Outline of NT Survey• 21 Feb – Intro to the New Testament• 28 Feb – Intro to the Synoptic Gospels• 6 Mar – Intro to Acts & Other Writings• 13 Mar – Intro to the Letters of Paul• 20 Mar – Intro to the Writings of John
Reading Requirements• Read the Entire NT according to the schedule. – Read Matthew, Mark, & Luke before Feb 28. – Acts, 1&2 Peter, Hebrews, Jude, & James before March 6 – Romans, 1&2 Corinthians, Galatians, Ephesians, Philippians, Colossi ans, 1&2 Thessalonians, 1&2 Timothy, Titus, & Philemon before March 13. – Read the Gospel of John, 1,2,3 John, & the Revelation of John before March 20.
Ngayon• NT Defined• Dating• Formation of the Canon• Quiz• Authors of the NT• Overview of the NT
Definition of NT• New Testament - the collection of books of the Gospels, Acts of the Apostles, the Pauline and other epistles, and Revelation; composed soon after Christs death; the 2nd half of the Christian Bible
Bakit may BagongTipan?Why is there a New Testament?
Book Date (A.D. ) James 45-49 Galatians 49 1 & 2 Thessalonians 51 Mark 50s or 60sWhen Matthew 1 Corinthians 2 Corinthians 50s or 60s 55 56the NT Romans Luke 57-58 60 Acts 61books Colossians, Ephesians Philippians, Philemon 61 63were 1 Peter 1 Timothy 63-64 63-66 Titus 63-66written Hebrews 2 Peter 64-68 66 2 Timothy 67 Jude 68-80 John 85-90 1, 2, 3 John 85-90 Revelation 90-95
Canon of the NT• Greek (Phoenician?) – A rod or ruler for measuring objects• Tagalog – Tuntunin – Pamantayan• “A Standard.”
Christianitys Relationship w/ Judaism1. Reaffirmed its connection to Judaism – There is a list of sacred books2. Broke with Jewish past – The Jewish Scriptures are incomplete without NT..
Needs of Early Church Met by NT1. Standards for worship, models for prayers, liturgies, & sermons2. Reading material for public & private devotion3. A Theological Standard for … – Responding to criticism of non-Christians – Judging doctrinal disputes with other Christians4. A standardized text to translate as Christianity spread..
NT Evidence of CanonIyan ang isinulat sa inyo ng kapatidnating siPablo, taglay ang karunungangkaloob sa kanyang Diyos. Sa lahat ng sulat niya tungkol sapaksang ito, ganito ang laginiyangpaalala.Kayalang, ang ilangbahagi sa kanyang mgasulat ay mahirap unawain, at binibigyan ngmalingkahulugan ng mga mangmang atmagugulo ang pag-iisip. Ganyan din angkanilangginagawasa ibang mga Kasulatan …. -2Pe 3:15-16
History of Canon• Word first used in AD 367 by Athanasius, bishop of Alexandria (North Africa) Alexandria
144 – Marcion (d. 160)• Gospel of Luke (with no references to OT)• 10 Pauline Epistles
ca. 200 – Muratorian Canon• 4 Gospels In MC but NOT in NT• Acts • Wisdom of Solomon• Pauline Epistles to 7 churches • Apocalypse of Peter – 1-2 Corinthians; Ephesians; Philippians; Colossians; • 2 letters "against the heresy of Galatians; 1-2 Thessalonians; Marcion" Romans – Laodicea• Pauline Epistles to – Alexandria – Philemon; Titus; & 1-2 Timothy In NT but not in Muratorian• Jude Canon• 1-3 John – 1-2 Peter• Apocalypse of John – James (Revelation) – Hebrews
Origen (ca. 185-ca. 254)• All present 27 books – Some doubts about Hebrews, James, 2 Peter, 2 & 3 John, & Revelation
Athanasius & Synod of Carthage (397) Present 27 books• 4 Gospels • Philemon; Titus; & 1-2• Acts Timothy• 1-2 Co; Ephs; Phil; Col; Ga; • Jude 1-2 Th; Romans • 1-3 John • Apocalypse of John (Revelation) • 1-2 Peter • James • Hebrews.
Canon: The Key• The key to determining whether a book was to be included was apostolicity: A book came directly from … – A disciple of Christ; – Someone within the sphere of influence of an apostle; OR whether it – Expressed in a pure form the apostles message about Christ.
BRIEF BIOGRAPHY OF EACH NT AUTHOR Adapted from Craig A. Ledbetter, Overview of the New Testament: A Basic Survey of the Background&Teaching of the Entire New Testament, Student Edition (www.biblebc.com).
Matthew / MateoMathew, also known as Levi, was apublican or tax collector who waschosen by Jesus to be one of the twelveApostles. As a tax collector Matthewwould have been a literate person wellsuited to author one of the gospelrecords. Early church tradition creditsMatthew with the authorship of thegospel bearing his name.
John Mark / MarcosThis disciple is given credit by the earlychurch as the author of the Gospel bearinghis name. Mark was the Latin surname givento this young man whose Jewish name wasJohn. John Mark was cousin to Barnabas, aprominent figure in the early church. Marktravelled with his cousin Barnabas inministry & later in years ministered to theApostles Peter & Paul. Mark is not identifiedas one who walked with Jesus yet hisassociation with the Apostles qualifies himto produce a gospel record.
Luke / LucasThis man is credited with authoring the3rd Gospel & the book of Acts. Luke ismentioned 3 times in the NT. (Col 4:14;Phlm 24; 2Ti 4:11) & from thesepassages we learn that Luke was adoctor & a fellow worker of Paul whotravelled with Paul during his missionaryjourneys. Luke was an educated manwhose attention to historical detail is ofgreat value to us today.
John, the Son of Zebedee / JuanOne of the 12 apostles, John was afisherman & brother to one of the other12 apostles, James. John is the author ofthe 4thgospel, 3 epistles, & theRevelation. John was a close personalassociate of Jesus being referred to asthe "...disciple whom Jesus loved".Johns writings are of tremendous valueto the Christian church & account for abig part of the NT.
Simon Peter / 1,2 PedroPeter was one of the most prominent of thetwelve Apostles. He was also a fisherman &brother to another of the twelve whosname was Andrew. Peter was also referredto at times as Simeon (Acts 15:14) alongwith Cephas& Simon (John 1:43). Peter wasa part of Jesus group of disciples & remainsan important person throughout the earlychurch history. Peter is credited withauthoring the two Epistles which bear hisname & as being the likely source for MarksGospel.
Paul / SaulThe Apostle Paul, although not one of the original 12 Apostles, waschosen by Jesus to be an apostle & to go out to bring the gospel tothe non-Jewish people of his day. Paul was a Jew of respectableheritage & a ranking member of the strict Jewish sect of thePharisees. Paul was also a Roman citizen by birth which he used tohis advantage in times of persecution. His name before hisconversion was Saul & he was well known because he fiercelypersecuted the early Christians. After his miraculous conversion Paulwent on to live one of the most fruitful lives of service for thekingdom of God.Paul wrote some of his letters by himself, includingRomans, Ephesians, 1 & 2 Timothy, & Titus. However, he wrote mostof his letters with co-authors including Sosthenes (1Co 1:1; ) Timothy(2Co 1:2; Ph 1:1; Co 1:1; 1Th 1:1, 2Th 1:1), Silas, (1Th 1:1; 2Th 1:1).Other times Paul does not state his co-authors my name, but doesindicate that he had them (Ga 1:2).
James / SantiagoThe author of the epistle of James this manwas also a brother of Jesus (Ga 1:19). Jameswas not one of the 12 but was clearly aleader in the early church in Jerusalem (Ac12:17; Ga 1:19; 2:9). An important council inJerusalem chaired by James was responsiblefor deciding that it was not a requirementfor Gentiles to keep the ceremonial aspectsof the law of Moses (Ac 15:13,19). Jameswas one of those who saw Jesus after Herose from the dead (1Co 15:7).
