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Indexing and searching NuGet.org with Azure Functions and Search - Cloud Developer Days Poland

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Indexing and searching NuGet.org with Azure Functions and Search - Cloud Developer Days Poland

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Which NuGet package was that type in again? In this session, let's build a "reverse package search" that helps finding the correct NuGet package based on a public type.
Together, we will create a highly-scalable serverless search engine using Azure Functions and Azure Search that performs 3 tasks: listening for new packages on NuGet.org (using a custom binding), indexing packages in a distributed way, and exposing an API that accepts queries and gives our clients the best result.

Which NuGet package was that type in again? In this session, let's build a "reverse package search" that helps finding the correct NuGet package based on a public type.
Together, we will create a highly-scalable serverless search engine using Azure Functions and Azure Search that performs 3 tasks: listening for new packages on NuGet.org (using a custom binding), indexing packages in a distributed way, and exposing an API that accepts queries and gives our clients the best result.

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Indexing and searching NuGet.org with Azure Functions and Search - Cloud Developer Days Poland

  1. 1. Indexing and searching NuGet.org with Azure Functions and Search Maarten Balliauw @maartenballiauw
  2. 2. STRATEGICSPONSORS GOLDSPONSORS
  3. 3. Agenda “Find this type on NuGet.org” NuGet server-side API Building a new version using Azure Functions
  4. 4. “Find this type on NuGet.org”
  5. 5. “Find this type on NuGet.org” In ReSharper and Rider Search for namespaces & types that are not yet referenced
  6. 6. “Find this type on NuGet.org” Idea in 2013, introduced in ReSharper 9 (2015 - https://www.jetbrains.com/resharper/whatsnew/whatsnew_9.html) Consists of ReSharper functionality A service that indexes packages and powers search Azure Cloud Service (Web and Worker role) Indexer uses NuGet OData feed https://www.nuget.org/api/v2/Packages?$select=Id,Version,NormalizedVersion,LastEdited,Published&$ orderby=LastEdited%20desc&$filter=LastEdited%20gt%20datetime%272012-01-01%27
  7. 7. NuGet over time... https://twitter.com/controlflow/status/1067724815958777856
  8. 8. NuGet over time... Repo-signing announced August 10, 2018 Big chunk of packages signed over holidays 2018/2019 Re-download all metadata & binaries Very slow over Odata Is there a better way? https://blog.nuget.org/20180810/Introducing-Repository-Signatures.html
  9. 9. NuGet server-side API
  10. 10. NuGet talks to a repository Can be on disk/network share or remote over HTTP(S) HTTP(S) API’s V2 – OData based (used by pretty much all NuGet servers out there) V3 – JSON based (available on NuGet.org, TeamCity, MyGet.org, Azure DevOps)
  11. 11. V2 Protocol Started as “OData-to-LINQ-to-Entities” (V1 protocol) Optimizations added to reduce # of random DB queries (VS2013+ & NuGet 2.x) Search – Package manager list/search FindPackagesById – Package restore (Does it exist? Where to download?) GetUpdates – Package manager updates https://www.nuget.org/api/v2 (code in https://github.com/NuGet/NuGetGallery)
  12. 12. V3 Protocol JSON based A “resource provider” of various endpoints per purpose Catalog (NuGet.org only) – append-only event log Registrations – materialization of newest state of a package Flat container – .NET Core package restore (and VS autocompletion) Report abuse URL template Statistics … https://api.nuget.org/v3/index.json (code in https://github.com/NuGet/NuGet.Services.Metadata)
  13. 13. How does NuGet.org work? User uploads to NuGet.org Data added to database Data added to catalog (append-only data stream) Various jobs run over catalog using a cursor Registrations (last state of a package/version), reference catalog entry Flatcontainer (fast restores) Search index (search, autocomplete, NuGet Gallery search) …
  14. 14. Catalog seems interesting! Append-only stream of mutations on NuGet.org Updates (add/update) and Deletes Chronological Can continue where left off (uses a timestamp cursor) Can restore NuGet.org to a given point in time Structure Root https://api.nuget.org/v3/catalog0/index.json + Page https://api.nuget.org/v3/catalog0/page0.json + Leaf https://api.nuget.org/v3/catalog0/data/2015.02.01.06.22.45/adam.jsgenerator.1.1.0.json
  15. 15. NuGet.org catalog demo
  16. 16. “Find this type on NuGet.org” Refactor from using OData to using V3? Mostly done, one thing missing: download counts (using search now) https://github.com/NuGet/NuGetGallery/issues/3532 Build a new version? Welcome to this talk 
  17. 17. Building a new version
  18. 18. What do we need? Watch the NuGet.org catalog for package changes For every package change Scan all assemblies Store relation between package id+version and namespace+type API that is compatible with all ReSharper and Rider version Bonus points! Easy way to re-index later (copy .nupkg binaries + dump index to JSON blobs)
  19. 19. What do we need? Watch the NuGet.org catalog for package changes periodic check For every package change based on a queue Scan all assemblies Store relation between package id+version and namespace+type API that is compatible with all ReSharper and Rider version always up, flexible scale Bonus points! Easy way to re-index later (copy .nupkg binaries + dump index to JSON blobs)
  20. 20. Sounds like functions?
  21. 21. Sounds like functions! NuGet.org catalog Watch catalog Index command Find type API Find namespace API Search index Index package Raw .nupkg Index as JSON Download packageDownload command
