Mitochondrial diseases


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Mitochondrial diseases

  1. 1. Mitochondrial Diseases Dr. MUNISH KUMAR G B PANT DELHI
  2. 2. Mitochondrial Diseases • The term ―mitochondrial cytopathy‖ refers to a diverse group of inherited or acquired disorders. • It is heterogeneous group of disorders. • Can occur across all age groups. • Deficient energy production caused from defects in the mitochondrial structure or the enzymes contained within this organelle are the basis for the clinical features of these illnesses.
  3. 3. Mitochondrial Diseases • Mitochondrial biology is one of the fastest growing areas in genetics and medicine. • Disturbances in mitochondrial metabolism are now known to play a role not only in rare childhood diseases, but have also been implicated in aging and many common diseases including heart disease, diabetes , Parkinson disease, and dementia.
  4. 4. Mitochondria • Mitochondria are the main ‗‗powerhouse‘‘ for all cells in the body except red blood cells. • The individual mitochondrion is a bilayer structure and contains four compartments: (1) an outer mitochondrial membrane (2) a heavily folded inner mitochondrial membrane (3) an intermembrane space that exists between these two membranes (4) the matrix, which is contained within the inner membrane.
  5. 5. Mitochondria • Numerous transport channels are present on the outer mitochondrial membrane. • Most of the electron transport chain is embedded within the inner membrane. • The inner membrane space holds the electrochemical gradient generated as hydrogen ions are pumped from the matrix while electrons are passed from one protein complex to another as part of electron transport chain (ETC) function. • Hundreds of mitochondrial enzymes are located in the matrix.
  6. 6. Mitochondria • Mitochondria participate in the process of oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS), the transformation of energy (from the breakdown of nutrients) in the presence of oxygen to adenosine triphosphate (ATP). • Disorders of OXPHOS may affect the brain (central, peripheral, and autonomic nervous systems), muscles, kidneys, heart, liver, eyes, ears, pancreas, skin, and other organ systems. • The conditions caused by defects in OXPHOS can range from subclinical to lethal.
  7. 7. Genetics of Mitochondrial Disorders • Mitochondria are the only location of extra-chromosomal DNA within the cell and they are under the dual genetic control of both nuclear DNA and the mitochondrial genome. • Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) is a 16,569-np double-stranded (16.6 kb in humans), closed, circular molecule located within the matrix of the double-membrane mitochondrion. • Each human cell contains hundreds of mtDNA molecules. • Human mtDNA encodes 13 of the 89 subunits of the mitochondrial respiratory chain, as well as the small (12S) and large (16S) ribosomal RNAs (rRNAs) and 22 tRNAs necessary for intramitochondrial protein synthesis . (DiMauro S, Schon EA. Mitochondrial respiratory-chain diseases. New Engl J Med. 2003;348:2656–68.)
  8. 8. The human mitochondrial genome. The map of the 16,569 bp mtDNA shows differently colored areas representing the protein-coding genes for the seven subunits of complex I (ND), the three subunits of cytochrome c oxidase (CO), cytochrome b (cyt b), and the two subunits of ATP synthase (A6 and A8), the 12S and 16S rRNAs (12S, 16S), and the 22 tRNAs identified by one-letter codes for the corresponding amino acids.
  9. 9. Unique Aspects of Mitochondrial Genetics • Mitochondrial genetics is different from Mendelian genetics in almost every aspect, from the uniparental inheritance of disease mutations, to the presence of many copies of the genome within a single cell and the basic mechanisms that underlie replication and transcription. • Each mitochondrion contains two to 10 copies of mtDNA. • The mtDNA is maternally inherited. • The mtDNA can exist in a cell as a mixture of mutant and normal mtDNAs (heteroplasmy). • The mtDNA do not recombine, and can undergo replicative segregation during meiotic or mitotic division to give pure genotypes (homoplasmic).
  10. 10. Comparison between the human nuclear and mitochondrial genomes Characteristic Nuclear genome Mitochondrial genome Size ~3.3 x 109 bp 16,569 bp Number of DNA molecules per cell 23 in haploid cells; 46 in diploid cells Several thousand copies per cell Number of genes encoded ~20,000–30,000 37 (13 polypeptides, 22 tRNAs and 2 rRNAs) Gene density ~1 per 40,000 bp 1 per 450 bp Percentage of coding DNA ~3% ~93% Mode of inheritance Mendelian inheritance for autosomes and the X chromosome, paternal inheritance for the Y chromosome Exclusively maternal Replication Strand-coupled mechanism that uses DNA polymerases α and δ Strand-coupled and stranddisplacement models; only uses DNA polymerase γ Transcription Most genes are transcribed individually All genes on both strands are transcribed as large polycistrons. Recombination Each pair of homologues recombines during the prophase of meiosis There is evidence that recombination occurs at a cellular level but little evidence that it occurs at a population level Strachan T, Read A. P. Human Molecular Genetics 2nd edn (John Wiley and Sons, New York, 1999).
