Sci 10 Lesson 3 April 18 - Transfer of Energy in the Earth's Atmosphere (1)


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Sci 10 Lesson 3 April 18 - Transfer of Energy in the Earth's Atmosphere (1)

  1. 1. Homework from last class: <ul><li>Complete “Thermal energy, kinetic energy, and potential energy” worksheet (p. 181 in BC Science 10 workbook) </li></ul><ul><li>Complete “Thermal energy transfer” worksheet </li></ul><ul><li>(p. 182 in BC Science 10 workbook) </li></ul><ul><li>Read over class notes and check out the class blog: </li></ul>
  2. 2. The Earth’s Atmosphere Chapter 10.2 pp. 436-443
  3. 3. Reveal Earth’s Atmosphere <ul><li> </li></ul>
  4. 4. Note: <ul><li>Terms in green are definitions </li></ul><ul><li>– these are key terms to know </li></ul><ul><li>Terms in blue are important words or concepts </li></ul><ul><li> – please make note </li></ul>
  5. 5. <ul><li>What is an atmosphere? </li></ul><ul><li>Atmosphere: layers of gases that extend above a planet </li></ul>Energy Transfer in the Atmosphere p. 436 <ul><li>The Earth’s atmosphere is a key factor in allowing life to survive on the planet. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The narrow band of air of the atmosphere has the right ingredients and maintains the correct temperature, to allow life to form and survive. </li></ul></ul>
  6. 6. <ul><ul><li>The Earth’s atmosphere originally contained no oxygen and consisted of gases released from volcanic eruptions. </li></ul></ul>Origin of the Earth’s Atmosphere p. 437 <ul><ul><ul><li>Scientists think that oxygen first came from the breakdown of water by sunlight, then later from photosynthesis by micro-organisms and plants. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Eventually, the balance of CO 2 to O 2 stabilized </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The atmosphere likely contained > 50% water vapour, carbon dioxide gas, sulfur-containing gas, and hydrogen gas </li></ul></ul>
  7. 7. What is air? <ul><ul><li>Air: a combination of gases in the lower atmosphere, near the Earth’s surface. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Air = 99% nitrogen and oxygen </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The remaining 1% consists mostly of argon gas and carbon dioxide gas </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The density of the atmosphere decreases with altitude . </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Example: If you climb a mountain, the air becomes thinner the higher you climb  hard to breathe in enough O 2 </li></ul></ul>p. 437 The composition of Earth’s atmosphere
  8. 8. The Layers of the Atmosphere <ul><li>The Earth’s atmosphere is made up of 5 layers . </li></ul><ul><li>1) Troposphere: the lowest layer of the Earth’s atmosphere, </li></ul><ul><li>8 km to 16 km thick </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Highest density layer (all other layers compress it). </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Almost all water vapour found in troposphere  location of weather </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Solar energy and thermal energy from Earth keep air moving </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>p. 438 Temperature range: +15ºC at the bottom to –55ºC at the top
  9. 9. Bill Nye the Science Guy - Atmosphere <ul><li> </li></ul>
  10. 10. The Layers of the Atmosphere <ul><ul><li>2) Stratosphere: the second layer, above the troposphere </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>10 km to 50 km above Earth, warming from –55ºC as altitude increases </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The air is cold, dry, and clean in the stratosphere. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Strong, steady winds  planes often fly at the bottom of the stratosphere to avoid turbulent convection currents in the troposphere. </li></ul></ul></ul>p. 438-439 <ul><ul><ul><li>Ozone layer: </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>located in the stratosphere; blocks harmful UV radiation from the sun. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  11. 11. The Upper Atmosphere <ul><ul><li>3) Mesosphere: 50 km to 80 km above Earth </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Temperatures are as low as –100ºC </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>This layer is where space debris burns up when it begins to hit particles. (ex: meteors) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>4) Thermosphere: 80 km to 500 km above Earth </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Temperatures can reach +1500ºC to +3000ºC </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Location of the Northern Lights ( aurora borealis ) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li> charged particles in Earth’s magnetic field collide with particles in the thermosphere. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>5) Exosphere: 500 km to 700 km above Earth where the atmosphere merges with outer space. </li></ul></ul>The layers of Earth’s atmosphere p. 439
  12. 12. <ul><li>Almost all of the thermal energy on Earth comes from the Sun. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>This is only a small fraction of the solar radiation that reaches Earth. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Most thermal energy is transferred near the equator, which receives a more direct source of solar radiation. </li></ul></ul>Radiation and Conduction in the Atmosphere pp. 440 - 441 Angle of incidence <ul><ul><li>Insolation: amount of solar radiation an area receives, measured in W/m 2 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Insolation decreases if there are particles of matter (dust, smoke) in the way or if the angle of incidence of the solar radiation is too great. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  13. 13. <ul><li>Solar radiation does not heat the atmosphere directly. </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The Earth’s surface absorbs solar radiation, heats up, then </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>radiates the thermal energy into the atmosphere. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>This provides 70 percent of the air’s thermal energy. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Convection currents in the air spread the thermal energy around. </li></ul></ul></ul>pp. 440 - 441
  14. 14. The Radiation Budget and Albedo <ul><li>Radiation budget: Earth’s balance of incoming and outgoing energy </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Earth’s radiation budget = heat gained – heat lost </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Incoming short-wave solar radiation is reflected and absorbed to various degrees (see p. 441) </li></ul></ul>pp. 441-442
  15. 15. The Radiation Budget and Albedo <ul><li>Albedo: refers to the amount of energy reflected by a surface. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Light-coloured surfaces (snow, sand) have a high albedo and reflect energy. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Dark-coloured surfaces (soil, water) have a low albedo and absorb energy. </li></ul></ul>p. 442
  16. 16. Homework for next class: <ul><li>Complete “Layers of the Atmosphere” worksheet </li></ul><ul><li>Complete the Reading Check questions 1-5 on p. 443 </li></ul><ul><li>Read over class notes and check out the class blog: </li></ul>
  17. 17. Works Cited <ul><li>Images taken from the following sources: </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul>