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ConFoo Montreal - Microservices for building an IDE - The innards of JetBrains Rider

ConFoo Montreal - Microservices for building an IDE - The innards of JetBrains Rider

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Ever wondered how IDE’s are built? In this talk, we’ll skip the marketing bit and dive into the architecture and implementation of JetBrains Rider. We’ll look at how and why we have built (and open sourced) a reactive protocol, and how the IDE uses a “microservices” architecture to communicate with the debugger, Roslyn, a WPF renderer and even other tools like Unity3D. We’ll explore how things are wired together, both in-process and across those microservices. Let’s geek out!

Ever wondered how IDE’s are built? In this talk, we’ll skip the marketing bit and dive into the architecture and implementation of JetBrains Rider. We’ll look at how and why we have built (and open sourced) a reactive protocol, and how the IDE uses a “microservices” architecture to communicate with the debugger, Roslyn, a WPF renderer and even other tools like Unity3D. We’ll explore how things are wired together, both in-process and across those microservices. Let’s geek out!

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ConFoo Montreal - Microservices for building an IDE - The innards of JetBrains Rider

  1. 1. Microservices for building an IDE The innards of JetBrains Rider Maarten Balliauw @maartenballiauw
  2. 2. JetBrains Rider demo
  3. 3. Rider Cross-platform, full-stack .NET IDE C#, VB.NET, F#, JavaScript, TypeScript, HTML, TypeScript, … .NET full framework, .NET Core, Mono Lightweight, fast & yet a complete IDE! ReSharper built-in Helps you be more productive Editor, code assistance, navigation, refactoring Built in tools, e.g. NuGet, unit testing, DB tools, source control, REST client, … Tons of plugins! Free trial! www.jetbrains.com/rider
  4. 4. History
  5. 5. JetBrains Founded 2000 in Prague (Czech Republic) 2000 IntelliJ Renamer 2001 IntelliJ 2004 ReSharper 2019 20+ IDE’s and other developer tools
  6. 6. ReSharper IDE Project halted (but not gone to waste) Several concepts and architecture remained Keep functionality separate from the actual IDE Same core, IDE interoperability layer on top Visual Studio 2010, 2013, 2015 and 2017 ReSharper command line tools (CLI)
  7. 7. “When will JetBrains come with its own .NET IDE?”
  8. 8. Why build a .NET IDE? Many reasons! “When will JetBrains come with its own .NET IDE?” ReSharper constrained by Visual Studio environment 32 bit process resource constraints Changes in VS impact ReSharper .NET Core No good cross-platform IDE existed at the time
  9. 9. Hurdles... Cross-platform means a cross-platform UI toolkit is needed ReSharper UI elements in WinForms and WPF Existing ReSharper UI would need converting, new UI to be built WinForms? (Mono sort of has it) GTKSharp? Qt?
  10. 10. IntelliJ Platform Foundation of all of our IDE’s Provides base infrastructure Project view, code completion, UI toolkit + Platform plugins such as version control, terminal, ... + JetBrains <product name> IDE plugins Open source (build your own IDE – e.g. Android Studio & others) https://github.com/JetBrains/intellij-community Windows, Linux, Mac – cross-platform thanks to JVM
  11. 11. JVM and .NET? Rewrite R# in Java? 14 years of implementation and knowledge Would bring 2 R# implementations... Automatic conversion? Run R# as a command-line process? Already possible (thanks, 2004!) “Just need our own UI on top”  thin IntelliJ Platform UI process?
  12. 12. IntelliJ Platform + R# ! Headless R# as a language server Cross-platform (.NET / Mono) No constraints It is ReSharper! 2 products, 1 code base IntelliJ as a thin UI Control the R# process
  13. 13. We’re not there yet... Is IntelliJ really a thin UI? Three cases... Features where IJ handles everything Features where R# handles almost everything Features where both IDE’s make an awesomer IDE Both sides are an IDE!
  14. 14. 1 + 1 = 3 demo
  15. 15. How to make them talk? Inter-process communication