  11. 11. Why does mitochondrial DNA mutate? • Mitochondrial DNA acquires mutations at 6 to 7 times the rate of nuclear DNA because:  It lack protective histones.  It is in close proximity to the electron transport chain, exposing it to high concentrations of free radicals, which can damage the nucleotides.  It lack DNA repair mechanisms, which results in mutant tRNA, rRNA, and protein transcripts. Shoffner JM, Wallace DC. Oxidative phosphorylation diseases. In: Scriver CR, Beaudet AL, Sly WS, et al, editors. The metabolic and molecular bases of inherited disease. New York: McGraw-Hill, 1995:1535– 1610.
  12. 12. Inheritance of mitochondrial DNA • The standard model of maternal inheritance has recently been challenged. • Low levels of paternal transmission of mtDNA have been observed in crosses between mouse species, but not within species, although further studies showed that this paternal mtDNA was not transmitted to the subsequent generation.1 • Studies of a patient with mitochondrial myopathy — who carried a 2-bp pathogenic deletion in the NADH (reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide) dehydrogenase subunit 2 (ND2) gene in his muscle mtDNA — have also challenged the maternal inheritance of mtDNA.2 • With the exception of skeletal muscle, all other tissues contained a single, maternally derived mtDNA haplotype. Subsequent studies of other patients with mitochondrial myopathies have not shown any evidence of paternal transmission. 3 1. 2. 3. Shitara, H., Hayashi, J. I., Takahama, S., Kaneda, H. & Yonekawa, H. Maternal inheritance of mouse mtDNA in interspecific hybrids: segregation of the leaked paternal mtDNA followed by the prevention of subsequent paternal leakage. Genetics 1998;148:851–7. Schwartz, M. & Vissing, J. Paternal inheritance of mitochondrial DNA. N. Engl. J. Med. 2002;347:576–80. Taylor, R. W. et al. Genotypes from patients indicate no paternal mitochondrial DNA contribution. Ann. Neurol. 2003;54:521–4.
  13. 13. Inheritance of mitochondrial DNA Colors reflect inheritance of the same mitochondrial genome . At fertilization, all mtDNA derives from the ovum. A mother carrying a mtDNA point mutation will pass it on to all her children (males and females), but only her daughters will transmit it to their progeny. A disease expressed in both sexes but with no evidence of paternal transmission is strongly suggestive of a mtDNA point mutation.
  14. 14. Clinical Manifestations of Mitochondrial Cytopathies • Disorders due to mitochondrial mutations are heterogeneous, and clinical manifestations range from single organ involvement to multisystem disease. • The same mutation or different mutation in the same mtDNA gene may give rise to very different clinical phenotypes, whereas the same phenotype may be due to different mutations. • Variability in clinical manifestation is due to several factors:  The proportion of heteroplasmy.  Varying thresholds of biochemical expression for both the mutation and the tissue involved.  The modifying effect of nuclear mitochondrial genes.
  15. 15. Clinical Manifestations of Mitochondrial Cytopathies • Different types of mutations:-  Class I mutations: disorders of nuclear genes.  Class II mutations: mitochondrial DNA point mutations. (Andrea L. Gropman MD. Diagnosis and Treatment of Childhood Mitochondrial Diseases. Current Neurology and Neuroscience Reports 2001,;1:185–94.)
