Homework from last class: <ul><li>Complete Section Review 26-1 questions 1-5 (p. 560) </li></ul><ul><li>Complete Introduct...
Section Review 26-1 (p. 560): <ul><li>What is an animal? Why is it important to study animals? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>An an...
Section Review 26-1 (p. 560): <ul><li>2)  List seven essential functions in animals. Define these functions in your own wo...
Section Review 26-1 (p. 560): <ul><li>3)  Compare two different kinds of symmetry found in the animal kingdom. </li></ul>R...
Section Review 26-1 (p. 560): <ul><li>4)  Describe three basic trends in animal evolution. </li></ul><ul><li>1) The level ...
Section Review 26-1 (p. 560): <ul><li>5)  Why are specialized cells necessary in multicellular  animals? </li></ul><ul><li...
Warm-up activity! Name that symmetry!
Answer: Radial
Answer: Bilateral
Answer: Bilateral
Answer: Bilateral
Answer: Bilateral
Answer: Radial
Answer: Radial
Answer: Asymmetry! Sea sponge Asymmetry  – non-symmetrical
Note: Terms in  green  are definitions  –  these are key terms to know Terms in  blue  are important words or concepts  - ...
<ul><li>Biology fun fact of the day: </li></ul><ul><li>Within a sponge,  </li></ul><ul><li>it is possible to </li></ul><ul...
 
Phylum Porifera: Sponges Chapter 26: Sponges, Cnidarians, and Unsegmented Worms pp. 560-563
Introduction to Sponges <ul><li>Diversity of species ~ 8000 species </li></ul><ul><li>Phylum Porifera  </li></ul><ul><ul><...
Introduction to Sponges <ul><li>Sponges were once thought to be plants because they are sessile, but they are  multicellul...
Form and Function in Sponges <ul><li>Sponges  do not have true systems  but the following structures fulfill the sponge’s ...
Form and Function in Sponges <ul><li>4 Cell Types: </li></ul><ul><li>Epidermal cells  – flat cells form outer covering (re...
<ul><li>4)  Amoebocytes  – amoeba-like cells that crawl around the jellylike inner layer (using pseudopodia) and deliver f...
<ul><ul><li>Amebocytes  make thin, spiny spicules from either chalklike  calcium carbonate (CaCO 3 )  or  glasslike silica...
<ul><li>Osculum  – water exits out of this hole </li></ul>
<ul><li>Sponges are  filter feeders  – they sift microscopic food particles from the water that passes through them </li><...
<ul><li>The water flowing through a sponge serves as its  respiratory ,  excretory , and  circulatory  system. </li></ul>S...
Reproduction <ul><li>Sponges use the  “broadcast method”  of reproduction </li></ul><ul><li>1) Sexual reproduction  – spon...
Reproduction <ul><li>2) Asexual reproduction </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Budding  – small growth falls off of sponge and grows a...
Ecology of Sponges <ul><li>Sponges often  live in dark places </li></ul><ul><li>Sponges  provide shelter and food for othe...
Ecology of Sponges <ul><li>Uses of Sponges: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Bath sponges! </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Loofahs </li></...
Activity Time!
Activity: Phylum Porifera Worksheet <ul><li>Directions: </li></ul><ul><li>Get into groups of 4 (5 max). </li></ul><ul><li>...
Activity: Phylum Porifera Worksheet Directions: Once you have finished filling in the worksheet, begin colouring the spong...
Activity: Phylum Porifera Worksheet <ul><li>Directions: </li></ul><ul><li>Fully  label the sponge diagram . </li></ul><ul>...
Homework for next class: <ul><li>Complete Section Review 26-2 questions 1-3 (p. 563) </li></ul><ul><li>Fill in and colour ...
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Biol 11 Lesson 2 Feb 3 - Ch 26 Phylum Porifera (Sponges)

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Biology 11
Animal Biology unit - Invertebrates
Miller, K.R. & Levine, J. (2000). Biology (5th ed.). New Jersey: Prentice Hall.
Ch. 26: Sponges, Cnidarians, and Unsegmented Worms
pp. 560-563.