  16. 16. Example: Context actions (Alt+Enter) 1. IntelliJ provides text editor, caret(s) and lets us Alt+Enter 2. Ask current document’s language for items to display in Alt+Enter menu For C#, this language is a facade to the R# process 3. IntelliJ renders list of items, may add its own entries List of completion items can be a tree of names and icons.
  17. 17. 1. IntelliJ provides text editor and plumbing to display squiggles 2. IntelliJ notifies R# that a document was opened (or modified) 3. R# does its thing (analyze, inspect, summarize that data) 4. R# publishes this to IntelliJ 5. IntelliJ displays this info List of inspections can be a set of name, icon, severity, tooltip, text range Not RPC-style! Analysis can take any amount of time, so IJ should not wait for it. ~~~~~~ Example: Inspections and highlighting
  18. 18. 1. Bi-directional User can be typing A refactoring or completion may be injecting code at the same time 2. Can be implemented with delta’s IntelliJ pushes delta to R# R# pushes delta to IntelliJ Concurrency? Data is a delta (from line + column, to line + column, text to insert) Example: Writing code
  19. 19. Types of data Context actions A tree of names and icons Inspections A set of name, icon, severity, tooltip, text range Writing code Delta with from line + column, to line + column, text to insert Fairly simple messages! Can we make this generic enough? Make one inspection work  make them all work
  20. 20. Which protocol do we use? Re-use Language Server Protocol (LSP)? Great in itself – IDE concepts like window, editor, language, diagnostics, ... We would need customizations for R# feature set Or build a custom REST-like protocol? Experimented with JSON, ProtoBuf, request/response style
  21. 21. Model-View-ViewModel (MVVM) Realization: Why a “request-action-response” flow? Why RPC? Both IDE’s share a similar model and architecture Protocol could serve as the view model that shares lightweight data Project.Files.Add("Foo.cs") Project.Files["Foo.cs"].Inspections.Add( "Possible null reference", "Warning", 20, 30, 20, 42); Both processes can react to such change (observable + observer)
  22. 22. Conflict resolution... Changes to data in shared model can come from IJ and R# Can still cause conflicts due to features or timing/GC issues IntelliJ: “Deleted file foo.cs” R#: “I just refactored foo.cs”
  23. 23. Conflict resolution! View + Model (or client: IntelliJ + server: ReSharper) Each value stored in the view model has a version Updates by the view/client increment the version Updates by the model/server do not Only accept changes if version is the same or newer If not, the change is discarded
  24. 24. Rider protocol
  25. 25. Obligatory diagram Ideally, our developers do not have to know the details of this. Just create view models.
  26. 26. Rider protocol “Reactive Distributed communication framework for .net, kotlin, js” Open source - https://github.com/jetbrains/rd 1. Include protocol libraries and build tools on all sides 2. Write view model in special DSL 3. Generate code 4. Work with generated model .NET/Kotlin/JS/... code generator Model definition DSL Primitives Conflict resolution, serialization, ... Sockets, batching, binary wire protocol
  27. 27. Rider protocol Only need to know about a few primitives Conflict resolution, wire protocol, timeouts, ... handled by protocol Code generated based on the defined view model Bonus points: no reflection/introspection needed on every run Support for hierarchy and lifetimes
  28. 28. Hierarchy and lifetimes Cleanup and resource management Objects attach to lifetime Lifetime destroys attached objects Parent lifetime destroys children public class Lifetime : IDisposable { private Stack<Action> resources = new Stack<Action>(); public void Attach(Action resource) { resources.Push(resource); } public void Attach(IDisposable disposable) { resources.Push(disposable.Dispose); } public void Dispose() { while (resources.Count > 0) { var resource = resources.Pop(); resource(); } } }
  29. 29. Hierarchy and lifetimes Solution NuGet host Project Document Inspections PSI (Program Structure Interface) Class Field Method Document Inspections ... Project Local history NuGet tool window Project Editor tab Inspections Language Editor tab Inspections Language viewmodel(Riderprotocol)
