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Microservices for building an IDE
The innards of JetBrains Rider
Maarten Balliauw
@maartenballiauw
JetBrains Rider
demo
Rider
Cross-platform, full-stack .NET IDE
All languages, all frameworks
Even WinForms (on Windows)
Rider C++ in preview
Li...
History
JetBrains
Founded 2000 in Prague (Czech Republic)
2000 IntelliJ Renamer
2001 IntelliJ
2004 ReSharper
2020 20+ IDE’s and ot...
ReSharper IDE
Project was halted (but not gone to waste)
Keep functionality separate from the actual IDE
Same core, IDE in...
“When will JetBrains come
with its own .NET IDE?”
Why build a .NET IDE?
In 2017…
“When will JetBrains come with its own .NET IDE?”
ReSharper constrained by Visual Studio en...
Cross-platform...
...means a cross-platform UI toolkit is needed!
ReSharper UI built with WinForms and WPF
Existing ReShar...
IntelliJ Platform
Foundation of all of our IDE’s
Project view, code completion, UI toolkit
+ Platform plugins such as vers...
IntelliJ Platform + R# ?
IntelliJ Platform
Great foundation to build on
Windows, Linux, Mac
JVM
ReSharper (R#)
All of thos...
Options!
Rewrite R# in Java?
16 years of implementation and knowledge
Would bring 2 R# implementations... Automatic conver...
IntelliJ Platform + R# !
Headless R# as a language server
Cross-platform (.NET on Windows, .NET Core on macOS/Linux)
No co...
Both sides are an IDE...
Is IntelliJ IDEA really a thin UI? Three sorts of features...
IJ handles everything
R# handles al...
1 + 1 = 3
demo
How to make them talk?
Inter-process communication
Example: Context actions (Alt+Enter)
IntelliJ
Text editor, caret(s)
Alt+Enter key binding
“Language infrastructure” + C# f...
1. Bi-directional
User can be typing
A refactoring or completion may be injecting code at the same time
2. Can be implemen...
Data types aren’t that complex...
Context actions
A tree of id, name and icon nodes
Inspections
A set of name, icon, sever...
Which protocol do we use?
Re-use Language Server Protocol (LSP)?
Great in itself – IDE concepts like window, editor, langu...
Request-action-response
LSP and custom protocol are mostly request/response
Every call needs context (which solution, proj...
Model-View-ViewModel (MVVM)
IntelliJ is our view, ReSharper provides the model
Protocol is the ViewModel, sharing lightwei...
Conflict resolution...
Changes to data in shared model can come from IJ and R#
Can still cause conflicts due to features o...
Conflict conventions!
View + Model (or client: IntelliJ + server: ReSharper)
Each value stored in the view model has a ver...
Rider protocol
Obligatory diagram
Ideally, our developers do not have
to know the details of this.
Just create view models.
Rider protocol
“Reactive Distributed communication framework for .NET, Kotlin, JS, C++”
Open source - https://github.com/j...
Rider protocol
Only need to know about a few data types & create model
Conflict resolution, wire protocol, timeouts, ... h...
Primitives
Primitive Description
Signal Event that is fired when something happens
Property Observable value
List/set/map ...
Signal (event)
Producers/subscribers
Observable/observer
Using lifetime to manage subscription
// Produceevent
interfaceIS...
Property
Signal implementation
Lifetime to manage subscription
// Observableproperty
interfaceIProperty<T>: ISink<T> {
T V...
Hierarchical + lifetimes
Cleanup and resource management
Objects attach to lifetime
Lifetime destroys attached objects
Par...
Hierarchical + lifetimes
Solution
NuGethost
Project
Document
Inspections
PSI (Program StructureInterface)
Class
Field
Meth...
Rider protocol
demo
Rider protocol
Kotlin-based DSL - easy to work with for our developers
Update view model, generate code, work with generat...
Microservices
Two processes!
Isolation!
Each has their own 64 bit memory space
Also their own, separate GC
Multi-core machines
Start/sto...
Debugging? Four processes.
Rider (IntelliJ + ReSharper)
Debugger worker process
Your application
Multiple processes...
What if certain features were
running in their own process?
No need to run all the time
Own memory c...
