedthe stimulus, to characterise it correctly, according to thePMM, for F = 1. When phenomena are characterised, toidentify the five, 5 essential components, the procedurefor making them is outlined at once.Then the two, 2 models are linked by the factors P andF, both of which define the personality. The factor-P onthe behaviour model is fundamentally concerned withthe character, C of phenomena, for the purpose ofcorrectly interpreting stimuli. The factor-F on the otherhand focuses on the procedure, F to ensure thatresponses are appropriate and effective. The N-O, PMM, 68
  69. 69. and the SPS harmonise these two, 2 aspects of thepersonality by defining the analytic and syntheticfunctions of the mind. The mind analyses to characterisephenomena. It synthesises to outline the procedure formaking the phenomenon. The kernel element in this casewould be the perceptual acuity. At optimumperformance, the mind goes beyond appearances toperceive essentials. This is when it approximates the N-O exactly. Then the person will have risen above theobject, to perceive the form of phenomena. And theywould have been positioned to overcome the vagaries ofthe environmentThe Character Model is operationalised by measuringthe following three, 3 factors: The factor-Pc, which measures phenomenological compression, or the capacity to reduce the infinite number of components that make up phenomena, into the essential five, 5 as required by the PMM. The factor-Rn measures rationality as the capacity to derive the standard procedure for the performance at task. The factor-√n is the standard procedure index. It measures the capacity to actually perform at task by the standard procedure. 69
  70. 70. Each of these three, 3 factors measures an aspect of themind to impose itself on phenomena, despite theinterventions from the physical environment. Is the mindable to perform its analytic function, can it do Pc? Is itable to synthesize and impose order on the product ofanalysis, in expression of its rationality, Rn? These two,2 characteristics actually define the person‘s level ofeducation. In other words, does the subject know howthings are supposed to be done? Is the person educated inthe standard procedure for the performance at tasks.By the definition of learning presented in this work, asthe capacity to turn what is known, into what is done;and the definition of knowledge as a function of truthand belief, among other factors. And because beliefdetermines action; knowledge would be inconsequential,unless it can be translated into action. Thirdly therefore,is the mind able to overcome the vagaries of theenvironment, to do things in the way they are supposedto be done, to perform at task by the standard procedure,√n? In this case, is the person disciplined? Then,discipline would represent the object equivalent ofeducation, which would then define a form.The phenomenology model presents rationality, Rn andthe standard procedure, √n index as equivalentconcepts, like education and discipline respectively. Theconversion factor for these equivalents is the mind,specifically the intellect, or conscious mind, F. Then the 70
  71. 71. factor-F is evaluated as the ratio of Rn on √n. Thisfactor is optimal within the limits, 1.00 ≤ F ≤ 2.00.Formally: Rn = F√n, 1.00 ≤ F ≤ 2.00To find the factor-C, the lower limit of the factor-F isinserted in the model formally as follows: Rn = 2√n - CBut the factors Rn and Pc are also equivalents, related atthe differential level of F = 2, formally as follows: Rn = 2Pc - 1This means that the factor- Pc and the factor-√n aredifferentiated, to the extent that consciousness, C is notperfected, for C ≠ 1. The factor-C would therefore be theconversion factor for Pc and √n. The followingrelationships were found to be true: √n = 1/C * Pc2, C = (3Pc -1)/4Given the factors Pc, Rn, and √n, which are measuredempirically on their various kits, the factor-f0 isdetermined; as well as the factors F, A, S, C and √n. Thesimulation is presented on the tables below: 71