  16. 16. Mitochondrial diseases due to mtDNA or nDNA mutation DEFECTS OF MITOCHONDRIAL DNA DEFECTS IN NUCLEAR DNA AFFECTING MITOCHONDRIAL DNA OR ENZYME COMPLEXES PEO/multisystem with PEO KSS Pearson syndrome/KSS MELAS MERRF MiMyCa NARP/MILS LHON Diabetes, optic atrophy, deafness Tubulopathy, diabetes, ataxia Sideroblastic anemia Autosomal dominant / recessive PEO MNGIE Leigh syndrome Encephalopathy/cardiomyopathy GRACILE syndrome Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy Myopathy Optic atrophy, deafness, neuropathy GRACILE, growth retardation, amino aciduria, cholestasis, iron overload, lactic acidosis, and early death; KSS, Kearns-Sayre syndrome; LHON, Leber hereditary optic neuropathy; MELAS, mitochondrial encephalomyopathy, lactic acidosis and stroke-like episodes; MERRF, myoclonic epilepsy with ragged-red fibers; MILS, maternally inherited Leigh syndrome; MiMyCa, mitochondrial myopathy and cardiomyopathy; MNGIE, myoneurogastrointestinal encephalopathy; NARP, neuropathy, ataxia, and retinitis pigmentosa; PEO, progressive external ophthalmoplegia
  17. 17. Class I mutations: disorders of nuclear genes • Mitochondrial disorders of nuclear DNA (nDNA) origin include:  Oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) disorders (such as Leigh syndrome, paraganglioma)  Defects in nuclear-encoded mitochondrial proteins for mtDNA integrity (progressive external ophthalmoplegia (PEO) and mitochondrial neurogastrointestinal encephalomyopathy (MNGIE) syndrome)  Mitochondrial disorders with secondary effects on the OXPHOS system (Friedreich ataxia and hereditary spastic paraplegia).
  18. 18. Class I mutations: disorders of nuclear genes Nuclear defects in OXPHOS related proteins Respiratory Disorders Features • Leigh syndrome (LS) Starts mostly at birth or early childhood, • Other commonly observed phenotypes fatal neurodegenerative disorder associated with complex I deficiency characterized pathologically by bilateral are cardiomyopathy (11%), fatal lesions in the brainstem, basal ganglia, infantile lactic acidosis (11%), thalamus and spinal cord, and macrocephaly with progressive characterized clinically by psychomotor leukodystrophy (7%),and unspecified retardation and brainstem or basal encephalopathy (21%) ganglia dysfunction. Mutations in both flavoprotein (SDHA) Characterized by the presence of benign, and iron-sulfur (SDHB) subunits- highly vascularized tumors of Hereditary paraganglioma (PGL) parasympathetic ganglia in the head and chain Complex I Complex II neck
  19. 19. Class I mutations: disorders of nuclear genes Nuclear defects in OXPHOS related proteins Respiratory Disorders Features chain Complex III Complex IV Complex V • Myopathy with or without myoglobinuria • Tubulopathy, hepatopathy and encephalopathy • SURF1 gene - Leigh syndrome. • SCO2 gene — a Mitochondrial copper chaperone- Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy and Encephalopathy • SCO1 gene — Familial hepatopathy and ketoacidotic coma. Mutations in ATP6 synthase - syndrome of neuropathy, ataxia and retinitis pigmentosa (NARP) and maternally-inherited Leigh Syndrome Patients had hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, encephalopathy and ketoacidosis
  20. 20. Class I mutations: disorders of nuclear genes Nuclear defects in mitochondrial proteins for mtDNA integrity • The factors involved in mtDNA maintenance are all encoded by nuclear genes, and transported into the mitochondria. • They include those involved directly in DNA processing, such as the mtDNA polymerase γ (POLG1), a helicase, a primase, and a ligase. • Two human disease groups (progressive external ophthalmoplegia, PEO) and mitochondrial DNA depletion syndrome) result from these disturbed mtDNA maintenance mechanisms.