Shared view model
Pass around a shared view model
to interested parties
Example: Roslyn analyzers/inspections
Pass around ...
Shared view model
Multiple machines
Socket-based wire protocol
Sockets can be on multiple machines
Example:
Docker debugging
Remote debugging
Unity game engine
www.unity3d.com
Extension to view model
Rider plugin
Unity editor plugin
https://github.com/JetBrains/re...
https://twitter.com/kskrygan/status/1064950644094705664
Future
Model the view as well
public CSharpInteractiveOptionsPage(Lifetime lifetime, ...)
: base(lifetime, ...) {
AddHeader("Tool...
Multiple machines
WPF on macOS/Linux
Rendering on Windows
Front-end on one machine,
back-end on another
...
Every IDE as both a client and server
Front-end and back-end: separate process & memory
Whatever happens in the backend, t...
Summary
Conclusion
Rider is an IDE built on
two IDE’s
two technology stacks
Rich and easy programming model was needed to bridge t...
Thank you!
https://blog.maartenballiauw.be
@maartenballiauw
Microservices for building an IDE - The innards of JetBrains Rider - NDC Oslo 2020
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Microservices for building an IDE - The innards of JetBrains Rider - NDC Oslo 2020

Ever wondered how IDE’s are built? In this talk, we’ll skip the marketing bit and dive into the architecture and implementation of JetBrains Rider. We’ll look at how and why we have built (and open sourced) a reactive protocol, and how the IDE uses a “microservices” architecture to communicate with the debugger, Roslyn, a WPF renderer and even other tools like Unity3D. We’ll explore how things are wired together, both in-process and across those microservices.

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Microservices for building an IDE - The innards of JetBrains Rider - NDC Oslo 2020

  1. 1. Microservices for building an IDE The innards of JetBrains Rider Maarten Balliauw @maartenballiauw
  2. 2. JetBrains Rider demo
  3. 3. Rider Cross-platform, full-stack .NET IDE All languages, all frameworks Even WinForms (on Windows) Rider C++ in preview Lightweight, fast & yet a full IDE! Built on IntelliJ IDEA and ReSharper Helps you be more productive as a developer Free trial! https://RiderIDE.net/maarten
  4. 4. History
  5. 5. JetBrains Founded 2000 in Prague (Czech Republic) 2000 IntelliJ Renamer 2001 IntelliJ 2004 ReSharper 2020 20+ IDE’s and other developer tools
  6. 6. ReSharper IDE Project was halted (but not gone to waste) Keep functionality separate from the actual IDE Same core, IDE interoperability layer on top Visual Studio 2010, 2013, 2015, 2017 and 2019 ReSharper command line tools (CLI) Several concepts and architecture remained
  7. 7. “When will JetBrains come with its own .NET IDE?”
  8. 8. Why build a .NET IDE? In 2017… “When will JetBrains come with its own .NET IDE?” ReSharper constrained by Visual Studio environment 32-bit process resource constraints Changes in VS impact ReSharper .NET Core No good and consistent cross-platform IDE
  9. 9. Cross-platform... ...means a cross-platform UI toolkit is needed! ReSharper UI built with WinForms and WPF Existing ReSharper UI would need converting WinForms? (Mono sort of has it) GTKSharp? Qt?
