Digestive System By Nadia Abdulallah


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Digestive System By Nadia Abdulallah

  1. 1. DIGESTIVE SYSTEMby Nadia Abdulallah<br />
  2. 2. The digestive system is made up of the digestive tract—a series of hollow organs joined in a long, twisting tube from the mouth to the anus—and other organs that help the body break down and absorb food.<br />
  3. 3. In order, beginning at the mouth and continuing to the anus, these organs are the oral cavity, pharynx, esophagus, stomach, small intestine, large intestine – also called the colon – rectum, and anus.<br />
  4. 4. There are many different types of procedures, laboratory tests performed in order to diagnose or treat digestive system disorders. <br />Here are a few examples:<br /><ul><li>Colonoscopy
  5. 5. Lavage
  6. 6. Hernioplasty
  7. 7. Choledocholithotripsy</li></li></ul><li>Large Intestine - Colon<br />COLONOSCOPY<br />Colonoscopy<br />
  8. 8. Colonoscopy is the endoscopic examination of the large colon and the distal part of the small bowel with a CCD camera or a fiber optic camera on a flexible tube passed through the anus. It may provide a visual diagnosis (e.g. ulceration, polyps) and grants the opportunity for biopsy or removal of suspected lesions.<br />
  9. 9. STOMACH<br />LAVAGE<br />GASTRIC LAVAGE<br />
  10. 10. Gastric lavage, also commonly called stomachpumping or Gastric irrigation, is the process of cleaning out the contents of the stomach. Such devices are normally used on a person who has ingested a poison or overdosed on a drug. They may also be used before surgery, to clear the contents of the digestive tract before it is opened.<br />
  11. 11. Gastric lavage, also called a stomach pump. For this procedure, a flexible NG tube is inserted through the nose, down the throat, and into the stomach and the contents of the stomach are suctioned out. The inside of the stomach is rinsed with a saline (salt water) solution.<br />
  13. 13. A hernia is protrusion of an organ or the muscular wall of an organ through the cavity that normally contains it. <br />Hernioplasty - surgical repair of a hernia; sometimes specifically that using a mesh patch or plug for reinforcement.<br />
  14. 14. CHOLEDOCHOLITHOTRIPSY<br />Common bile duct stone<br />Choledocholithotripsy<br />
  15. 15. USAGE OF LITHOTRITE<br />
  16. 16. Choledocholithotripsy - fragmentation of a gallstone in the common bile duct either by transcutaneous sonic energy or endoscopically directed laser, or by usage of lithotrite instrument.<br />
  17. 17. Researchers believe that gallstones may be caused by a combination of factors, including:<br /><ul><li>Inherited body chemistry
  18. 18. Body weight (rapid weight loss, constipation, eating less fish, and low intakes of the nutrients, magnesium, calcium, and vitamin C may increase risk of the gallstones formation. On the other hand, wine and whole grain bread may decrease the risk of gallstones.
  19. 19. Gallbladder motility
  20. 20. Diet (No clear relationship has been proven between diet and gallstone formation. However, low-fibre, high-cholesterol diets, and diets high in starchy foods have been suggested as contributing to gallstone formation).
  21. 21. Increased levels of the hormone  as a result of pregnancy, hormone therapy, or the use of combined (estrogen-containing) forms of hormonal contraception, may increase cholesterol levels in bile and also decrease gallbladder movement, resulting in gallstone formation.</li></li></ul><li>Cholesterol gallstones develop when bile contains too much cholesterol and not enough bile salts. Besides a high concentration of cholesterol, two other factors seem to be important in causing gallstones. The first is how often and how well the gallbladder contracts; incomplete and infrequent emptying of the gallbladder may cause the bile to become overconcentrated and contribute to gallstone formation. The second factor is the presence of proteins in the liver and bile that either promote or inhibit cholesterol crystallization into gallstones.<br />