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PEShare.co.uk Shared Resource

  1. 1. AQA AS PE and Sport PHED 1 Anatomy Terms of Direction When describing the regions of the body we use terms relative to the ‘anatomical positions’ of the body. The starting point for these positions refer to a person standing upright, facing forward, arms positioned down by the sides with the palms of the hands facing forward. Page 1 of 10
  2. 2. AQA AS PE and Sport PHED 1 Anatomy Page 2 of 10
  3. 3. AQA AS PE and Sport PHED 1 Anatomy These descriptions apply to all parts of the body. For example, we have already identified the superior vena cava, the vein that feeds blood from the upper body into the right atrium of the heart, whereas the inferior vena cava supplies blood from the lower body. Introductory Task - pairs Using sticky labels place the following labels on the appropriate region of your partner’s body: 1. The lateral aspect of the knee joint 2. The medial aspect of the ankle joint 3. The proximal region of the index finger 4. The distal region of the big toe 5. The posterior aspect of the upper leg 6. The anterior aspect of the lower leg 7. The most superior point of the body 8. The most inferior point of the body Check your answers with another pair. Do you disagree on any of the answers? Discuss your answers and decide which are positions are correct for each label. Feedback your answers to the whole group. Page 3 of 10
  4. 4. AQA AS PE and Sport PHED 1 Anatomy Anatomy: Planes of the Body You will probably notice that the planes of the body have a number of names and that many books and websites use a variety of different names. Do not try to remember them all it would get too confusing! The names used below are those used by AQA, ands so are the only ones you need to remember. Task One With your neighbour wriggle your way through all of these movements and identify at least one sporting activity for each. Movements in the sagittall (median) plane The sagittall plane divides the body down the middle into left and right halves. The following movements occur parallel to this plane, and so are said to take place within it. • Flexion and extension: for example bending the knees _______________________________________________________ • Plantar Flexion and Dorsiflexion: Pointing the toes, standing on tip toe, and extending down through the ankle, as in a calf muscle stretch. _______________________________________________________ Page 4 of 10
  5. 5. AQA AS PE and Sport PHED 1 Anatomy Movement in the frontal (coronal plane) The frontal plane divides the body down the middle into front and back halves. The following movements occur parallel to this plane, and so are said to take place within it. • Abduction and adduction: for example taking the legs away from the body (midline) in the outwards jump of a jack and then bringing them back towards the midline when jumping back in again. • Lateral flexion: Bending the trunk sideways away from the midline – stand tall and slide one arm down your leg towards your ankle! __________________________________________________________ • Inversion and eversion: abduction and adduction of the hand or foot! _______________________________________________________ • Elevation and depression: Well, I don’t know – shrugs – this is elevation of the scapula. _______________________________________________________ Movement in the transverse (horizontal) plane The transverse plane divides the body across the middle into upper and lower halves. The following movements occur parallel to this plane, and so are said to take place within it. • Lateral and medial rotation: rotation of a joint occurs when a bone moves around its longitudinal axis – its length! You may want to go back and look at the axes of the body again! • Lateral rotation occurs away from the midline of the body, ______________________________________________________ • Medial rotation occurs towards the midline of the body ______________________________________________________ • Pronation and supination: this is the rotation of the radio-ulnar joint. The terms are not applied to the rotation of any other joint. Page 5 of 10
  6. 6. AQA AS PE and Sport PHED 1 Anatomy • Pronation is a form of medial rotation that turns the palm of the hand to face downwards or backwards, _______________________________________________________ Supination involves lateral rotation, where the palm is moved to face upwards or forwards _______________________________________________________ • Horizontal abduction and adduction (Horizontal flexion/extension): Abduction and adduction in the horizontal plane are called ‘horizontal abduction’ and ‘horizontal adduction’. Raise your arm out in form of you (parallel to the floor) this is flexion of the shoulder. Now move that arm towards the outside of the body, keeping it parallel to the floor – that is horizontal abduction. Bring the arm back towards the midline of the body, still parallel to the floor, and that is horizontal adduction. _______________________________________________________ Now perhaps you have thought about Circumduction and are wondering what plane that happens in. If you break it down into the component movements you will see that it is a combination of flexion/extension and abduction/adduction – and only happens at the ball and socket joints of the shoulder and hip. Flexion/extension occurs in the sagittall plane, and abduction/adduction in the frontal plane. So circumduction occurs in both of these planes. Shoulder___________________________________________________ Hip_______________________________________________________ Page 6 of 10
  7. 7. AQA AS PE and Sport PHED 1 Anatomy Task 2: Complete columns 1, 2 and 5 of the following table, you should add more examples to the hip joint. 1. Joint/type 2. Movement 3. Plane 4. Axes 5. Sporting examples Pattern Hip Flexion Median/Sagittal Transverse/ Downward phase of squat Extension Horizontal Driving out of blocks in a Ball and Abduction sprint start socket Adduction Medial rotation Lateral rotation Circumduction Knee Ankle Page 7 of 10
  8. 8. AQA AS PE and Sport PHED 1 Anatomy 1. Joint/type 2. Movement 3. Plane 4. Axes 5. Sporting examples Pattern Elbow Radio-ulnar Wrist Page 8 of 10
  9. 9. AQA AS PE and Sport PHED 1 Anatomy Task 3 Using this table you should work through all of the listed movement patterns. Are you sure you know what each movement is when it takes place in each of the different planes? Now go back and fill in column 3 of your table. Task 4: Axes of movement The body (or body parts) can also rotate about one of three axes in the body A front somersault is performed about the horizontal axis. A full twisting jump involves the body rotating about the longitudinal axis A cartwheel is performed about the anterior-posterior or frontal axis Question: Again think about your own sport. What axes of rotation do the main Page 9 of 10
  10. 10. AQA AS PE and Sport PHED 1 Anatomy actions take place around? (Think ‘body parts’ as well as the whole body). Sporting Action Axis of rotation Task 4: Now complete column 4 of your table. Homework Using all of this new information you should now go to your Movement Analysis table. Using the 7 movements required by AQA, complete the first 5 columns of the table. You should bring this table with you to all lessons. As we work through the last of this topic you will have opportunities to check your answers and complete the table. Page 10 of 10

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