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Biol 11 Lesson 2 Feb 3 - Ch 26 Phylum Porifera (Sponges)

  1. 1. Homework from last class: <ul><li>Complete Section Review 26-1 questions 1-5 (p. 560) </li></ul><ul><li>Complete Introduction to the Animal Kingdom: Concept map (if not already finished in class) </li></ul><ul><li>Read over class notes and check out the class blog: </li></ul><ul><li>http://msoonscience.blogspot.com/ </li></ul><ul><li>Return Field Trip form by Feb. 7 – Vancouver Aquarium! </li></ul><ul><li>Bring pencil crayons to class for the upcoming Animal Biology unit - lots of colouring ahead!  </li></ul>
  2. 2. Section Review 26-1 (p. 560): <ul><li>What is an animal? Why is it important to study animals? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>An animal is a multicellular eukaryotic ingestive heterotroph whose cells lack cell walls. </li></ul></ul>
  3. 3. Section Review 26-1 (p. 560): <ul><li>2) List seven essential functions in animals. Define these functions in your own words. </li></ul><ul><li>Feeding: eating food </li></ul><ul><li>Respiration: taking in O 2 and giving off CO 2 through cellular metabolism </li></ul><ul><li>Internal transport: carrying substances from one part of the body to another </li></ul><ul><li>Excretion: eliminating metabolic wastes </li></ul><ul><li>Response: reacting to environmental stimuli </li></ul><ul><li>Movement: changing the position or orientation of body parts or of the entire body </li></ul><ul><li>Reproduction: producing offspring </li></ul>
  4. 4. Section Review 26-1 (p. 560): <ul><li>3) Compare two different kinds of symmetry found in the animal kingdom. </li></ul>Radial symmetry: body parts repeat around an imaginary line drawn through the centre of the body. Bilateral symmetry: body parts repeat on either side of an imaginary line drawn down the centre of the body.
  5. 5. Section Review 26-1 (p. 560): <ul><li>4) Describe three basic trends in animal evolution. </li></ul><ul><li>1) The level of organization becomes higher as animals become more complex; functions are carried out on the level of organs and organ systems rather than that of cells and tissues. </li></ul><ul><li>2) Most complex animals exhibit bilateral symmetry, whereas some of the most simple animals exhibit radial symmetry. </li></ul><ul><li>3) Cephalization tends to improve as animals become more complex; the brain and anterior sense organs are generally most highly developed in more complex animals. </li></ul>
  6. 6. Section Review 26-1 (p. 560): <ul><li>5) Why are specialized cells necessary in multicellular animals? </li></ul><ul><li>Specialized cells can carry out specific functions more efficiently than non-specialized cells. </li></ul>
  7. 7. Warm-up activity! Name that symmetry!
  8. 8. Answer: Radial
  9. 9. Answer: Bilateral
  10. 10. Answer: Bilateral
  11. 11. Answer: Bilateral
  12. 12. Answer: Bilateral
  13. 13. Answer: Radial
  14. 14. Answer: Radial
  15. 15. Answer: Asymmetry! Sea sponge Asymmetry – non-symmetrical
  16. 16. Note: Terms in green are definitions – these are key terms to know Terms in blue are important words or concepts - please make note
  17. 17. <ul><li>Biology fun fact of the day: </li></ul><ul><li>Within a sponge, </li></ul><ul><li>it is possible to </li></ul><ul><li>find 16,000 other </li></ul><ul><li>animals! </li></ul>
  18. 19. Phylum Porifera: Sponges Chapter 26: Sponges, Cnidarians, and Unsegmented Worms pp. 560-563
  19. 20. Introduction to Sponges <ul><li>Diversity of species ~ 8000 species </li></ul><ul><li>Phylum Porifera </li></ul><ul><ul><li>From Greek ‘poros’ meaning ‘passage’ or ‘pore’ </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sponges have tiny openings all over their body  “pore-bearers” </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Most ancient and primitive of all animals </li></ul><ul><li>Most sponges are marine , some live in freshwater </li></ul>
  20. 21. Introduction to Sponges <ul><li>Sponges were once thought to be plants because they are sessile, but they are multicellular animals </li></ul><ul><li>Sponges are different from other animals: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>*do not have a mouth or digestive tract (gut)* </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>*no true tissue layers (endoderm, ectoderm, mesoderm) or organ systems* </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Biologists think that sponges evolved from single-celled ancestors separately from all other animals </li></ul><ul><li>The evolutionary line that gave rise to sponges was a dead end  produced no other living groups </li></ul>
  21. 22. Form and Function in Sponges <ul><li>Sponges do not have true systems but the following structures fulfill the sponge’s needs: (next slide) </li></ul>
  22. 23. Form and Function in Sponges <ul><li>4 Cell Types: </li></ul><ul><li>Epidermal cells – flat cells form outer covering (respiration and excretion) </li></ul><ul><li>Pore cells – water and other substances enter through these cylindrical cells </li></ul><ul><li>Collar cells – make up inner cell layer </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Have collar of microvilli </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Have a flagellum  they wave these to maintain a steady current that draws water in through pores </li></ul></ul>Amoebocyte Pore cell Collar cell Epidermal cell 1 2 3 4