  22. 22. Collecting from catalog demo
  23. 23. Functions best practices https://medium.com/@PaulDJohnston/serverless-best-practices-b3c97d551535 Each function should do only one thing (“it depends”) Easier error handling & scaling Functions don’t call other functions Avoid coupling Use as few libraries in your functions as possible (preferably zero) Slower cold starts with more dependencies Learn to use messages and queues Asynchronous means of communicating, helps scale ...
  24. 24. Collecting from catalog (better version) demo
  25. 25. Bindings Help a function do only one thing Trigger, provide input/output Function code bridges those Build your own!* SQL Server binding Dropbox binding ... NuGet Catalog *Custom triggers not officially supported (yet?) Trigger Input Output Timer ✔ HTTP ✔ ✔ Blob ✔ ✔ ✔ Queue ✔ ✔ Table ✔ ✔ Service Bus ✔ ✔ EventHub ✔ ✔ EventGrid ✔ CosmosDB ✔ ✔ ✔ IoT Hub ✔ SendGrid, Twilio ✔ ... ✔
  26. 26. Creating a trigger binding demo
  27. 27. We’re making progress! NuGet.org catalog Watch catalog Index command Find type API Find namespace API Search index Index package Raw .nupkg Index as JSON Download packageDownload command
  28. 28. Downloading packages demo
  29. 29. Next up: indexing NuGet.org catalog Watch catalog Index command Find type API Find namespace API Search index Index package Raw .nupkg Index as JSON Download packageDownload command
  30. 30. Indexing Opening up the .nupkg and reflecting on assemblies System.Reflection.Metadata Does not load the assembly being reflected into application process Provides access to Portable Executable (PE) metadata in assembly Store relation between package id+version and namespace+type Azure Search? A database? Redis? Other?
  31. 31. System.Reflection.Metadata Free decompiler www.jetbrains.com/dotpeek
  32. 32. System.Reflection.Metadata using (var portableExecutableReader = new PEReader(assemblySeekableStream)) { var metadataReader = portableExecutableReader.GetMetadataReader(); foreach (var typeDefinition in metadataReader.TypeDefinitions.Select(metadataReader .GetTypeDefinition)) { if (!typeDefinition.Attributes.HasFlag(TypeAttributes.Public)) continue; var typeNamespace = metadataReader.GetString(typeDefinition.Namespace); var typeName = metadataReader.GetString(typeDefinition.Name); if (typeName.StartsWith("<") || typeName.StartsWith("__Static") || typeName.Contains("c__DisplayClass")) continue; typeNames.Add($"{typeNamespace}.{typeName}"); } }
  33. 33. Azure Search “Search-as-a-Service” Scales across partitions and replicas Define an index that will hold documents consisting of fields Fields can be searchable, facetable, filterable, sortable, retrievable Can’t be changed easily, think upfront! Have to define what we want to search, and what we want to display My function will also write documents to a JSON blob Can re-index using Azure Search importer in case needed
  34. 34. Indexing packages demo
  35. 35. “Do one thing well” Our function shouldn’t care about creating a search index. Better: return index operations, have something else handle those Custom output binding?
  36. 36. Indexing packages (better version) demo
  37. 37. Almost there… NuGet.org catalog Watch catalog Index command Find type API Find namespace API Search index Index package Raw .nupkg Index as JSON Download packageDownload command
  38. 38. HTTP trigger binding [HttpTrigger(AuthorizationLevel.Anonymous, "get", Route = "v1/find-type")] HttpRequest request Options for trigger Authentication (anonymous, a function/host key, a user token) HTTP method What the route looks like
  39. 39. Making search work with ReSharper and Rider demo
  40. 40. One issue left... Download counts - used for sorting and scoring search results Change continuously on NuGet Not part of V3 catalog Could use search but that’s N(packages) queries https://github.com/NuGet/NuGetGallery/issues/3532 If that data existed, how to update search? Merge data! new PackageDocumentDownloads(key, downloadcount)
  41. 41. We’re done! NuGet.org catalog Watch catalog Index command Find type API Find namespace API Search index Index package Raw .nupkg Index as JSON Download packageDownload command
  42. 42. We’re done! Functions Collect changes from NuGet catalog Download binaries Index binaries using PE Header Make search index available in API Trigger, input and output bindings Each function should do only one thing NuGet.org catalog Watch catalog Index command Find type API Find namespace API Search index Index package Raw .nupkg Index as JSON Download packageDownload command
  43. 43. We’re done! All our functions can scale (and fail) independently Full index in May 2019 took ~12h on 2 B1 instances Can be faster on more CPU’s ~ 1.7mio packages (NuGet.org homepage says) ~ 2.1mio packages (the catalog says ) ~ 8 400 catalog pages with ~ 4 200 000 catalog leaves (hint: repo signing) NuGet.org catalog Watch catalog Index command Find type API Find namespace API Search index Index package Raw .nupkg Index as JSON Download packageDownload command
  44. 44. Closing thoughts… Would deploy in separate function apps for cost Trigger binding collects all the time so needs dedicated capacity (and thus, cost) Others can scale within bounds (think of $$$) Would deploy in separate function apps for failure boundaries Trigger, indexing, downloading should not affect health of API Are bindings portable...? Avoid them if lock-in matters to you
  45. 45. Please rate this session using Event Master Mobile App at the booth in Lobby login.developerdays.pl
  46. 46. STRATEGIC SPONSORS GOLD SPONSORS
  47. 47. Thank you! https://blog.maartenballiauw.be @maartenballiauw

