Lee Miller Current PhD research - extension presentation

1,251 views

Published on

Presentation to golf course superintendents outlining work on identification of fairy ring pathogens and a preventive fungicide control program for fairy ring control on golf putting greens.

0 Comments
0 Likes
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to comment

  • Be the first to like this

No Downloads
Views
Total views
1,251
On SlideShare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
7
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
1
Comments
0
Likes
0
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide

Lee Miller Current PhD research - extension presentation

  1. 1. Get Ahead of the Curve: Managing Fairy Rings on Greens Lee Miller Dr. Lane Tredway
  2. 2. - D. Sorochan
  3. 3. Type II and Type III fairy ring in late spring/early summer…
  4. 4. Type I
  5. 5. J.D. Smith - 1978
  6. 6. Complexity = Problems Brown Patch Dollar Spot One symptom One symptom Rhizoctonia solani Sclerotinia homoeocarpa Excellent Good Control Control Fungicide Fungicide
  7. 7. Complexity = Problems Fairy Ring Three symptoms + Agaricus Marasmius Coprinus Lycoperdon Vascellum Bovista Varying Control Fungicide
  8. 8. Why Identify?? • Different fungicide sensitivities = improper fungicide selection. • Different temperature optima for fungal growth = improper application timing • Different nutritional or pH optima = fertilizer or liming impacts • Different depths of fungi in soil = amount of water to drench fungicide in, tank-mixing with wetting agent
  9. 9. Agaricus arvensis Hydnellum suaveolens Marasmius oreades Agaricus campestris Hydnum compactum Marasmius siccus Agrocybe pediades Hygrocybe coccinea Agaricus sp. Marasmius rotula Bovista dermoxantha Hygrocybe psittacina Coprinus sp. Marasmius urens Bovista plumbea Hygrocybe reae Calocybe carnea Hygrophoropsis aurantiaca Marasmius oreades Melanoleuca melaleuca Melanolueca grarmopodia Lactarius insulsus Calvatia cyathiformis Nolanea staurospora Camarophyllus pratensis Lactarius piperatus Bovista dermoxantha Panaeolina foenisecii Lactarius torminosus Campanella subdendrophora Lepista nuda Bovista plumbea Panaeolus campanulatus Chlorophyllum molybdites Paxillus involutus Lepista personata Clarulinopsis corniculata Lepista sordida Lycoperdon perlatum Scleroderma verrucosum Lycoperdon pusillum Clitocybe infundibuliformis Leucoagaricus naucinus Suillus grevillei Clitocybe rivulosa Leucopaxillus giganteus Trechispora alnicola Collybia butryacea Lycoperdon marginatum Tricholoma columbetta Coprinus comatus Lycoperdon perlatum Vascellum curtisii Tricholoma panoeolum Coprinus kubickae Lycoperdon pusillum Vascellum pratense Tricholoma terreum Cyathus stercoreus Lycoperdon spp. Vascellum curtisii Dentinum repandum Macrolepiota procera Vascellum pratense Hebeloma crustuliniforme Marasmius graminum
  10. 10. Puffball Identification
  11. 11. ID Enemies
  12. 12. Molecular Identification - Bruns
  13. 13. 61 Calvatia turneri DQ112594 67 Calvatia turneri DQ112595 63 Calvatia turneri DQ112596 59 Lycoperdon umbrinum DQ112592 74 Lycoperdon altimontanum DQ112589 96 Lycoperdon lambinonii DQ112576 Lycoperdon cf. decipiens DQ112586 93 Lycoperdon frigidum DQ112559 71 71 Lycoperdon niveum DQ112563 Lycoperdon pusillum AB067724 NC, SC, FL, CA, BHSBpuff1(FL) 100 99 LCpuff1 (WI) IL,& WI have 48 84 OCNG706c (NC) been analyzed & 54 OCNG706d (NC) group here 61 69 MHSBpuffmyc1 (NC) 51 OCNG706b (IL) Lycoperdon caudatum DQ112633 Lycoperdon norvegicum DQ112631 93 Lycoperdon perlatum DQ112630 100 Vascellum pratense DQ112554 Vascellum cf. intermedium DQ112556 Vascellum pratense AB067725 92 LWA1puff2 (NC) 99 LWTifpuff2 (NC) 51 Shillpuf1d (NC) 37 Shillpuf1a (NC) Shillpuf1f (NC) US, HI, & Japan 24 KapSoilMycel1 (HI) Shillpuf1b (NC) have same Shillpuf2b (NC) species!!!!!! 33 EC16gSB (NC) LW19g5014 (NC) LWTifpuff1 (NC) EC3gSB (NC) Shillpuf1e (NC) Marasmius oreades EF187911.1 0.02
  14. 14. Identification: Conclusions • Based on morphology and ITS sequence data, the puffball species we commonly encounter in the Carolinas is not Lycoperdon perlatum. • Thus far, most samples (88%) have had ITS sequences similar to isolates of Vascellum curtisii or Bovista dermoxantha characterized from golf greens in Japan. This concurs with puffball morphology differences (+/- capillitium). • In areas sampled (FL, SC, NC, OK, TX, WI, IL, CA, HI) only 4 species have been associated with fairy ring on golf greens.
  15. 15. Current Work • Inoculation • In vitro fungicide testing • Determining optimal temperature for growth • DNA soil fishing - ITS and specific primers
  16. 16. Conditions Favoring Fairy Ring • Sandy soils, newly constructed greens • Excessive thatch accumulation • Extremes in soil moisture • Nutrient deficiency, especially nitrogen
  17. 17. Fairy ring symptoms are most evident in under-fertilized turf
  18. 18. Excessive thatch accumulations enhance fairy ring.
  19. 19. Cultural Practices to Suppress Fairy Ring Symptoms Type I • Cultivate and/or use wetting agents to re-wet soil profile Type II • Mask ring symptoms with nitrogen or iron Type III • Remove mushrooms
  20. 20. Difficult Control – Fungus is below soil and can be at various depths – No fungal infection = no host resistance – Hydrophobicity (water repellency) Some recommend the only option is to dig up the rings and start over Others recommend stripping sod and mixing of soil to promote microbial antagonism
  21. 21. Chemical Control • Fungicide plus wetting agent is the standard for control • Fungicides most often used curatively – Flutolanil (Prostar) plus a wetting agent is most often prescribed – QoIs (i.e. Heritage, Insignia) are also effective  Key w/all applications is to water them in with an ⅛ - ¼ inch of water.
  22. 22. % Fairy Ring Symptoms Curative Control a a a b c c c - Data provided by Dr. Bruce Martin, Clemson University
  23. 23. Prevention • Common control practice for soil borne turf pathogens – Summer patch: Apply fungicide in spring when average soil temps reach 65ºF – Take–all patch: Apply fungicide in spring & fall when average soil temps reach 40 - 60ºF – Spring dead spot: Apply fungicide in the fall when soil temps are between 60-80ºF • Superintendents in Gulf Coast states have been using triadimefon for preventive fairy ring control. • Bayleton granted a 2(ee) label for fairy ring control in all states in 2008.
  24. 24. Prevention of fairy ring caused by Vascellum pratense in ‘Penncross’ creeping bentgrass (July 11, 2006) a Fairy Ring Severity (0 to 9) ab abc abc bcd bc c d - 2 applications made in late March and late April
  25. 25. Objectives • Investigate fairy ring control from one preventive application of Bayleton in spring. • Compare control efficacy between low and high rates. • Determine impact of application timing on preventive control.
  26. 26. Treatments Fungicide Application Timing Bayleton: 1 oz/1,000 ft2 A: 50ºF (10ºC) Bayleton: 2 oz/1,000 ft2 B: 55ºF (13ºC) C: 60ºF (16ºC) D: 65ºF (18ºC) E: 70ºF (21ºC) F: 75ºF (24ºC)
  27. 27. Average 5 day soil temperature taken at 2 inches (º F) Application Timing - 2007 May 2nd May 29th: March 30 th Fairy ring -Application D: -Application E: start 65ºF (18ºC) 70ºF (21ºC) March 28th - Application C: 60ºF (16ºC) May 30th March 14 - th -Application F: Application A: 75ºF (24ºC) 50ºF (10ºC) March 25th - Application B: 55ºF (13ºC) Mar Apr May June
  28. 28. Average 5 day soil temperature taken at 2 inches (º F) Application Timing - 2008 May 8th -Application E: 70ºF (21ºC) April 25th- Application D: April 10th- 65ºF (18ºC) Application C: 60ºF (16ºC) March 14th - June 4th- Application A: Application F: 50ºF (10ºC) 75ºF (24ºC) June 17th: Fairy ring start March 26th - Application B: 55ºF (13ºC) Mar Apr May June
  29. 29. Bayleton – High rate: 65°F
  30. 30. 6/22/07 Bayleton – Low rate: 65°F Control
  31. 31. 7/24/07 Bayleton – Low rate: 65°F
