Simplify Consolidation with Oracle Pluggable Databases

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Simplify Consolidation with Oracle Pluggable Databases

  1. 1. Copyright © 2013, Oracle and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.1
  2. 2. Copyright © 2013, Oracle and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.2 The following is intended to outline our general product direction. It is intended for information purposes only, and may not be incorporated into any contract. It is not a commitment to deliver any material, code, or functionality, and should not be relied upon in making purchasing decisions. The development, release, and timing of any features or functionality described for Oracle's products remains at the sole discretion of Oracle.
  3. 3. Simplify Consolidation with Oracle Pluggable Databases Bryn Llewellyn Distinguished Product Manager Oracle Headquarters
  4. 4. Copyright © 2013, Oracle and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.4 Agenda  Customer challenges  Oracle Pluggable Databases meets these challenges  Pluggable Databases architecture  Upgrading/migrating to Pluggable Databases  Pluggable Databases and Resource Manager
  5. 5. Copyright © 2013, Oracle and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.5 Customer Challenges  Consolidating: – customers are under huge pressure to cut CapEx and OpEx by consolidating many databases onto few platforms  Provisioning: – they spend a huge amount of time creating databases, creating up-to-date clones for dev/test, and moving them from place to place  Patching: – they also spend time (not quite so frequently) attending to the version of the Oracle Database software: applying CPUs and PSUs and upgrading
  6. 6. Copyright © 2013, Oracle and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.6 Oracle Database 12c Meets these Challenges  A CDB contains zero, one, or many PDBs  A PDB is backwards compatible with a non-CDB  Each instance in a RAC opens the CDB as a whole.  A foreground session sees only the single PDB it connects to and sees it just like a non-CDB  The system administrator connects to the root of the CDB and sees a single system image  Resource Manager is extended with new between-PDB capabilities Pluggable Databases
  7. 7. Copyright © 2013, Oracle and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.7 Agenda  Customer challenges – the root cause  Pluggable Databases meets these challenges  Pluggable Databases architecture  Upgrading/migrating to Pluggable Databases  Pluggable Databases and Resource Manager
  8. 8. Copyright © 2013, Oracle and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.8 Common Data Dictionary Before 12.1: pollution over time Database Created Data Dictionary User Data Meta Data Mature Database Data Dictionary User Data Meta Data Tables, Code, Data added Data Dictionary User Data Meta Data
  9. 9. Copyright © 2013, Oracle and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.9 Agenda  Customer challenges  Pluggable Databases meets these challenges  Pluggable Databases architecture  Upgrading/migrating to Pluggable Databases  Pluggable Databases and Resource Manager
  10. 10. Copyright © 2013, Oracle and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.10 OBJ$ TAB$ SOURCE$ … Oracle Data and User Data OBJ$ TAB$ SOURCE$ … EMP DEPT …  The data dictionary is polluted by the customer’s metadata OBJ$ TAB$ SOURCE$ …  Pluggable Databases fixes this with in-database virtualization  Only the definition of the Oracle system remains
  11. 11. Copyright © 2013, Oracle and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.11 Horizontally Partitioned Data Dictionary OBJ$ TAB$ SOURCE$ … EMP DEPT … OBJ$ TAB$ SOURCE$ …  Oracle-supplied objects such as views, PL/SQL, etc., are shared across all PDBs using object “stubs”
  12. 12. Copyright © 2013, Oracle and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.12 Root PDB CDB Architecture
  13. 13. Copyright © 2013, Oracle and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.13 Agenda  Customer challenges  Pluggable Databases meets these challenges  Pluggable Databases architecture  Upgrading/migrating to Pluggable Databases  Pluggable Databases and Resource Manager
  14. 14. Copyright © 2013, Oracle and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.14 Unplug / plug  A PDB feels and operates identically to a non-CDB  You cannot tell, from the viewpoint of a connected client, if you’re using a PDB or a non-CDB Simply unplug from the old CDB…
  15. 15. Copyright © 2013, Oracle and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.15 Unplug / plug …and plug in to the new CDB…  Moving between CDBs is a simple case of moving a PDB’s metadata  Upgrades and patching becomes much simpler  An unplugged PDB carries with it lineage, opatch, encryption key info etc