  23. 24. <ul><li>4) Amoebocytes – amoeba-like cells that crawl around the jellylike inner layer (using pseudopodia) and deliver food and O 2 to other cells </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Amoebocytes absorb nutrients and remove wastes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Amoebocytes make spicules  create sponge skeleton </li></ul></ul>
  24. 25. <ul><ul><li>Amebocytes make thin, spiny spicules from either chalklike calcium carbonate (CaCO 3 ) or glasslike silica (SiO 2 ) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>These spicules form the delicate skeleton of the sponge </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Softer sponges (e.g. natural bath sponges) consist of fibers of a protein called spongin (more flexible than spicules) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Some sponge skeletons are made up of both spongin and spicules </li></ul></ul>
  25. 26. <ul><li>Osculum – water exits out of this hole </li></ul>
  26. 27. <ul><li>Sponges are filter feeders – they sift microscopic food particles from the water that passes through them </li></ul>Food particles in water stick to… Collar cells Food particles engulfed by the collar cells (endocytosis) Food particles passed on to the amoebocytes Food particles digested Food particles digested Amoebocytes deliver digested food to other parts of the sponge *All digestion in sponges is intracellular (takes place inside cells) 1 2
  27. 28. <ul><li>The water flowing through a sponge serves as its respiratory , excretory , and circulatory system. </li></ul>Sponge cells Remove O 2 from water Give off CO 2 and metabolic wastes <ul><li>Sponges pump </li></ul><ul><li>a huge amount of water through their bodies </li></ul><ul><li>Osculum – water exits out of this hole </li></ul>
  28. 29. Reproduction <ul><li>Sponges use the “broadcast method” of reproduction </li></ul><ul><li>1) Sexual reproduction – sponges are hermaphrodites (have both male and female reproductive parts) </li></ul><ul><li>Fertilization occurs inside sponge B (amoebocyte carries sperm to egg) </li></ul><ul><li>Flagellated larvae develop and leave by the osculum  drift off and settle elsewhere </li></ul>Sperm released from collar cells in sponge A Sperm enters pores of sponge B Sponge A water currents Sponge B
  29. 30. Reproduction <ul><li>2) Asexual reproduction </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Budding – small growth falls off of sponge and grows a new sponge </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Gemmules - sphere-shaped collections of amoebocytes surrounded by spicules  leave sponge, settle, and wait for improved conditions </li></ul></ul>
  30. 31. Ecology of Sponges <ul><li>Sponges often live in dark places </li></ul><ul><li>Sponges provide shelter and food for other organisms </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Remember the Biology Fun Fact of the Day? </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Certain sponges are involved in symbiotic relationships with bacteria </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The bacteria provide food and O 2 to the sponge and remove wastes </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Some sponges clean up the ocean floor </li></ul><ul><li>Many produce nasty-tasting/toxic chemicals to discourage munching </li></ul>
  31. 32. Ecology of Sponges <ul><li>Uses of Sponges: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Bath sponges! </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Loofahs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Antiviral chemicals, antibacterial chemicals </li></ul></ul>
  32. 33. Activity Time!
  33. 34. Activity: Phylum Porifera Worksheet <ul><li>Directions: </li></ul><ul><li>Get into groups of 4 (5 max). </li></ul><ul><li>Split into pairs A and B. </li></ul><ul><li>Pair A will work on page 1 of the handout, Pair B will work on page 2 of the handout. </li></ul><ul><li>Work with your partner to complete your page of the worksheet. </li></ul><ul><li>When both pairs have completed their page of the worksheet, each pair will teach their page to other pair. </li></ul><ul><ul><li> Pair A teaches Pair B page 1 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li> Pair B teaches Pair A page 2 </li></ul></ul>
  34. 35. Activity: Phylum Porifera Worksheet Directions: Once you have finished filling in the worksheet, begin colouring the sponge diagram according to the colour coding system listed on your Animalia Outline handout. Feeding (digestive system) = blue Respiration (respiratory system) = brown Internal transport (circulatory system) = red Excretion (excretory system) = green Response (nervous system) = orange Movement (musculoskeletal system) = grey Reproduction (reproductive system) = yellow
  35. 36. Activity: Phylum Porifera Worksheet <ul><li>Directions: </li></ul><ul><li>Fully label the sponge diagram . </li></ul><ul><li>Colour the diagrams with pencil crayon . </li></ul><ul><li>In simpler organisms such as sponges, some structures may belong to more than one system—if this is the case, use stripes of colour . </li></ul>
  36. 37. Homework for next class: <ul><li>Complete Section Review 26-2 questions 1-3 (p. 563) </li></ul><ul><li>Fill in and colour the sponge diagram worksheet </li></ul><ul><li>Read over class notes and check out the class blog: </li></ul><ul><li>http://msoonscience.blogspot.com/ </li></ul><ul><li>Study for Quiz on Phylum Porifera next class! </li></ul><ul><li>Return Field Trip form by Feb. 7 – Vancouver Aquarium! </li></ul><ul><li>Bring pencil crayons to class for all the colouring ahead!  </li></ul>

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