Jude / JudasThe author of one epistle of only 25verses, Jude was also a brother ofJames & Jesus (Jude 1).His name in Greek would be Judashowever this is not the traitor ofJesus but the defender of the faithwhos epistle speaks out boldlyagainst the apostasy of his day.
????• No one knows who wrote Hebrews.• Profile: Well known, Jewish, Intellectual, knew OT well, not a companion of Jesus, not one who saw the risen Jesus• There are 3 theories as to who it might have been: 1. Paul 2. Barnabas 3. Apollos
? Writer of Hebrews ?1. Paul a) Common view before AD1500 b) Before it was “The Epistle of Paul to the Hebrews,” but no real agreement as to who wrote it. c) This is not a common belief today – 2:3 – “Ang Panginoon ang unangnagpahayag ng kaligtasang ito, at ang mga nakarinig sa kanya ang nagpatunay sa atin na itoytotoo.”
? Writer of Hebrews ?2. Barnabas a) Tertullian (AD 200) wrote about “an epistle to the Hebrews under the name of Barnabas.” b) Fits the profile of the writer – Jew (Ac 4:36), – Commissioned as missionary (Ac 13:1-4)
? Writer of Hebrews ?3. Apollos a) Suggested by Martin Luther. Most common today. b) Alexandrian Jewish Christian – Ac 18:24-28 – “Dumating sa Efeso ang isang JudiongnagngangalangApolos. Siyaytaga- Alejandria, mahusaymagtalumpati at maraming alam sa Banal na Kasulatan. Naturuansiyatungkol sa Daan ng Panginoon, at masigasig na nangangaral at nagtuturonangwastotungkolkay Jesus. Ngunit ang bautismo ni Juan lamang ang kanyang nalalaman. Siyaybuongtapang na nagsasalita sa sinagoga ng mga Judio. Nang marinig ng mag-asawang Aquila at Priscila ang pagpapaliwanag ni Apolos, siyayisinamanila sa kanilang bahay at dooypinaliwanagannangmabutitungkol sa mga bagay na hindi pa niya nalalamantungkol sa Daan ng Diyos. At nangipasyaniyangpumunta sa Acaya, sumulatsila sa mga kapatiddoon upang malugodnilangtanggapin si Apolos. Pagdatingdoon, malaki ang naitulong niya sa mga mananampalatayadahil sa kagandahang-loob ng Diyos, sapagkat walang magawa sa kanya ang mga Judio sa kanilangpagtatalo sa harap ng madla. Sa pamamagitan ng mga Kasulatan ay
Important• Many of the NT books don’t state who their author is. Others are under dispute among scholars. So what does it all mean for us?• 2Ti 3:16 – “Ang lahat ng Kasulatan ay kinasihan ng Diyos …”• Inspiration applies to what was written, not to who wrote it.
Overview of the New Testament Adapted from Tim McCoy, Overview of the New Testament (http://www.oaksbible.org/Contents/O verviewNewTestament.pdf)
4 GOSPELS (“Good News”) orLIFE STORIES OF JESUS CHRIST
Mateo• Attributed to the disciple, Matthew.• Jesus = KING & MESSIAH, the PROMISED Savior.• Written to the Jews.• Keys: – “kingdom” used 55 times; – “kingdom of heaven” used 35 times (unique to Matthew); – 29 OT references & 13 additional “this was written that it might be fulfilled . . .”