  30. 30. Signal (event) Producers/subscribers Observable/observer Using lifetime to manage subscription // Produce event interface ISource<T> { void Fire(T value); } // Subscribe to event interface ISink<T> { void Advise(Lifetime l, Action<T> handler); } // Event interface ISignal<T> : ISource<T>, ISink<T> { }
  31. 31. Property Signal implementation Using lifetime to manage subscription To changes to propery in general To changes to specific value // Observable property interface IProperty<T> : ISink<T> { T Value { get; set; } void Advise(Lifetime l, Action<T> handler); void View(Lifetime l, Action<Lifetime, T> handler); }
  32. 32. Primitives Primitive Description Signal Event that is fired when something happens Property Observable value List/set/map Observable collections Field Immutable value Call/callback RPC-style call, needed from time to time byte, short, int, long, float, double, char, boolean, string, securestring, void, enum, ... Primitives and special types Aggregatedef/classdef/structdef A node in the viewmodel
  33. 33. Rider protocol demo
  34. 34. Rider protocol Very extensible through Kotlin-based DSL Easy to work with for our developers Update view model, generate code, work with generated code No need to think about things being multiple processes, state, conflict resolution, ... Having the Kotlin-based DSL means Find Usages, Navigation, ... work Cross-language, cross-platform Plugin model for Rider is more complex (IJ and R# parts may be needed) https://github.com/JetBrains/fsharp-support https://github.com/JetBrains/resharper-unity
  35. 35. Microservices
  36. 36. Two processes! Isolation! Each has their own 64 bit memory space Also their own, separate GC Multi-core machines Start/stop independently
  37. 37. Debugging? Four processes. Rider (IntelliJ + ReSharper) Debugger worker process Your application
  38. 38. Multiple processes... What if certain features were running in their own process? Isolation Own memory constraints Start/stop independently Crash independently
  39. 39. Shared view model Pass around a shared view model to interested parties Example: Roslyn analyzers/inspections Pass around “reference” of [ { name, icon, severity, tooltip, text range } ]
  40. 40. Multiple machines Socket-based wire protocol Sockets can be on multiple machines Example: Docker debugging Remote debugging
  41. 41. Unity game engine www.unity3d.com Extension to view model Rider plugin Unity editor plugin https://github.com/JetBrains/resharper-unity https://twitter.com/kskrygan/status/1064950644094705664
  42. 42. https://twitter.com/kskrygan/status/1064950644094705664
  43. 43. Future
  44. 44. Model the view as well public CSharpInteractiveOptionsPage(Lifetime lifetime, ...) : base(lifetime, ...) { AddHeader("Tool settings"); AddToolPathFileChooserOption(lifetime, commonFileDialogs); AddEmptyLine(); AddStringOption((CSIOptions s) => s.ToolArguments, "Tool arguments:", "Additional tool arguments"); AddHeader("Tool window behavior"); AddBoolOption((CSIOptions s) => s.FocusOnOpenToolWindow, "Focus tool window on open"); AddBoolOption((CSIOptions s) => s.FocusOnSendLineText, "Focus tool window on Send Line"); AddBoolOption((CSIOptions s) => s.MoveCaretOnSendLineText, "Move caret down on Send Line"); // ... FinishPage(); }
  45. 45. Every IDE as both a client and server Front-end and back-end: separate process & memory Whatever happens in the backend, the frontend can process the user's typing Every IDE as both a client and server (“contributor to the model”) Bring this technology to other IDE’s? Reuse WebStorm's HTML/CSS/JS functionality in ReSharper? Pair programming on the same ReSharper back-end?
  46. 46. Conclusion
  47. 47. Conclusion Rider is an IDE built on two IDE’s two technology stacks Rich and easy programming model was needed to bridge: Rider protocol Protocol gave rise to more than two processes more than one machine micro UI Free trial! www.jetbrains.com/rider
  48. 48. Thank you! https://blog.maartenballiauw.be @maartenballiauw