  21. 21. Class I mutations: disorders of nuclear genes Nuclear defects in mitochondrial proteins for mtDNA integrity • The most common is PEO syndrome, which is transmitted in most cases as an autosomal dominant trait (adPEO), or more rarely as an autosomal recessive trait (arPEO). • PEO - onset usually between 18 and 40 years of age, is characterized clinically by ophthalmoparesis and exercise intolerance. • The combination of arPEO, severe gastrointestinal dysmotility, peripheral neuropathy, cachexia,diffuse leukoencephalopathy on brain MRI, and mitochondrial dysfunction (histological, biochemical or genetic abnormalities of the mitochondria) identifies the mitochondrial neurogastrointestinal encephalomyopathy (MNGIE)
  22. 22. Class II mutations: mitochondrial DNA mutations Servidei S. 2003, Rahman S, Hanna M. 2009 Disease/Syndrome Main Mutation Gene Location Mode of Inheritance PEO/multisystem with Single large deletion Sporadic PEO (progressive Deletion duplication Sporadic nt-A3243G tRNA Leu(UUR) Maternal nt-C3256T tRNA Leu(UUR) Maternal KSS (Kearns-Sayre Single large deletion Sporadic syndrome ) Large tandem duplication Sporadic Pearson Single large deletion Sporadic external ophthalmoplegia) syndrome/KSS
  23. 23. Class II mutations: mitochondrial DNA mutations Servidei S. 2003, Rahman S, Hanna M. 2009 Disease/Syndrome Main Mutation Gene Location Mode of Inheritance MELAS (mitochondrial nt-A3243G tRNA Leu(UUR) Maternal encephalomyopathy, lactic nt-T3271C tRNA Leu(UUR) Maternal nt-A8344G tRNA Lys Maternal nt-C3254G tRNA Leu(UUR) Maternal acidosis and stroke-like episodes) MERRF (myoclonic epilepsy with ragged-red fibers) MiMyCa (mitochondrial myopathy and cardiomyopathy)
  24. 24. Class II mutations: mitochondrial DNA mutations Servidei S. 2003, Rahman S, Hanna M. 2009 Disease/Syndrome Main Mutation Gene Location Mode of Inheritance Myopathy Sporadic nt-A3243G tRNA Leu(UUR) Maternal nt-G15762A NARP/MILS Single large Deletion Cytochrome b Sporadic nt-T8993G ATPase 6 Maternal nt-G3460A ND1 Maternal nt-G11778A ND4 Maternal nt-T14484C ND6 Maternal (neuropathy, ataxia, and retinitis pigmentosa/ maternally inherited Leigh syndrome ) LHON (Leber hereditary optic neuropathy)
  25. 25. Acquired mtDNA mutations in ageing and cancer Mitochondrial theory of ageing – • Progressive accumulation of somatic mutations in mtDNA during a lifetime leads to an inevitable decline in mitochondrial function • These mutations then result in impaired function of the respiratory chain, leading to increased reactive oxygen species production and the subsequent accumulation of more mutations. • The reactive oxygen species vicious cycle is believed to account for an exponential increase in oxidative damage during ageing, which results in the eventual loss of cellular and tissue functions through a combination of energy insufficiency, signalling defects, apoptosis. (Harman D. Free radical theory of aging. Mutat. Res. 1992; 275:257–66.)
  26. 26. Acquired mtDNA mutations in ageing and cancer Mitochondrial DNA mutations and cancer – • In 1998, Vogelstein and colleagues reported that mtDNA mutations were present in 7 out of 10 colorectal cancer cell lines that were studied. • How these mutations accumulate to high levels in individual tumours is still unclear. • In addition, there is no evidence of whether mtDNA mutations themselves contribute to the development of the tumour • Although a direct link between the presence of the mtDNA mutation and the development of the tumour has not been made, the presence of a mtDNA mutation might prove significant in the detection of tumour recurrence and possibly in the detection of genotoxic damage. (Wardell, T. M. et al. Changes in the human mitochondrial genome after treatment of malignant disease. Mutat. Res. 2003;525:19–27.)
  27. 27. Methods of Diagnosis • The complex inheritance patterns and clinical heterogeneity of mitochondrial diseases often result in incorrect or delayed diagnosis of the affected individuals. • A detailed clinical history and examination in conjunction with experienced interpretation of a battery of complex laboratory results is often required to make an accurate diagnosis. • A detailed family history is essential in detecting a maternal line of inheritance.
  28. 28. Methods of Diagnosis Noninvasive screening tests • An electrocardiogram or echocardiogram may demonstrate cardiomyopathy and cardiac conduction defects, the most common cardiac features of mitochondrial disorders. • Ophthalmologic examination may disclose the presence of retinal pigmentary abnormalities or optic atrophy. An electroretinogram (ERG) may be indicated.
  29. 29. Methods of Diagnosis Biochemical studies • Several laboratory studies such as serum lactate, pyruvate, plasma amino acids, complete blood count, electrolytes, carnitine, acylcarnitine profile, ammonia, and creatine phosphokinase (CPK). • There is no one specific screening test. • Elevated lactate is suggestive, but not specific, for mitochondrial disorders. • CSF lactate may be elevated. • The lactate to pyruvate ratio is as important as each component individually, such that a ratio of greater than 20 is suggestive of defect of OXPHOS, whereas a ratio of less than 20 suggests a defect in the Krebs cycle. • Serum CPK values are usually normal in mitochondrial disorders except in mitochondrial depletion
  30. 30. Methods of Diagnosis Electrophysiologic studies • Electroencephalogram (EEG) results may be normal, show evidence of seizures, or show generalized slow waves consistent with an encephalopathy. • The finding of polyspike and wave discharges may be seen in patients with MELAS and MERRF. • Some patients may have evidence of myopathy on EMG. • On nerve conduction study evidence of a sensorimotor or axonal neuropathy may be demonstrated.