  10. 10. IntelliJ Platform Foundation of all of our IDE’s Project view, code completion, UI toolkit + Platform plugins such as version control, terminal, ... + JetBrains <product name> IDE plugins Open source (build your own IDE – e.g. Android Studio, Comma IDE & others) https://github.com/JetBrains/intellij-community Windows, Linux, Mac – already cross-platform thanks to JVM
  11. 11. IntelliJ Platform + R# ? IntelliJ Platform Great foundation to build on Windows, Linux, Mac JVM ReSharper (R#) All of those .NET inspections, refactorings, code generation, project model, ... .NET
  12. 12. Options! Rewrite R# in Java? 16 years of implementation and knowledge Would bring 2 R# implementations... Automatic conversion? Run R# as a command-line process Already possible (thanks, 2004!) “Just need our own UI on top”
  13. 13. IntelliJ Platform + R# ! Headless R# as a language server Cross-platform (.NET on Windows, .NET Core on macOS/Linux) No constraints It is ReSharper! 2 products, 1 code base IntelliJ as a thin UI Control the R# process
  14. 14. Both sides are an IDE... Is IntelliJ IDEA really a thin UI? Three sorts of features... IJ handles everything R# handles almost everything Both IDE’s make a more awesome IDE
  15. 15. 1 + 1 = 3 demo
  16. 16. How to make them talk? Inter-process communication
  17. 17. Example: Context actions (Alt+Enter) IntelliJ Text editor, caret(s) Alt+Enter key binding “Language infrastructure” + C# facade ReSharper C# language, inspections, actions IntelliJ Render actions, may add own entries Data: a tree of id, name and icon nodes
  18. 18. 1. Bi-directional User can be typing A refactoring or completion may be injecting code at the same time 2. Can be implemented with delta’s IntelliJ pushes delta to R# R# pushes delta to IntelliJ Can’t really do RPC (user experience would be bad) How to handle concurrency? Data: a delta (from line + column, to line + column, text to insert) Example: Writing code
  19. 19. Data types aren’t that complex... Context actions A tree of id, name and icon nodes Inspections A set of name, icon, severity, tooltip, text range Writing code Delta with from line + column, to line + column, text to insert Fairly simple messages! We can make this generic enough! e.g. make one inspection work  make them all work
  20. 20. Which protocol do we use? Re-use Language Server Protocol (LSP)? Great in itself – IDE concepts like window, editor, language, diagnostics, ... We would need customizations for R# feature set Or build a custom REST-like protocol? Experimented with JSON, ProtoBuf, request/response style
  21. 21. Request-action-response LSP and custom protocol are mostly request/response Every call needs context (which solution, project, file, location in code, ...) Realization: Why use this “request-action-response” flow? Why RPC? Both IDE’s share a similar model and architecture Messages are simple, but for RPC they would need context (which solution, which file, state info, ...) – overhead!
  22. 22. Model-View-ViewModel (MVVM) IntelliJ is our view, ReSharper provides the model Protocol is the ViewModel, sharing lightweight data Project.Files.Add("Foo.cs") Project.Files["Foo.cs"].Inspections.Add( "Possible null reference", "Warning", 20, 30, 20, 42); Both processes can react to such change (observable + observer)
  23. 23. Conflict resolution... Changes to data in shared model can come from IJ and R# Can still cause conflicts due to features or timing/GC issues IntelliJ: “I just deleted file foo.cs” R#: “I just refactored foo.cs” Solutions! Locking? (freezes, how to handle deadlocks?) Conventions!
  24. 24. Conflict conventions! View + Model (or client: IntelliJ + server: ReSharper) Each value stored in the view model has a version Updates by the view/client increment the version Updates by the model/server do not Only accept changes if version is the same or newer If not, the change is discarded
  25. 25. Rider protocol
  26. 26. Obligatory diagram Ideally, our developers do not have to know the details of this. Just create view models.
  27. 27. Rider protocol “Reactive Distributed communication framework for .NET, Kotlin, JS, C++” Open source - https://github.com/jetbrains/rd 1. Include protocol libraries and build tools on all sides 2. Write view model in special DSL 3. Generate code 4. Work with generated model .NET/Kotlin/JS/... code generator Model definition DSL Primitives Conflict resolution, serialization, ... Sockets, batching, binary wire protocol
  28. 28. Rider protocol Only need to know about a few data types & create model Conflict resolution, wire protocol, timeouts, ... handled by protocol Code generated based on the defined view model Bonus points: no reflection/introspection needed on every run Hierarchical + lifetimes