Editor's Notes

  • This talk is about:
    How Rider came to be
    How protocol allowed us to gain additional knowledge and ideas of separating parts of our IDEs and building TOWARDS microservices
    This talk is also about building a new product based on many years of previous investments
  • Open ContosoUniversity in Rider
    Show solution explorer
    Show editor where you can type, show inspections, navigation, refactoring
    Mention debugging
    Mention tools like database
    Mention cross platform
  • Obligatory marketing sldie
  • Now that we have seen a bit of the IDE, let’s look at some history first.
  • Talk about history of JetBrains a bit, mention Eclipse in 2002, need for a new product.
    Mention ReSharper plugin to VS..
  • ReSharper 1.0 -> 2.0 – let’s do a full IDE
    Rely on being a plugin to VS? Or build a full .NET IDE?
    It was never released, but a fully functional prototype.
    Provided a solution explorer, an editor, find usages, code completion and refactorings.
    Built on .NET WinForms and Windows Presentation Foundation (WPF) wasn’t around.
    Project halted – VS plugin seemed best way to go
  • Project halted (but not gone to waste)
    Concepts and architecture remained
    Action system
    Text control implementation
    Several tool windows and toolbar controls
    Unit test runner
    ReSharper command line tools (CLI)
    Keep functionality separate from the actual IDE
    Helped future versions of ReSharper: Visual Studio 2010, 2013, 2015 and 2017
    Same core, IDE interoperability layer on top
  • Headless R# as a language server
    Cross-platform (.NET on Windows, Mono on Linux and macOS)
    No constraints (64 bit process, and its own memory space)
    It is ReSharper! 2 products, 1 code base
    IntelliJ as a thin UI
    Control the R# process
    Client/server or IPC communication
  • Is IntelliJ really a thin UI?
    Full IDE for its own languages, no need for R# there
    Combined languages (e.g. JS/TS/HTML in IJ and R#)
    Change tracking, VCS, REST client, tool windows, ...
    Three cases...
    Features where IJ handles everything
    Features where R# handles almost everything
    Features where both IDE’s make an awesome IDE
    Both sides are an IDE!
    Same concepts, but not the same knowledge about the project
  • Open ContosoUniversity in Rider
    Navigate to *.html – Navigation already includes all flows! Files in IJ, symbols in IJ, symbols in R#
    HTML editor is purely IntelliJ
    Navigate to *.cshtml – Again both IDE’s at work
    CSHTML is both C# and HTML – now what? Both IDE’s!
    Navigate to HomeController
    C# is al ReSharper. Or is it? Show database tools + language injection with database query.
    Mention local history – tracked by IJ but R# needs to know about this too, e.g. in a big refactoring
  • If we are going to make them talk, let’s look at how we could model the data that goes over the wire.
  • Re-use Language Server Protocol (LSP)?
    Great in itself – IDE concepts like window, editor, language, diagnostics, ... Built for/with VS Code and the ideas in that IDE. Not bad! PoSh plugin uses this, and works fine! But feature set is a bit more limited than what we have in R#.
    We would need customizations...
    LSP is lowest common denominator – some R# refactorings can not be done
    Mixed languages? e.g. CSHTML which can be HTML + CSS + JS + C#/VB.NET
    Build a custom REST-like protocol?
    Experimented with JSON, ProtoBuf, request/response style
    Slow, hard to customize, hard to develop with when all is in motion
  • Objects bind to other objects, instead of parent keeping track of just direct children
  • Open empty project in Rider, install a NuGet package, show log tab
    Open Rider in IntelliJ IDEA
    NuGetModel.kt – explain it Extends the solution node in the model
    Has a bunch of inner classes, and properties
    Interesting is sink(“log”)
    Generated version: RdNuGetHost – Kotlin implementation of our view model
    In RiderNuGetLogPanel – init -> facade.host.log.advise(facade.lifetime)
    Open ReSharperHost.Generated.sln in Rider
    Generated version: RdNuGetHost – C# implementation of our model
    In NuGetNativeLogger, public override void Log(ILogMessage message) => myHost.Log.Fire( new NuGetLogMessage(message.Time, NuGetLogContext.NuGet, Convert(message.Level), message.Message));
    Open Rider in IntelliJ IDEA
    NuGetModel.kt – find property("configFiles", immutableList(classdef("RdNuGetConfigFile") {
    RiderNuGetSourcesPanel – init - facade.host.configManager.configFiles.advise(facade.lifetime) { newFiles ->
    Similar construct to subscribe to sources being added to the view model
    Open ReSharperHost.Generated.sln in Rider
    In NuGetCredentialProviderHost, show lifetime example – when solution closes the lifetime closes, so this thing cleans up as well
  • Thought experiments: WPF/XAML renderer
  • Rider and Unity Editor can be started independently, but this does not prevent us from both processes to look for each other’s Rider Protocol connection.
    When both are launched and the connection is allowed, Rider can share its view model with Unity Editor and vice-versa.
    This lets Rider control play/pause/and stop buttons in Unity, and also provides the ability to debug code in Rider, even though it is running in the Unity Editor.
  • Rider and Unity Editor can be started independently, but this does not prevent us from both processes to look for each other’s Rider Protocol connection. When both are launched and the connection is allowed, Rider can share its view model with Unity Editor and vice-versa. This lets Rider control play/pause/and stop buttons in Unity, and also provides the ability to debug code in Rider, even though it is running in the Unity Editor.

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