MateoOutline:• 5 Great Discourses – Chs 5-7 Sermon on the Mount – Ch 10 Apostle’s Commissioning – Ch 13 Parables of the Kingdom – Ch 18 Life in the Kingdom – Chs 24-25 Olivet Discourse (End of the Age) – Each identified by “when Jesus had finished …” (7:28; 11:1; 13:53; 19:1; 26:1)
Marcos• Attributed to John Mark, the young friend of Paul.• Jesus = SERVANT, the POWERFUL Savior.• Written to the the Romans.• Keys: – “and” is used 1375 times; – “immediately” used 40 times - a continual drama of action
Lucas• Attributed to Luke.• Jesus = SON OF MAN, the PERFECT Savior.• Written to the Greeks.• Keys: – unique details of humanity: birth, boyhood, praying, weeping, bleeding; – stories of humanity: prodigal, Samaritan, publican, Zacchaeus, thief; – poetic book: songs, prayers
Juan• Attributed to the disciple, John.• Jesus = SON OF GOD, the PERSONAL Savior.• Written to all who will believe.• Keys: – deity of Jesus; – “believe” 98 times, – “my Father” 35 times; – ministry in Judea; – omissions: no genealogy, birth, temptation, transfiguration, parables , ascension, commission
13 LETTERS WRITTEN BY PAUL or “PAULINE EPISTLES”
Mga Taga-Roma• Theme: The RIGHTEOUSNESS of God (1:16, 17)• Doctrinal / Practical Pivot: Ch 12:1, 2• Outline: – Chs 1 – 3:20 Who We Are By Nature – Ch 3:21-Ch 5: How to Become a Christian • Chs 6-8 How to Live the Christian Life – Chs 9-11 Why Israel Is Set Aside – Chs 12-16 How To Serve God
1 Mga Taga-Corinto• Theme: The LORDSHIP of Jesus Christ (1:31)• Outline: – Chs 1 –11 Corrections in Christian Conduct – Chs 12 – 16 Instructions in Christian Conduct • (12 – Gifts, 13 – Love, 14 – Languages, 15 – Resurrection)
Mga Taga-Galacia• Theme: FREEDOM in Christ (5:1).• Doctrinal / Practical Pivot: Ch 5:1• The Christian “Declaration of Independence.” Walk by the SPIRIT (5:16).• Outline: – Chs 1-2 Personal (Paul defends his life of grace) – Chs 3-4 Doctrinal (Freedom from the law) – Chs 5-6 Practical (Walking in the Spirit)
Mga Taga-Efeso• Theme: The BODY OF CHRIST.• Doctrinal / Practical Pivot: Ch 4:1• Important chapter: Ch 6 (armor of God in our battle with evil)• Outline: – Chs 1-4The Believer’s CALL – Chs 5-6The Believer’s WALK
Mga Taga-Filipos• Theme: Jesus, Our JOY (“joy” 16 times)• Doctrinal / Practical Pivot: 4:4• Outline: – Ch 1 Joy in Purposeful Living (1:21) – Ch 2 Joy in Humble Attitude (2:5) – Ch 3 Joy in Proper Goal (3:14) – Ch 4Joy in Dependence on Christ (4:13)
Mga Taga-Colosas• Theme: EXALTED in Christ – Christ the head of the body, our LIFE (hope of glory, complete in Him, fullness of deity)• Doctrinal / Practical Pivot: 3:1.• Outline: – Ch 1 The Deeper Life - rooted in His person (1:23) – Ch 2 The Higher Life - built up in Him (2:7) – Ch 3 The Inner Life - Christ richly within you (3:16) – Ch 4 The Outer Life - wisdom toward outsiders(4:5)
1 Mga Taga-Tesalonica• Theme: JESUS’ SOON RETURN Emphasis on His coming in the clouds.• Doctrinal / Practical Pivot: 4:1 Ch. 4:“Rapture”; Chap. 5:“Day of the Lord”• Outline: – Ch 1 – 3 Looking back: How they were saved – Ch 4 – 5 Looking forward: How they should live
2 Mga Taga-Tesalonica• Theme: JESUS COMING TO REIGN Emphasis on His coming to earth.• Doctrinal / Practical Pivot: 3:1 Ch. 2 – Tribulation: Apostasy & Antichrist• Outline: – Ch 1 Comfort – from the hope of Christ’s return – Ch 2 Caution – on the time of Christ’s return – Ch 3 Command – in the light of Christ’s return