  32. 32. Prevention of fairy ring caused by Vascellum pratense in ‘A-1’ creeping bentgrass, 2007 Fairy Ring Severity (0-9) a b b a a b b b b Bars with same letter are not significantly different according to LSD (∞=0.05).
  33. 33. Prevention of fairy ring caused by Vascellum pratense in ‘A-1’ creeping bentgrass, 2007 a Fairy Ring Severity (0-9) b b b b b a a b b b b b b b b b b Bars with same letter are not significantly different according to LSD (∞=0.05).
  34. 34. Prevention of fairy ring caused by Vascellum pratense in ‘A-1’ creeping bentgrass, 2008 Fairy Ring Severity (0-9)
  35. 35. Prevention of fairy ring caused by Vascellum pratense in ‘A-1’ creeping bentgrass, 2008 Fairy Ring Severity (0-9)
  36. 36. Control Recommendation • Make two monthly applications of triadimefon at the low label rate. • Initiate applications when 5 day average soil temperatures reach 55 - 65°F corresponding to late March in Raleigh, NC. • Water in the application immediately with ¼ inch of irrigation. • Make wetting agent application on regular scheduling, but not tank-mixed when making PREVENTIVE applications.
  37. 37. Refinement – Part 1 • How do the newer DMIs perform in the preventive application scheme? Heritage? Endorse? • How well does it work on bermuda?
  38. 38. P r e v e n t io n o f f a ir y r in g o n a b e r m u d a g r a s s g r e e n in W ilm in g t o n , N C ( J u n e 2 0 , 2 0 0 8 ). Fairy Ring Severity (0 to 9) a ab b b b b b b - 2 applications made in late March and late April - No wetting agent tank-mixed with applications.
  39. 39. P r e v e n t io n o f f a ir y r in g o n a b e n t g r a s s g r e e n in C h a r lo t t e , N C ( A u g u s t 8 , 2 0 0 8 ). Fairy Ring Severity (0 to 9) a ab bc bcd cd cd d d - 2 applications made in late March and late April - No wetting agent tank-mixed with applications.
  40. 40. Refinement – Part 2 • Does tank-mixing a wetting agent really hurt the performance of a preventively applied fairy ring fungicide? Will it reduce phytotoxicity? • Can I wait to water the application in until night?
  41. 41. Treatments 1) Fungicide 2) Irrigation Bayleton: 1 oz/1,000 ft2 Watered in immediately Triton: 0.25 oz/1,000 ft2 Watered in 10 hours later Untreated 3) Wetting Agent Tank-mixed with Revolution (6 oz/M) No Wetting Agent
  42. 42. 7/11/08
  43. 43. 7/11/08
  44. 44. P r e v e n t io n o f f a ir y r in g c a u s e d b y Vas ce llum prate ns e in ‘ A -1 ’ c r e e p in g b e n t g r a s s (A u g u s t 4 , 2 0 0 8 ) a Fairy Ring Severity (% Area) ab b b b b Treatments applied on March 28 & April 25. Bars with same letter are not significantly different according to LSD (∞=0.05)
  45. 45. Phytotoxicity - Tank-mixing Revolution (6 oz/1000 sq ft), 2008 a a ab ab b c Phytotoxicity (0-9) Turf Quality (1-9) a b bc bc c c Treatments applied on March 28 & April 25 Data collected on May 27 Bars with same letter are not significantly different according to LSD (∞=0.05).
  46. 46. Phytotoxicity - Irrigation Timing, 2008 Phytotoxicity (0-9) Turf Quality (1-9) Treatments applied on March 28 & April 25 Data collected on May 27
  47. 47. Conclusions • DMI fungicides appear to have similar efficacy as preventive treatments • In an early test, irrigation timing did not appear to have an impact on fungicide efficacy. • Tank mixing preventive fungicides with a wetting agent decreases fungicide efficacy. • Phytotoxicity of DMI applications needs further evaluation. In particular, impact on ultradwarf bermudagrass varieties needs to be assessed.
  48. 48. Acknowledgements Dr. Lane Tredway Advisory Committee Co-Chair Dr. Larry Grand Advisory Committee Co-Chair Dr. Marc Cubeta Advisory Committee Member Dr. Mike Benson Advisory Committee Member Dr. Mike Fidanza Advisory Committee Member Mike Soika Research Associate Lee Butler Extension Assistant Jim Kerns Fellow graduate student Joe Roberts Undergraduate Assistant Emily Rosebrough Undergraduate Assistant Ivey Redding Undergraduate Assistant Matt Martin NC Cooperative Extension Agent Jim Monroe NC Cooperative Extension Agent Funding Sources:

×