Editor's Notes

  • Show feature in action in Visual Studio (and show you can see basic metadata etc.)
  • Copied in 2017 in VS - https://www.hanselman.com/blog/VisualStudio2017CanAutomaticallyRecommendNuGetPackagesForUnknownTypes.aspx
    Demo the feed quickly?
  • Around 3 TB in May 2019
  • Demo ODataDump quickly
  • Demo: click around in the API to show some base things
  • Raw API - click around in the API to show some base things, explain how a cursor could go over it
    Root https://api.nuget.org/v3/catalog0/index.json
    Page https://api.nuget.org/v3/catalog0/page0.json
    Leaf https://api.nuget.org/v3/catalog0/data/2015.02.01.06.22.45/adam.jsgenerator.1.1.0.json
    Explain CatalogDump
    NuGet.Protocol.Catalog comes from GitHub
    CatalogProcessor feches all pages between min and max timestamp
    My implementation BatchCatalogProcessor fetches multiple pages at the same time and build a “latest state” – much faster!
    Fetches leaves, for every leaf calls into a simple method
    Much faster, easy to pause (keep track of min/max timestamp)
  • LOL input, process, output

    More serious: events trigger code
    Periodic check for packages
    Queue message to index things
    API request runs a search
    No server management or capacity planning
  • Will use storage queues n demo’s to be able to run things locally. Ideally use SB topics or event grid (transactional)
  • Create a new TimerTrigger function
    We will need a function to index things from NuGet
    Timer will trigger every X amount of time
    Timer provides last timestamp and next timestamp, so we can run our collector for that period
    Snippet: demo-timertrigger
    Mention HttpClient not used correctly: not disposed, so will starve TCP connections at some point
    Go over code example and run it
    var httpClient = new HttpClient();
    var cursor = new InMemoryCursor(timer.ScheduleStatus?.Last ?? DateTimeOffset.UtcNow);

