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Managing Zebra Mussel Shell Debris with a New Chemical Alternative


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Zequanox provides a non-chemical alternative to invasive mussel control

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Managing Zebra Mussel Shell Debris with a New Chemical Alternative

  1. 1. Managing Mussel Shell Debris with a New Chemical Alternative Sarahann M. Rackl, Ph.D., P.E. Director of Water Technologies Marrone Bio Innovations
  2. 2. Mussel Control Challenges Exacerbated byUnrelenting Population Expansion2
  3. 3. Invasive Mussel Control Methods Must Consider Shell Debris Management • Shells from dead adult mussels can clog screens or small tubing causing similar impacts as live mussel colonization • Chemical solutions kill all the mussels at the same time, releasing masses of debris into the treated system • Regular treatments can help mitigate impact of shell debris • Settlement prevention requires almost 24/7 continuous application • More sustainable alternative needed with flexibility to improve shell debris management3
  4. 4. Natural Product Chemistry • Safer alternatives to standard chemicals to protect public health and the environment – Products are more target specific – Decreased potential for population resistance • Typically not a toxic/contact mode of action providing a more manageable control of pests • Well established technology in the pharmaceutical and agricultural industries – Bacillus thuringiensis (israelensis) used to control black fly larva in open waters - globally – Production of antibiotics and antifungal agents effective against diseases in crops4
  5. 5. Product Overview • Derived from soil microbe (Pseudomonas fluorescens CL 145A) – Discovered by NYSM – Composed of 100% dead cells • Controls mussels in all life stages • Perceived as food source—destroys the mussel’s digestive system – Causing slower mortality over time, not all at once • Highly selective toward zebra and quagga mussels • Effective in a broad range of water conditions and temperatures • Noncorrosive and nonvolatile5
  6. 6. Extensive Ecotox Studies Show No Impact to Other Aquatic Species MOLLUSCS FISH Blue Mussel (Mytilus edulis) * Bluegill sunfish (Lepomis macrochirus) Freshwater Mussel - Duck Mussel (Anadonta) Channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) Freshwater Mussel - Black Sandshell (Ligumia recta) Chinook Salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) Freshwater Mussel - Fatmucket (Lampsilis siliquoidea) Coaster brook trout (Salvelinus fontinalis) Freshwater Mussel - Pink mucket (Lampsilis abrupta) Common Carp (Cyprinus carpio) Freshwater Mussel - Hickorynut (Obovaria olivaria) Fathead Minnow (Pimephales promelas) * Freshwater Mussel - Higgins Eye (Lampsilis higginsii) Klamath Suckers (Catostomus sucker spp) Freshwater Mussel - Mucket (Actinonaias ligamentina) Lake sturgeon (Acipenser fulvescens) Freshwater Mussel - Paper Pond Shell (Utterbackia imbecillis) Largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides) Freshwater Mussel - Plain Pocketbook (Lampsilis cardium) Rainbow Trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) * Freshwater Mussel - Washboard (Megalonaias nervosa) Sacramento Splittail (Pogonichthys macrolepidotus) Freshwater Snail (Lymnaea peregra) Smallmouth bass (Micropterus dolomieu) Striped Bass (Morone saxatilis) Walleye (Sander vitreus) Yellow perch (Perca flavescens) PLANTS AND ALGAE Algae * OTHERS Bindweed (Convolvulaceae) Mallard Duck * Common Water Plantain (Alisma subcordatum) Midge (Chironomidae) Curly Dock (Rumex crispus) Mayfly (Baetis) Mallow (Malvaceae) Amphipod (Hyalella azteca) * Nightshade (Solanaceae) European Freshwater Crayfish (Austropotatamobius pallipes) Smallflower Umbrella Sedge (Cyperus difformis) Freshwater Crustacean (Asellus aquaticus) Freshwater Water Flea (Daphnia magna) * * EPA required Studies completed or will receive final report in 2012. Conducted by Institute of Technology, Sligo, Ireland;6 New York State Museum and USGS; U.S. Bureau of Reclamation; Certified Good Laboratory Practices (GLP) Lab; and MBI lab