  29. 29. Primitives Primitive Description Signal Event that is fired when something happens Property Observable value List/set/map Observable collections Field Immutable value Call/callback RPC-style call, needed from time to time byte, short, int, long, float, double, char, boolean, string, securestring, void, enum, ... Primitives and special types Aggregatedef/classdef/structdef A node in the viewmodel
  30. 30. Signal (event) Producers/subscribers Observable/observer Using lifetime to manage subscription // Produceevent interfaceISource<T>{ voidFire(T value); } // Subscribetoevent interfaceISink<T> { voidAdvise(Lifetimel,Action<T> handler); } // Event interfaceISignal<T>:ISource<T>,ISink<T> { }
  31. 31. Property Signal implementation Lifetime to manage subscription // Observableproperty interfaceIProperty<T>: ISink<T> { T Value{ get;set;} voidAdvise(Lifetimel,Action<T> handler); voidView(Lifetime l,Action<Lifetime,T>handler); }
  32. 32. Hierarchical + lifetimes Cleanup and resource management Objects attach to lifetime Lifetime destroys attached objects Parent lifetime destroys children NuGet: JetBrains.Lifetimes publicclassLifetime: IDisposable{ privateStack<Action> resources = newStack<Action>(); publicvoidAttach(Actionresource){ resources.Push(resource); } publicvoidAttach(IDisposabledisposable){ resources.Push(disposable.Dispose); } publicvoidDispose(){ while(resources.Count> 0) { varresource= resources.Pop(); resource(); } } }
  33. 33. Hierarchical + lifetimes Solution NuGethost Project Document Inspections PSI (Program StructureInterface) Class Field Method Document Inspections ... Project Local history NuGettool window Project Editor tab Inspections Language Editor tab Inspections Language viewmodel(Riderprotocol)
  34. 34. Rider protocol demo
  35. 35. Rider protocol Kotlin-based DSL - easy to work with for our developers Update view model, generate code, work with generated code Find Usages, Navigation, ... work while crafting model No need to think about multiple processes, state, conflict resolution, ... Cross-language, cross-platform Plugin model for Rider is more complex (IJ and R# parts may be needed) https://github.com/JetBrains/fsharp-support https://github.com/JetBrains/resharper-unity https://github.com/JetBrains/azure-tools-for-intellij
  36. 36. Microservices
  37. 37. Two processes! Isolation! Each has their own 64 bit memory space Also their own, separate GC Multi-core machines Start/stop independently
  38. 38. Debugging? Four processes. Rider (IntelliJ + ReSharper) Debugger worker process Your application
  39. 39. Multiple processes... What if certain features were running in their own process? No need to run all the time Own memory constraints Start/stop/crash independently
  40. 40. Shared view model Pass around a shared view model to interested parties Example: Roslyn analyzers/inspections Pass around “reference” of [ { name, icon, severity, tooltip, text range } ]
  41. 41. Shared view model
  42. 42. Multiple machines Socket-based wire protocol Sockets can be on multiple machines Example: Docker debugging Remote debugging
  43. 43. Unity game engine www.unity3d.com Extension to view model Rider plugin Unity editor plugin https://github.com/JetBrains/resharper-unity https://twitter.com/kskrygan/status/1064950644094705664
  44. 44. https://twitter.com/kskrygan/status/1064950644094705664
  45. 45. Future
  46. 46. Model the view as well public CSharpInteractiveOptionsPage(Lifetime lifetime, ...) : base(lifetime, ...) { AddHeader("Tool settings"); AddToolPathFileChooserOption(lifetime, commonFileDialogs); AddEmptyLine(); AddStringOption((CSIOptions s) => s.ToolArguments, "Tool arguments:", "Additional tool arguments"); AddHeader("Tool window behavior"); AddBoolOption((CSIOptions s) => s.FocusOnOpenToolWindow, "Focus tool window on open"); AddBoolOption((CSIOptions s) => s.FocusOnSendLineText, "Focus tool window on Send Line"); AddBoolOption((CSIOptions s) => s.MoveCaretOnSendLineText, "Move caret down on Send Line"); // ... }
  47. 47. Multiple machines WPF on macOS/Linux Rendering on Windows Front-end on one machine, back-end on another ...
  48. 48. Every IDE as both a client and server Front-end and back-end: separate process & memory Whatever happens in the backend, the frontend can process the user's typing Bring this technology to other IDE’s? Reuse WebStorm's HTML/CSS/JS functionality in ReSharper (e.g. Visual Studio + R# using WebStorm in back-end mode)
  49. 49. Summary
  50. 50. Conclusion Rider is an IDE built on two IDE’s two technology stacks Rich and easy programming model was needed to bridge the two Protocol gave rise to more than two processes more than one machine micro UI Free trial! www.jetbrains.com/rider
  51. 51. Thank you! https://blog.maartenballiauw.be @maartenballiauw

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