  31. 31. Methods of Diagnosis Brain magnetic resonance imaging • Magnetic resonance imaging and spectroscopy are important tools in the diagnosis of mitochondrial disorder. • Brain atrophy is common in children with mitochondrial disease. • Basal ganglia calcification are common in KSS and MELAS. • Diffuse signal abnormalities of the white matter are characteristic of KSS and myoneurogastrointestinal encephalopathy (MNGIE).
  32. 32. Methods of Diagnosis Brain magnetic resonance imaging and spectroscopy • The diagnosis of MELAS can be aided by the clinical association of stroke-like episodes with radiological lesions that do not conform to the anatomical territories of blood vessels and predominantly involve cortical gray matter. • The initial or predominant lesions in MELAS are characteristically in the parietaloccipital region. • Leigh syndrome characteristically shows bilateral hyperintense signals on T2weighted and fluid-attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR) MRIs in the putamen, globus pallidus and thalamus. • MRS often detects lactate accumulation in the CSF and in specific areas of the brain.
  33. 33. Methods of Diagnosis Muscle biopsy • Muscle biopsy is often diagnostic, although patients with mitochondrial myopathy due to mtDNA mutations and those with LHON may have normal biopsies. • The hallmark of mitochondrial dysfunction is abnormal mitochondrial proliferation, seen as Ragged Red Fiber (RRF) with modified Gomori trichrome staining. • These fibers also stain strongly for succinate dehydrogenase (SDH, ragged blue fibers), and negatively for cytochrome oxidase (COX).
  34. 34. Methods of Diagnosis Muscle biopsy • These fibers represent the accumulation of mitochondria in response to a defect in OXPHOS. • The COX staining reaction can show foci of scattered cytochrome-coxidase–negative fibers that may correspond to RRFs. This is suggestive of impaired mitochondrial protein synthesis.
  35. 35. Methods of Diagnosis Muscle biopsy • Biochemical analysis of respiratory chain enzymes can be performed in lymphocytes, cultured skin fibroblasts, or muscle biopsies. • Fresh muscle allows for the isolation of intact mitochondria that can be used for polarographic analysis. • Electron microscopy is used to some degree in the diagnosis of mitochondrial myopathies. • Ultrastructural analysis with electron microscopy may reveal intramitochondrial paracrystalline inclusions or disrupted cristae.
  36. 36. Methods of Diagnosis Mitochondrial DNA analysis • Genetic analysis is needed for genetic counseling. • If the patient fits a specific phenotype (ie LHON, MERRF, MELAS) a blood / muscle test for a point mutation may be positive. • Mitochondrial DNA length mutations (common deletion) are best detected by Southern blot analysis in total mtDNA extracts from blood lymphocytes. • In some patients the studies are negative, despite high clinical suspicion.
  37. 37. General Principles of Treatment Treat Underlying Neurologic Issues • Seizures (antiepileptic drugs, avoid valproic acid). • Spasticity (baclofen, botulinum toxin [focal]; avoid dantrolene if liver is involved). • Dystonia (diazepam, botulinum toxin [focal], trihexyphenidyl). • Headache (acute: nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and acetaminophen; avoid aspirin and triptans in MELAS, chronic: amitriptyline, calcium blockers, riboflavin, coenzyme Q10, -lipoic acid).
  38. 38. General Principles of Treatment Identify and Treat Nutritional Deficiencies • Growth curves are imperative to identify suboptimal nutrition. • Identify and treat deficiencies in vitamins (vitamins A, B12, E, D, folate for red blood cells), minerals (iron, zinc, selenium, calcium, magnesium), and protein calorie (albumin, prealbumin). • If children fall off growth curves and show signs or symptoms of undernutrition and do not respond to a nutritionist‘s suggestions, consider a feeding tube (also helpful for medications and mitochondrial cocktail).
  39. 39. General Principles of Treatment Avoid Metabolic Stressors • Extremes of heat and cold are not well tolerated. Fever should be treated with acetaminophen (10 mg/kg every 4 hours to 15 mg/kg every 4 hours). Shivering is metabolically expensive and should be avoided. • Patients should avoid unaccustomed strenuous exercise. They should not exercise in the fasted state or with a concomitant illness. • Avoid prolonged (greater than 12 hours) fasting.