  72. 72. Pc Rn Fc Sn Hm f0 Given Pc Rn = 2Pc – 1 1.10 1.20 1.08 1.15 1.16 0.93 Fc = 3/2 (x + 1) – 2 Pc + 1 1.20 1.40 1.15 1.30 1.30 0.87 X = 1.30 1.60 1.23 1.45 1.41 0.83 1.40 1.80 1.30 1.60 1.52 0.80 2 Sn = 2Fc – 1 1.50 2.00 1.38 1.75 1.61 0.78 Hm = 2HR – 1 1.60 2.20 1.45 1.90 1.68 0.76 HR = √ (L/A), 1.70 2.40 1.53 2.05 1.76 0.74 L = Rn / Fc A = Pc / Sn 1.80 2.60 1.60 2.20 1.82 0.73 f0: Need profile 1.90 2.80 1.68 2.35 1.88 0.71 R = 1/f, f = 1-1/Fo for Po ≥ 0.50 .n S’ F’ R N C f = 1/Fo otherwise Fo = √ (Lo x Ao) 1.90 0.82 0.98 1.35 2.57 1.08 Ao = 1/f0 Lo = 1/1-f0 1.99 0.75 1.06 1.50 2.88 1.15 n = (R/F)2 2.06 0.71 1.11 1.60 3.10 1.23 F = √(F1/F2 ), 2.11 0.67 1.15 1.66 3.26 1.30 F1 = 2√R 1 F2 = (1/∑Pm) x 67 2.14 0.65 1.17 1.71 3.40 1.38 Pm+1 = 2(∑Pm) + 1 2.17 0.63 1.19 1.75 3.50 1.45 S = 1/√L: 2.19 0.62 1.20 1.78 3.59 1.53 L = 1/A2 x F2, A2 = Po x P1 2.21 0.60 1.21 1.81 3.66 1.60 N = 2NR – 1 2.23 0.59 1.22 1.83 3.73 1.68 NR = √(L/A) L = n/F A = S/R C = (3Pc + 1) / 4The factor-f0 is derived on the Need profile, with thefactor-Hm as input. Following Fechner (1801 – 1887)for any stimulus to be registered as an impulse that isstrong enough to be perceived, P it must have a certainminimum strength that is a log function of thesensation, S that can be experienced. He formalised thisconcept in the following relationship: P = K log SThe factor-K in this equation is a constant. 72
  73. 73. When the Fechner principle is reversed, the focus turnson the sensitivity of the person, rather than the strengthof the stimulus. Then a certain threshold of sensitivitywould be required, to perceive a stimulus. Andperception would improve with greater sensitivity. Thisis evaluated as the attitude of the will, A. The factor-Ameasures the energy expenditure that is invested in thelearning process. The better the attitude, for A→1, theclearer the sensation would be perceived, for L→1. Thefactor-L measures the extent of the human potential thatis achieved. By this conception, need is evaluated whenthe factor-A is defined as a function of the factor-L, todescribe the gain in the process, as well as the deficit thatstill has to be attained. The deficit is expressed as anindex or a log function, with two, 2 parts. Formally: A = L 2.?, A = Effort index of Attitude L = Potential index of Love 2 = Index of the Absolute ? = Index of the soul’s shortfallThe first, 1st part of the need index, 2 defines theabsolute in terms of the N-O. The other part, ? definesthe short fall in the soul, according to the effortexpended. Then the absolute would be required, to makeup for the shortage. This is operationalised in theadoption of the N-O. The simulation of the need modelis presented on the table below: 73
  74. 74. F L A S Nd Sp Po Given the Factor F:1 1 1 1.00 0.00 1.00 1.00 1. L = 2F - 1: L = Potentiality (love)2 3 12 0.58 2.26 0.84 0. 69 2. A = LF2:3 5 45 0.45 2.37 0.82 0. 55 A = Attitude (Effort)4 7 112 0.38 2.42 0.80 0. 48 3. S = 1/sqr(L): S = Soul Factor (Observed)5 9 225 0.33 2.46 0.79 0.42 4. A = L2.?6 11 396 0.30 2.49 0.79 0. 38 ? = Sp - S:7 13 637 0.28 2.52 0.80 0.35 Sp = Soul (Expected) 5. Nd = Log A/Log L:8 15 960 0.26 2.54 0.80 0.33 Nd = Need Index9 17 1,377 0.24 2.55 0.79 0.30 6. Po = S ./. Sp :10 19 1,900 0.23 2.56 0.79 0.29 Power IndexThe Need Profile 74
  75. 75. The Model of LearningA model of learning is presented by which every humanaction originates in the heart, or emotion, where desireis resident. But desire remains dormant until it registersin the will as motive strength. This releases all theenergy that is available for the attainment of the desire.The Motive strength is expended by the intellect, toderive the process for desire attainment. The process isalso stored in the heart memory, along with the desirethat originated its derivation. This idea is summarised onthe diagram below: Will: Emotion (Heart?): Motive Strength, C’ (A) Purpose (Desire?) Process (L) Desire and Process are both stored in Heart Memory, L = F2 (Émile Coué) Intellect: Process, f0 Thought, (F) A Model of LearningTo establish the link between character, C ‗andconsciousness, C suffice to show how the factor-C’,which defines the strength of character or motive 75