    var processor = new CatalogProcessor(
    cursor,
    new CatalogClient(httpClient, new NullLogger<CatalogClient>()),
    new DelegatingCatalogLeafProcessor(
    added =>
    {
    log.LogInformation("[ADDED] " + added.PackageId + "@" + added.PackageVersion);
    return Task.FromResult(true);
    },
    deleted =>
    {
    log.LogInformation("[DELETED] " + deleted.PackageId + "@" + deleted.PackageVersion);
    return Task.FromResult(true);
    }),
    new CatalogProcessorSettings
    {
    MinCommitTimestamp = timer.ScheduleStatus?.Last ?? DateTimeOffset.UtcNow,
    MaxCommitTimestamp = timer.ScheduleStatus?.Next ?? DateTimeOffset.UtcNow,
    ServiceIndexUrl = "https://api.nuget.org/v3/index.json"
    },
    new NullLogger<CatalogProcessor>());

    await processor.ProcessAsync(CancellationToken.None);
  • Each function should only do one thing! We are violating this.
  • Go over Approach1 code – Enqueuer class
    Mention we are using roughly the same code as before
    Differences are that our function is now no longer doing things itself, instead it’s adding messages to a queue for processing later on
    That Queue binding is interesting. This is where the input/output comes from. Instead of managing our own queue connection, we let the framework handle all plumbing so we can focus on adding messages.
    In Indexer, we use the Queue as an input binding, and read messages.
    We can now scale enqueuing and scaling separately! But are we there yet?
  • https://github.com/thinktecture/azure-functions-extensibility
  • Go over Approach2 code
    Show this is MUCH simpler – trigger binding that provides input, queue output bindign to write that input to a queue
    Let’s go over what it takes to build a trigger binding
    NuGetCatalogTriggerAttribute – the data needed for the trigger to work – go over properties and attributes
    Hooking it up requires a binding configuration – NuGetCatalogTriggerExtensionConfigProvider
    It says: if you see this specific binding, register it as a trigger that maps to some provider
    So we need that provider – NuGetCatalogTriggerAttributeBindingProvider
    Provider is there to create an object that provides data. In our case we need to store the NuGet catalog timestamp cursor, so we do that on storage, and then return the actual binding – NuGetCatalogTriggerBinding
    In NuGetCatalogTriggerBinding, we have to specify how data can be bound. What if I use a differnt type of object than PackageOperation? What if someone used a node.js or Python function instead of .NET. Need to define the shape of the data our trigger provides.
    PackageOperationValueProvider is also interesting, this provides data shown in the portal diagnostics
    CreateListenerAsync is where the actual triger code will be created – NuGetCatalogListener
    NuGetCatalogListener uses the BatchCatalogProcessor we had previously, and when a package is added or deleted it will call into the injected ITriggeredFunctionExecutor
    ITriggeredFunctionExecutor is Azure Functions framework specific, but it’s the glue that will clal into our function with the data we provide
    Note StartAsync/StopAsync where you can add startup/shutdown code
    ONE THING LEFT THAT IS NOT DOCUMENTED – Startup.cs to register the binding.
    And since we are in a different class library, also need Microsoft.Azure.WebJobs.Extensions referenced to generate \bin\Debug\netcoreapp2.1\bin\extensions.json
    As a result our code is now MUCH cleaner, show it again and maybe also show it in action
    Mention [Singleton(Mode = SingletonMode.Listener)] – we need to ensure this binding only runs single-instance (cursor clashes otherwise). This is due to ho the catalog works, parallel processing is harder to do. But we can fix that by scaling the Indexer later on.
    Show Approach3 PopulateQueueAndTable
    Same code, but a bit more production worthy
    Sending data to two queues (indexing and downloading)
    Storing data in a table (and yes, violating “do one thing” again but I call it architectural freedom)
  • Next up will be downloading and indexing. Let’s start with downloading.
    Grab a copy of the .nupkg from NuGet and store it in a blob
    Redundancy - no need to re-download/stress NuGet on a re-index
  • Go over Approach3 code
    DownloadToStorage uses a QueueTrigger to run whenever a message appears in queue
    Note no singleton: we can scale this across multiple instances/multiple servers
    Uses a Blob input binding that provides access to a blob
    Note the parameters, name of the blob is resolved based on data from other inputs which is prety nifty
    Our code checks whether it’s an add or a delete, and either downloads+uploads to the blob reference, or delets the blob reference
  • Next up will be indexing itself. There are a couple of things here…
  • Go over Approach3 code
    PackageIndexer uses a QueueTrigger to run whenever a message appears in queue
    Uses a Blob input binding that provides access to a blob where we can write our indexed entity – will show this later
    Based on package operation, we will add or delete from the index
    RunAddPackageAsync has some plumbing, probably too much, to dowload the .nupkg file and store it on disk
