A Technical Seminar on                         1
• Anonymizing Peer-to-Peer(P2P) systems is essential to mask the  identities of the users for the privacy consideration.• ...
•   Fully utilizes the resource of the whole system.•   Peers are both clients and servers in an overlay network.•   There...
• Unstructured P2P systems are of 3 types:  Centralized  Decentralized  Hybrid
• Anonymity is the state of being indistinguishable from other  members of some group.• In terms of the computer community...
• Anonymous paths has to be pre-constructed.• Uses RSA algorithm.• Both the peer collection and content encryption introdu...
•   No need to collect public keys for pre-construct a “secured    path”.•   Changing delivery paths often.•   Eliminating...
• Rumor Riding is a lightweight and non-path-based mutual  anonymity protocol for P2P systems.• Rumor Riding includes five...
1. Rumor Generation and Recovery
sower sa                                      Responder       Initiator I               Flooding   Key rumorCipher rumor
sower sa                                                                Responder                                         ...
sower sc                                                               Responder                                          ...
sower sc                                                  Responder             Initiator I               sower sdData rum...
Multiple Rumor Riding•In RR, an initiator can issue multiple rumors in the query cycle. Thisscheme is denoted as (i, j)-RR...
Rumor TTL•The adaptive TTL determination of RR has two phases:       (a) setting initial TTL value.       (b) adaptively a...
1. Sower Distribution and Collision Rate•   P2P systems mainly utilize three communication patterns to    deliver messages...
1. Anonymity model   a) Anonymity set   b) Mutual information system
2. Attacks•Suppose network has m adversary nodes then probability of peer beingan adversary is m/n.        Collaborating a...
Collaborating attack Collaborating attack versus RR. (a) Collaborating attack. (b) Selective flooding of sowers.
1.Collision rate          To verify the theoretical results . we examine the distribution of   collision rate with real tr...
4.Number of sowers          Since each sower implements a selective flooding search for an   initiator, too many sowers wi...
•    Employing a random walk concept, RR issues key rumors and cipher    rumors separately, and expects that they meet in ...
REFERENCES[1] Rumor Riding: Anonymizing Unstructured Peer-to-Peer Systems Yunhao Liu, SeniorMember, IEEE, Jinsong Han, Mem...
Thank you…             32
Rumor riding
Rumor riding
Rumor riding
Rumor riding
Rumor riding
Rumor riding
Rumor riding
Rumor riding
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  • Let ’ s first take a look at what is the Peer-to-peer model. Peer to peer mode is aiming to fully utilize the resource of the whole system. basically, peer are both clients and servers, and build an overlay p2p network. Our research will focus on the unstructured P2P architecture. the peers in the unstructured p2p systems are interconnected in an adhoc way. The unstructured p2p systems can be divided into 3 categories: the centralized, decentralized and hybrid. Centralize unstructured p2p uses a central server to perform the query service. Each node uploads the resource list, and sends query to the server, the server give them the ip address of responders, and peer download the target from a desired responder. Single point failure Decentralize unstructured p2p get rid of central server. User can use a so `call route search and direct download machnism to retrieve the object. I will talk it later. Hybrid p2p systems combine these two models. Some super peer interconnect each other in a decentralized way, and a super node and a group of normal nodes connected in a centralized way. Thus, the hybrid model improves the system efficiency.
  • Rumor riding

    1. 1. A Technical Seminar on 1
    2. 2. • Anonymizing Peer-to-Peer(P2P) systems is essential to mask the identities of the users for the privacy consideration.• They are mainly of 2 types ─ Path based ─ Non-path based• Rumor Riding is an example for non-path –based mutual anonymity protocol for decentralized P2P systems.• RR uses the symmetric cryptographic algorithms. 2
    3. 3. • Fully utilizes the resource of the whole system.• Peers are both clients and servers in an overlay network.• There are mainly 2 types of P2P systems Structured P2P systems Unstructured P2P systems• In structured P2P networks, peers are organized following specific criteria and algorithms, which lead to overlays with specific topologies and properties.• Unstructured P2P networks do not impose any structure on the overlay networks. 3
    4. 4. • Unstructured P2P systems are of 3 types: Centralized Decentralized Hybrid
    5. 5. • Anonymity is the state of being indistinguishable from other members of some group.• In terms of the computer community, the anonymity requirement is especially important for those users who want to protect their personal, private, and sensitive information, such as the user name, ID, and IP address, during communication with others.• Not trying to protect content of message.• Anonymity can be ─ Path-based ─ Non-path-based
    6. 6. • Anonymous paths has to be pre-constructed.• Uses RSA algorithm.• Both the peer collection and content encryption introduce high costs.