  16. 16. Copyright © 2013, Oracle and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.16 Unplug / plug Example alter pluggable database HCM unplug into '/u01/app/oracle/oradata/…/hcm.xml' create pluggable database My_PDB using '/u01/app/oracle/oradata/…/my_pdb.xml' Plug Unplug
  17. 17. Copyright © 2013, Oracle and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.17 CDB Architecture If you can have one PDB…  The CDB architecture can currently support up to 252 PDBs Database Link
  18. 18. Copyright © 2013, Oracle and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.18 Fast Cloning of PDBs  PDBs can cloned from PDBs within the same database  PDBs can be cloned from remote PDBs  PDB carries lineage from the PDB it was cloned from
  19. 19. Copyright © 2013, Oracle and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.19 Cloning a PDB Example create pluggable database HCMBI from HCM create pluggable database HCMBI from HCM@us.acme.db1 Remote (DB Link) Local
  20. 20. Copyright © 2013, Oracle and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.20 PDB Cloning  Full clone doesn’t need to source PDB to be quiesced (same approach as for RMAN online backup) parallelized at the granularity of the database block  When the underlying filesystem supports this, within-CDB cloning can be done using “snapshot copy” specified in the SQL statement
  21. 21. Copyright © 2013, Oracle and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.21 Rapid Provisioning of PDBs  PDB’s can be rapidly provisioned from the seed 0 5 10 15 20 25 Non PDB PDB PDB and Change on Copy File system Time Taken to Provision New Database
  22. 22. Copyright © 2013, Oracle and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.22 Provisioning a PDB create pluggable database CRM admin user crmadm identified by CRMpass123 roles = (DBA) Example
  23. 23. Copyright © 2013, Oracle and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.23 Files in the CDB  Each PDB has its own set of tablespaces including SYSTEM and SYSAUX  PDBs share UNDO, REDO and control files, (s)pfile  By default the CDB has a single TEMP tablespace but PDBs may create their own Namespaces
  24. 24. Copyright © 2013, Oracle and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.24 CDB Architecture – Dynamics  PDBs share common SGA and background processes  Foreground sessions see only the PDB they connect to
  25. 25. Copyright © 2013, Oracle and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.25 CDB Architecture – Scalability 0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3 CRM HCM ERP BI WEB GB Pluggable Database MEMORY  Only small increments in memory as additional PDB’s are added
  26. 26. Copyright © 2013, Oracle and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.26 OLTP benchmark comparison Only 3GB of memory vs. 20GB memory used for 50 databases Pluggable databases scaled to over 250 while separate database instances maxed at 50 Pluggable Databases vs Separate Databases Highly Efficient: 6x Less H/W Resource, 5x more Scalable 0 5 10 15 20 1 10 20 50 80 110 140 170 200 230 250 Separate Pluggable # Databases MemoryUtilized
  27. 27. Copyright © 2013, Oracle and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.27 Users  Local users are the successors for customer-created users in a non-CDB  A local user is defined only in a PDB  A local user can administer a PDB  A common user is defined in the root and is represented in every PDB  A common user can log into any PDB where it has “Create Session” and can therefore administer a PDB  The Oracle system is owned by common users
  28. 28. Copyright © 2013, Oracle and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.28 Common Users and Privileges  A common user can be granted privileges locally in a PDB (or root) and therefore differently in each container  A common user can, alternatively, be granted a system privilege commonly – the grant is made in root and every PDB, present and future  You can create a common role  A common role can be granted to a common user commonly  Authorization is checked in the container where the SQL is attempted considering only the privileges that the user has in that container Authorization is checked in the same way as as pre-12.1
  29. 29. Copyright © 2013, Oracle and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.29 Creating Common Users Example create user c##Über_Administrator identified by pwd container=all
  30. 30. Copyright © 2013, Oracle and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.30 Services and Sessions  Listener location, listener port, service name, username, password  Now a service has a new property: the initial PDB  A session is created in essentially the same as before  You can connect to a PDB only by using network authentication  A local user can create a session only in the PDB where it is defined, subject, to having Create Session there  A common user can create a session in any PDB where it has Create Session The “five facts” have the same result as pre-12.1