    Note: we store it on disk as we need a seekable stream. So why no memoy stream? Some NuGet packages are HUGE.
    Find PEReader usage and show how it will index a given package’s public types and namespaces
    All goes into a typeNames collection.
    Now: how do we add this info to the index?
    Show PackageDocument class, has MANY properties
    First important: the Identifier property has [Key] applied. Azure Search needs a key for teh document so we can retrieve by key, which could be useful when updating existing content or to find a specific document and delete it from the index.
    Second important: TypeNames is searchable. Also mention “simpleanalyzer”: “Divides text at non-letters and converts them to lower case.” Other analyzers remove stopwords and do other things, this one should be as searchable as possible.
    Other fields are sometimes searchable, sometimes facetable – a bit of leftover from me thinking about search use cases. The R# API ony searches on typename so could make everything else just retrievable as well.
    Of course, index is not there by default, so need to create it. We do this when our function is instantiated (static constructor, so only once per launch of our functions)
    Is this good? Yes, because only once per server instance our function runs on. No because we do it at one point, what if the index is deleted in between and needs to be recreated? Edge case, but a retry strategy could be a good idea...
    Next, we create our package document, and at one point we add it to a list of index actions, and to blob storage
    indexActions.Add(IndexAction.MergeOrUpload(packageToIndex));
    JsonSerializer.Serialize(jsonWriter, packagesToIndex);
    Writing to index using batch - var indexBatch = IndexBatch.New(actions);
    Leftover code from earlier, batch makes no sense for one document, but in case you want to do multiple in one go this is the way. Do beware a batch can only be several MB in size, for this NuGet indexing I can only do ~25 in a batch before payload is too large.
    That’s… it!
    Run approach 3 (for last hour) and see functions being hit / packages added to index
    Go to Azure Search portal as well, show how importer would work in case of fire
  • Go over Approach3 code
    PackageIndexerWithCustomBinding is mostly the same code
    One difference: it uses the [AzureSearchIndex] binding to write add/delete operations to the index instead
    Go over how it works. Again, an attribute with settings – AzureSearchIndexAttribute
    Also a configuration that registers the binding as an output binding using BindToCollector – AzureSearchExtensionConfigProvider
    Now, what’s this OpenType?
    It’s some sort of dynamic type. If we want to create an AzureSearch output binding, we better support more than just our PackageDocument use case!
    So we need a collector builder that can create the actual binding implementation based on the real type requested by our function parameter – AzureSearchAsyncCollectorBuilder
    In AzureSearchAsyncCollectorBuilder, we do that. Very simple bootstrap code in this case, but could be more complex depending on the type of binding you are creating.
    Our AzureSearchAsyncCollector uses the attribute to check for Azure Search connection details, as well as the type of operation we expect it to handle. Why not all? Well, IAsyncCollector only has Add and Flush.
    Note: add called manually, flush at function complete – could use flush to send things in a batch...
    Code itself pretty straightforward. On Add, we add an action to search. With a retry in case the index does not exist – we then create it.
    Creation code kind of interesting as we use some reflection in case we specify a given type of coument to index.
    Why? Cause when we do Upserts, we may want to update just one or two properties, and can use a different Dto in that case (but still have the index shaped to the full document shape)
    Run when time left, but nothing fancy here...
  • Now we need to make ReSharper talk to our search. We have the index, so that should be a breeze, right?
  • Go over Web code
    RunFindTypeApiAsync and RunFindNamespaceAsync
    Both use “name” as their query parameter to search for
    RunInternalAsync does the heavy lifting
    Grabs other parameters
    Runs search, and collects several pages of results
    Why is this ForEachAsync there?
    Search index has multiple versions for every package id, yet ReSharper expects only the latest matching all parameters
    Azure Search has no group by / distinct by, so need to do this in memory. Doing it here by fetching a maximum number of results and doing the grouping manually.
    Use the collected data to build result. Add matching type names etc.
    Example requests:
    http://localhost:7071/api/v1/find-type?name=JsonConvert
    http://localhost:7071/api/v1/find-type?name=CamoServer&allowPrerelease=true&latestVersion=false
    https://nugettypesearch.azurewebsites.net/api/v1/find-type?name=JsonConvert
    In ReSharper (devenv /ReSharper.Internal, go to NuGet tool window, set base URL to https://nugettypesearch.azurewebsites.net/api/v1/)
    Write some code that uses JsonConvert / JObject and try it out.

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