1 Timoteo• Theme: SOUND DOCTRINE• Pastoral: Lessons in Leadership• Outline: – Ch 1 The GOAL & ATTITUDE of leadership – Ch 2 The PRIORITY & AUTHORITY of leadership – Ch 3 The QUALIFICATIONS of leadership – Ch 4 The DISCIPLINE of leadership – Ch 5 The WAGES of leadership – Ch 6 The RESPONSIBILITY of leadership
2 Timoteo• Theme: HANG IN THERE• Pastoral: Paul’s farewell letter (4:7)• Outline: – Ch 1 “Kindle afresh” your gift (1:6) – Ch 2 “Be strong” in the grace of Jesus (2:1) – Ch 3 “Difficult times will come” (3:1) – Ch 4 “Preach the Word” (4:1)
Tito• Theme: SOUND BEHAVIOR• Pastoral: Godliness or Good Deeds• Outline: – Ch 1 Godliness in the church – Ch 2 Godliness in the home – Ch 3 Godliness in the world
Filemon• Theme: FORGIVENESS• Personal: defending a believing, runaway slave
8 LETTERS WRITTEN BY OTHERAUTHORS or “GENERAL EPISTLES”
Mga Hebreo• Theme: A BETTER WAY• Probably not written by Paul. (Apollos?)• An important NT book linking the OT with the NT• Ch 11: FAITH• Outline: – Chs 1 - 4:13 The Superiority of the Person of Christ – Chs 4:13 – 10:18 The Superiority of the Priesthood of Christ – Chs 10:19 – 13 The Superiority of the Life in Christ
Santiago• Theme: PRACTICAL WISDOM Our behavior must match our belief• Written by James, the earthly brother of Jesus. A series of 54 commands.• Outline: – Ch 1Testings& Temptations – Ch 2 Faith without Works is Dead (2:17) – Ch 3 Control of the Tongue – Ch 4 The Source of Lust – Ch 5 Reacting to the Rich
1 Pedro• Theme: HOPE IN SUFFERING Written by Peter, the disciple.• Outline: – Ch 1 Hope & Holy (our living hope & be holy) – Ch 2 Grow & Government (grow in the Word; respect government) – Ch 3Wives & Witness (wives be submissive; be ready to witness) – Ch 4Stewards & Suffering (be a steward of your gift; suffer rightly) – Ch 5 Leaders & Lions (leader principles; Satan is like a lion)
2 Pedro• Theme: TRUTH IN FALSEHOOD Written by Peter, the disciple.• Outline: – Ch 1 True Knowledge & Inspiration of Scripture (1:20, 21) – Ch 2 Prophets & Peril (false prophets & peril to believers) – Ch 3 Mockers & Melting (scoffers & earth destroyed by fire)
1 Juan• Theme: THAT YOU MAY KNOW (5:13) Written by John, the disciple.• Outline: – Chs 1 – 2 God is LIGHT - 7 Action Tests of our Faith – Ch 3 Practicing Righteousness - Blending of our actions & belief – Chs 4 – 5 God is LOVE – 4 Belief Tests of our Faith
2 Juan• Theme: EMBRACE TRUTHPersonal: Written by John to “a chosen lady”
3 Juan• Theme: HOSPITALITY Personal: Written by disciple John to Gaius
Judas• Theme: CONTEND FOR THE FAITH Written by Jude – earthly brother of Jesus• Michael the archangel; details on Enoch, the 7th from Adam
Pahayag• Theme: UNVEILING OF THE END TIMES• Outline: – “A careful reading of the book of Revelation has made it clear that the book consists of 7 sections, and that these 7 sections run parallel to one another. Each of them spans the entire dispensation from the 1st to the 2nd coming of Christ. This period is viewed now from 1 aspect, now from another.” William Hendriksen – Chs 1-11 – The Struggle on Earth. The Church persecuted by the world. The Church is avenged, protected & victorious. • Chs 1-3 Christ in the 7 Lampstands • Chs 4-7 The book with the 7 Seals • Chs 8-11 The 7 Trumpets of Judgment – Chs 12-22 – The Deeper Spiritual Background. The Christ (& church) persecuted by the dragon (Satan) and his helpers. Christ & His Church are victorious. • Chs 12-14 The Woman & Child Persecuted by the Dragon et al. • Chs 15-16 The 7 Bowls of Wrath • Chs 17-19 The Fall of Babylon & the Beasts • Chs 20-22 The Judgment on the Dragon, New Heaven, Earth & Jerusalem