  31. 31. Copyright © 2013, Oracle and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.31 RAC and Services in PDBs Improved services with the control of RAC and flexibility of PDBs ERP PDB is open on node 4 only HCM PDB is open on node 1 & 2 only CRM PDB is open on all the nodes
  32. 32. Copyright © 2013, Oracle and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.32 Exploiting the Flexibility of CDBs  Servers can host multiple CDBs  CDBs could be at different patch levels or require different SLAs e.g. – Gold CDB requires RAC & Data Guard – Silver CDB requires only Data Guard – Bronze requires only backups  PDBs can trivially move from one CDB to another to take advantage of SLAs and patches Gold SLA Sliver SLA Bronze SLA
  33. 33. Copyright © 2013, Oracle and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.33 Dictionary and Performance views  The performance views have a new Con_ID column  There’s a new CDB_ dictionary view family with a Con_ID column  These are so-called container-data objects  When queried from a PDB, the results show only Con_ID for that PDB  When queried from the root, the results may show all Con_ID values  The containers you see depend on an attribute of the user that lists these (or says “all – present and future”) PDB-to-PDB privacy; overall system image
  34. 34. Copyright © 2013, Oracle and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.34 Per PDB vs per CDB Have your cake and eat it Single Oracle Software Version Data Guard Scheduled RMAN Backups Some parameters/properties e.g. homogeneous character set Redo and Undo RMAN point-in-time recovery Ad hoc RMAN backups Flush shared pool Parameters where IsPDB_Modifiable = 'TRUE' Per CDB Per PDB
  35. 35. Copyright © 2013, Oracle and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.35 Agenda  Customer challenges  Pluggable Databases meets these challenges  Pluggable Databases architecture  Upgrading/migrating to Pluggable Databases  Pluggable Databases and Resource Manager
  36. 36. Copyright © 2013, Oracle and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.36 Upgrade to PDB from Oracle Database 11g Upgrade 11g database and plug in ① Upgrade 11.2 database to 12.1 in place ② Place the non CDB into read only mode ③ Connect to non CDB and generate a description file (manifest) ④ Shutdown the non CDB ⑤ Plug in non CDB to CDB ⑥ Post-plug script to remove redundant metadata for the Oracle system
  37. 37. Copyright © 2013, Oracle and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.37 Generate the PDB Manifest Example begin DBMS_PDB.Describe( PDB_Descr_File => '/oracle/home/hcmmeta.xml'); end;
  38. 38. Copyright © 2013, Oracle and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.38 Migrate using Replication ① Provision new PDB from Seed ② Replicate using technologies such as Oracle GoldenGate or Data Pump
  39. 39. Copyright © 2013, Oracle and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.39 Over the Wire Migration via Data Pump Full Transportable Tablespace – new in 12.1, backported to 11.2.0.3 impdp system/manager123@cdbdatabase/hcm FULL=y NETWORK_LINK=com.us.acme.db1 DIRECTORY=dmpdir
  40. 40. Copyright © 2013, Oracle and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.40 Agenda  Customer challenges  Pluggable Databases meets these challenges  Pluggable Databases architecture  Upgrading/migrating to Pluggable Databases  Pluggable Databases and Resource Manager
  41. 41. Copyright © 2013, Oracle and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.41 Managing Resources between PDBs  PDBs vie for shared resources  Using Resource Manager, you can control – CPU – Exadata I/O – Sessions – Parallel execution servers  Configure a policy that controls how resources are utilized – Default configuration that works, even as PDBs are added or removed – Hard limits, for “get what you pay for”
  42. 42. Copyright © 2013, Oracle and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.42 Managing Resources between PDBs  The model is “industry standard” based on two notions: – A number of shares is allocated to each PDB – A “cap” (a.k.a. maximum utilization limit) may be applied to each PDB  NOTE: the PDB identifier is embedded into every major structure
  43. 43. Copyright © 2013, Oracle and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.43 Summary
  44. 44. Copyright © 2013, Oracle and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.44 Oracle Database 12c Meets the Challenges  In-database virtualization  Implemented by horizontally partitioning the data dictionary tables  Pluggability  Next generation consolidation  It’s a pure deployment choice: neither the database backend, nor the client code, needs to be changed Pluggable Databases
  45. 45. Copyright © 2013, Oracle and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.45

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