DNA barcoding the vascular plant flora of the Canadian Arctic
DNA barcoding the vascular plant flora of the Canadian Arctic Jeffery M. Saarela, Lynn J. Gillespie, Laurie L. Consaul,Roger D. Bull, Brianna N. Chouinard, Paul Abraham, Julian R. Starr Creative Commons: Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike licence
Field Work Support Barcode DataPolar Continental Shelf Program, Paul Hebert, Guelph University, Ontarioa Natural Resources Canada Maria Kuzmina & staff at the Canadian CenterParks Canada for DNA Barcoding (CCDB), Guelph, OntarioCanadian Museum of Nature Genome CanadaNSERC Canadian Museum of NatureInuvialuit people of the western Canadian Arctic
The Canadian Arcticca. 800 vascular plant species
Projected changes in the Arctic climate, 2090 Arctic Climate Impact Assessment (ACIA), 2005
Climate change and Arctic vegetation Vegetation communities are changing e.g., shrubs are getting bigger, more densePredicted that some species ranges are likely to expand, others are likely to contract
Treeline is likely to change, and some plant species are expected to migrate N as temperature increases
Plant Species Diversity and Distribution Floras of the Canadian ArcticA.E. Porsild –1955, 1957, 1980 (w/ Cody) Aiken et al. 2007 We are now in the initial planning Flora of Northern Quebec stages for a new: and Labrador(in progress – forthcoming 2011?) Vascular Plant Flora of the Canadian Arctic Gillespie, Saarela & collaborators
Prince Patrick I Melville I Banks I 2010 Victoria Island Baffin I 2009 2008 Poster - Consaul et al. Cambridge Bay
Two proposals for an official plant barcode were made Option One Option Two rbcL + matK + trnH-psbA rbcL + matK Consortium for the Barcode of Life “The Executive Committee therefore concludes that only rbcL and matK are approved and required barcode regions for land plants. ”“However, the Executive Committee accepted the review panels recommendation to reassess the situation in 18months. The current inability of the proposed plant barcode to resolve more than ~70% of species indicates thatimprovement in the approach is needed, along with more rbcL and matK data. A reassessment in 18 months wouldevaluate progress being made on matK primers and sequence assembly techniques for non-coding regions such as trnH-psbA.” And now ITS2 is contending for barcode status (!) Chen et al. 2010 PLoS ONE
Arctic island sedge diversity . . . 40% C. atrofusca C. aquatilis var. minor C. bicolor C. bigelowii subsp. lugens C. glareosa C. glacialis C. maritima C. garberi C. petricosa C. scirpoideaC. nardina C. membranacea
Barcoding Arctic Island Sedges (Carex & Kobresia) A Regional Approach to DNA BarcodingLe Clerc-Blain et al. 2010, Mol. Ecol. Res. Tested seven plastid regions - matK was the best matK 20 spp. 95% success SW Victoria Island, 2008
Barcoding works for Arctic sedges -- some taxa differ by only a single nucleotide Carex Carex membranacea saxatalis
Applications for Arctic plant barcode data Added precision in ecological studies…at least for some taxa“As plot moisture continues to increase . . .graminoids (i.e., Eriophorum spp. and Carex spp.) or Barcoding can help!bryophytes (i.e., Sphagnum spp.) or both becomedominant “ - Laidler et al. 2008, Arctic ? Remote sensing of Arctic vegetation Boothia Peninsula, Nunavut
Moving forward with barcoding the entire Canadian Arctic flora….
571 specimens & 262 species as of early June, 2010
Barcoding theArctic Flora AsteraceaematK + rbcL Salicaceaeindividuals = 194 Scrophulariaceaenucleotides =1431 Ericaceae Parnassiaceae Primulaceae Rosaceae Caryophyllaceae n t a x = 1 9 4 n c h a r = 1 4 3 1 ; Fabaceae Polygonaceae Ranunculaceae Papaveraceae Onagraceae Poaceae Brassicaceae Saxifragaceae Cyperaceae
There is no plastid variation in Salix Salix niphocladamatK + rbcL Salix arctica Salix hastata Salix richardsonii
Caryophyllaceae - pink family -Genus and some species-level resolution
Orobanchaceae, Plantaginaceae, Lentibulariaceae Genus and some species-level resolution
ITS variation in Arctic Puccinelliadiploids & polyploids
Preliminary ConclusionIn most Arctic plant families, current plastid barcode data can clearly and reliably distinguish most genera. Species-level resolution varies. **BUT – many Arctic genera have only one or a few species, so at a regional level (Arctic) barcoding performs fairly well.
Plant DNA barcoding is one more tool for the botanical toolkit. Usually you need more than one tool to do a job properly. And it’s always nice to have access to all the tools!