  7. 7. Treatment Programs Designed to Mitigate ShellDebris Impacts Periodic Preventative Designed for facilities with tolerance Goal is to limit the number of mussels for moderate to large shell sizes (larger that exceed 4mm in size than 4 mm in size) Ideal for sensitive systems and Treatments occur 1 -3 times annually equipment Modification - slower/reduced kill for Treatments are performed on a large populations can provide regular basis (approx. every 4-6 wks) additional mitigation Modification – More frequent Monitoring Level of Control – treatments to further reduce shell size Quantified by percent of mussel s that Monitoring Level of Control– die over time Evaluation of total biomass on settlement plates and confirmation of no mussels > 4 mm • Product applied with standard equipment • Treatments can be completed within hours (~6 hrs)7
  8. 8. Methods to Assess Treatment • Bioboxes connected to facility’s service water system – Used for pilot demonstration (direct application) and facility treatments • Mussels collected locally for assessment of periodic treatments or settlement plates are inserted for assessing preventative treatments • Configured for comparison between treated and control • Product measured as turbidity (NTU) during treatments8
  9. 9. Equivalent Level of Efficacy Observed Throughout North America9
  10. 10. Case Study: Bureau of Reclamation’s Davis Dam • Tested both Periodic and Preventative treatment programs in 2011 • Bullhead City, AZ; Colorado River • Five turbine, 240 MW hydropower facility • Each turbine has a separate cooling water system • 5000 gpm per cooling water subsystem10
  11. 11. Davis Dam Biobox Monitoring Schematic11
  12. 12. Low Dose Treatment Programs Provide Additional Debris Management Over Time 90.0 80.0 70.0 60.0 Mortality (%) 50.0 Treated mean mortality 40.0 Control mean mortality 30.0 20.0 10.0 0.0 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 110 120 Time (days) Initial treatment occurred at 0 days; blue arrows indicate timing of additional lower concentration treatments which had a12 cumulative effect on mussel mortality over time
  13. 13. Biomass Control at Mid-System Locations 0.30 Settlement Biomass (dry g/plate) 0.25 0.20 Treated ControlSettlement in Treated System at 0.15Mid-System Location 0.10 0.05 0.00 Midpoint • Demonstration of the preventative treatment program • 91.2% less biomass based on total plateSettlement in Control System at biomassMid-System Location
  14. 14. Biomass Control at Outlet Locations 0.30 Settlement Biomass (dry g/plate) 0.25 Treated Control 0.20 0.15 0.10Settlement in Treated System at OutletLocation 0.05 0.00 Outlet • 79.7% less biomass in the treated system • Settlement analyzed three weeks after final Zequanox treatment; new growth not excluded during three-week periodSettlement in Control System atOutlet Location
  15. 15. Summary of Davis Dam 2011 Case Studies • Low concentration repeated treatments on adult mussels can achieve accumulated mussel mortality over time yet reduce influx of shell debris • Treatments can achieve equivalent mussel control to chemical treatments without causing shell debris to enter the system all at once • Successive low concentration treatments on recently settled mussels can achieve a high level of control resulting in a reduction of mussel biomass growth (Preventative Treatment Program) • Significant level of mussel control during extreme algae bloom events • Treatments caused no impact on Colorado River water quality15
  16. 16. Other Benefits of Zequanox Treatments • Minimal use restrictions • Elimination of quenching/detoxification before discharge • No risk of release of toxic, hazardous chemicals into the environment • Minimal to no discharge monitoring requirements • Low risk to employees – Only minimal PPE needed • No risk of corrosion or equipment damage • Short treatment times • Minimal impact on process and operations16
  17. 17. Marrone Bio Innovations MBI discovers, develops, and markets effective and environmentally responsible natural products (biopesticides) that fill unmet needs for weed, pest and plant disease management. We have our own microbial natural product discovery screening We in-license proprietary technology and products (plant extracts and microbes), such as Pf CL145A from NYSM (Zequanox)17
  18. 18. Questions? Sarahann M. Rackl, Ph.D., P.E. Marrone Bio Innovations (530) 750–280018