    7. 7. • No need to collect public keys for pre-construct a “secured path”.• Changing delivery paths often.• Eliminating path maintenance overhead.• Used AES cryptographic algorithm.• Reduce cryptographic overhead for the Initiator, Responder and Middle nodes
    8. 8. • Rumor Riding is a lightweight and non-path-based mutual anonymity protocol for P2P systems.• Rumor Riding includes five major components: 1. Rumor Generation and Recovery. 2. Query Issuance. 3. Query Response. 4. Query Confirm. 5. File Delivery.
    9. 9. 1. Rumor Generation and Recovery
    10. 10. sower sa Responder Initiator I Flooding Key rumorCipher rumor
    11. 11. sower sa Responder IPsa Initiator I sower sb IPs Re bResponse cipher Response key rumor TCP Link rumor Reversed path of cipher rumor Reversed Path of key rumor
    12. 12. sower sc Responder sower sb Initiator IReversed path of response TCP Link Reversed path of response cipher rumor key rumor Confirm cipher Confirm key rumor rumor
    13. 13. sower sc Responder Initiator I sower sdData rumor TCP Link Data rumor
    14. 14. Multiple Rumor Riding•In RR, an initiator can issue multiple rumors in the query cycle. Thisscheme is denoted as (i, j)-RR, which issues i cipher rumors and j keyrumors.•Advantage of the multiple rumors is that RR can be more reliable asmore sowers can serve the query.
    15. 15. Rumor TTL•The adaptive TTL determination of RR has two phases: (a) setting initial TTL value. (b) adaptively adjusting TTL.Rumor Cache•Storage overhead is related to the speed of query generation.Ex: Each peer normally issues no more than 0.3 queries per minuteon average.•FIFO schemes are used to handle cache overflow.
    16. 16. 1. Sower Distribution and Collision Rate• P2P systems mainly utilize three communication patterns to deliver messages: flooding, random walk, and end-to-end delivery.• Collision distance may be defined as the number of hops present in the shortest path between the initiator and the sower.• If this collision distance is sufficiently large then receivers are randomly distributed in the network.
    17. 17. 1. Anonymity model a) Anonymity set b) Mutual information system
    18. 18. 2. Attacks•Suppose network has m adversary nodes then probability of peer beingan adversary is m/n. Collaborating attack Withstands attacks Timing attack Withstands attacks Traceback attack Withstands attack Predecessor attack Withstands attacks Traffic analysis attack Withstands attacks
    19. 19. Collaborating attack Collaborating attack versus RR. (a) Collaborating attack. (b) Selective flooding of sowers.
    20. 20. 1.Collision rate To verify the theoretical results . we examine the distribution of collision rate with real traces. Besides the verification, we also use the results to guide the selection of rumor parameters.2.Collision distance A longer collision distance often means a higher anonymity level, but also increases the delay of a query as well as the traffic overhead. On the other hand, the collision distance must be sufficiently large to guarantee sower diversity.3.Sower diversity The metric reflects the distribution of sower locations in the P2P systems. Evenly random distribution of sower location leads to a higher anonymity degree.
    21. 21. 4.Number of sowers Since each sower implements a selective flooding search for an initiator, too many sowers will incur a large number of replicated query messages, and too few sowers will result in failure on providing enough redundancy and reliability.5.Traffic overhead The amount of traffic overhead represents the comprehensive latency in data delivery and bandwidth6.Response time In P2P systems, it is defined as the time elapsed from when a query is issued to when the first response arrives.7.Crypto latency The overhead incurred by the main cryptographic algorithms
    22. 22. • Employing a random walk concept, RR issues key rumors and cipher rumors separately, and expects that they meet in some random peers.• Various attacks defended by RR is also considered.• This protocol can be even extended in other distributed systems, such as grid systems and ad-hoc networks.
    23. 23. REFERENCES[1] Rumor Riding: Anonymizing Unstructured Peer-to-Peer Systems Yunhao Liu, SeniorMember, IEEE, Jinsong Han, Member, IEEE, and Jilong Wang, Member, IEEE, VOL. 22,NO. 3, MARCH 2011.[2] Low-Cost and Reliable Mutual Anonymity Protocols in Peer-to-Peer Networks LiXiao, Member, IEEE, ZhichenXu, Member, IEEE, and Xiaodong Zhang, Senior Member,IEEE, VOL. 14, NO. 9, SEPTEMBER 2003.[3] Rumor Riding: A Protocol for Providing Anonymity Harish A, Veerapandian NInternational Journal of Soft Computing and Engineering (IJSCE) ISSN: 2231-2307,Volume-1, Issue-ETIC2011, January 2012.[4] JOURNAL OF COMPUTER SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY 23(4): 660{671 July 2008Survey on Anonymity in Unstructured Peer-to-Peer Systems Ren-Yi Xiao.[5] http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Peer-to-peer.
    24. 24. Thank you… 32

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