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Engl 825 Session 4


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Engl 825 Session 4

  1. 1. ENGL 725/825: Second Language Literacy Session # 4
  2. 2. Agenda <ul><li>Reading blogs </li></ul><ul><li>Workshop: Responding to an L2 writing </li></ul><ul><li>Discussion on Voice: Ibrahim and Bee </li></ul><ul><li>Discussion order: R&A, Ivanic &Camps, Prior, Atkinson </li></ul><ul><li>Brainstorming Research topics </li></ul><ul><li>Talking about IRB applications </li></ul>
  3. 3. Hayat says… <ul><li>I should make clear what I mean by voice. Being an EFL teacher and teacher-educator, I have always been cautious when discussing the intricate issue of voice in teaching L2 writing. As I already mentioned in a previous blog entry on the CR/IC rhetoric, when addressing the L2 students’ voice we should not consider them as having no voice. These students have an already existing voice in their L1 and if they are multilingual students, they may have more than one voice. </li></ul>
  4. 4. Wan-ning says.. <ul><li>Ivanic and Camps (2001) mentioned that “the term ‘voice types’ useful to refer to the culturally recognizable ‘way with words’ that align a speaker or writer with one social group rather than another” (p. 6). I found this statement very interesting because there were some words that I tended to use in my papers because I thought they were more polite and not too strong, which might seem awkward to some Americans. My professor pointed out that the way I used “could” in my paper can be my ESL way of writing where he would have used “can” in that sentence. If word selection counts as part of my voice, do I need to change it based on my audience? How do I find a balance between audience and voice? Also, I found that my writing has been changing after being in the United States for four years. Writing is not only influenced by the culture from the L1 country, but also the environment, interaction with others and publications we read. </li></ul>
  5. 5. Kay responds… <ul><li>It's interesting, Wan-ning. When international students write some words, expressions, or constructions to show politeness and modestness, they can be seen as &quot;weak or uncertain&quot; about the argument in question. If we are encouraged to follow our choice during the class and drafting stages but are evaluated as &quot;your argument could've been stronger,&quot; we must be confused and frustrated. And next time, we're likely to follow expectations of the discourse community. Of course, this issue is not as simple as this. But how can teachers balance between fostering students' voices and encouraging them to act up to the expectations of the discourse community? </li></ul>
  6. 6. John says… <ul><li>When you learn English, you're learning a particular brand of individualism, and no one said it should be easy. If your socio-cultural norms make assertive writing difficult, you'll be at a disadvantage from other students. And if you were raised by a family of poets, you might have a hard time in math classes. You're a bright kid, you'll figure it out. If I write in a loud voice in China, I'd get corrected for it. And they'd be right for doing it. </li></ul>
  7. 7. Kat responds… <ul><li>I'm thinking of the student Shen who talked about how his American teachers kept encouraging him to be himself in his writing but they were actually (in my view) telling him what they thought his &quot;real&quot; &quot;authentic&quot; self should sound like. Personally, I don't really know exactly how I feel about the whole situation. As a student, I would say that I have had to adopt quite a few different &quot;voices&quot; to move successfully through the world of higher education. </li></ul>
  8. 8. John responds… <ul><li>when we ask students to write in their &quot;authentic&quot; self, aren't we really just asking them to write like other English speakers write, regardless of what that true self might sound? Sure we are, and that's fine. When we're learning a language, we're learning the culture and rhetoric of that language. I'd even go so far as to say we're learning/developing another personality. </li></ul>
  9. 9. I hear voices… <ul><li>Voice: inner self in writing? Saturated with Western culture (R and Atk.), individualism in writing? </li></ul><ul><li>Voice: having something to say? </li></ul><ul><li>Voice: positioning in the academic community? (Iv&Camp) </li></ul><ul><li>Voice: competing voices among them those of school, home, neighbourhood etc.) variations in writing and communities (Prior) </li></ul><ul><li>Authorial presence: explicit reference to the self through the 1 st personal pronoun. Justifying belief with supporting detail. The use of imperatives (select, review, explore) </li></ul>
  10. 10. Social Factors impacting voice <ul><li>Positioning in the community </li></ul><ul><li>Years of experience with authoritative writing </li></ul><ul><li>Awareness of reader/audience (reader considerate voice) </li></ul><ul><li>Different genres and different discourses </li></ul>
  11. 11. Heterogeneous Positioning <ul><li>Identity as multiple and many-voiced </li></ul><ul><li>Brining multiple fields of knowledge, genres and perspectives. </li></ul><ul><li>Different voices in different assignments </li></ul><ul><li>--nature of the task, changing sense of self as a write. </li></ul>
  12. 12. Implications: Critical Language Awareness <ul><li>Sense of self-representation in writing </li></ul><ul><li>L2 writers: cultural acceptability for voice, recognizing different voices in different genres, high language proficiency, learning creative combination of voices in different genres. </li></ul><ul><li>See the last sentence on apge 31 of Ivanic and Camps. </li></ul>
  13. 13. R &A (1999) <ul><li>Voice is a distinctive marker of L1 students middle-class, upper-class white) </li></ul><ul><li>Student ownership of texts, implicit learning, critical thinking  unfair to L2 writers </li></ul><ul><li>Calling for a classroom pedagogy that is consonant with cultural ideologies that students bring to the classroom. </li></ul>
  14. 14. Prior: A sociolinguisitic account <ul><li>Voloshinov’s individual subjectivism and abstract objectivism. </li></ul><ul><li>Subjectivism: language as generative, creative meaningful speech acts. </li></ul><ul><li>Objectivism: Sassurian linguistics, language as a normative system, a closed system independent of ideologies etc. </li></ul><ul><li>Language is an ever-flowing stream of speech acts in which nothing remains fixed and identical to itself--Voloshinov </li></ul>
  15. 15. <ul><li>R &A: How realistic is it to regularly expect or demand of our NNES students that they basically become someone else?” </li></ul><ul><li>Prior: All activity involves becoming, whether it means becoming someone else. Whether it means changing social practices and institutions or (re) producing them… (continue reading the next sentence on page 78) </li></ul>
  16. 16. <ul><li>Is voice a teachable concept both in L1 and L2? </li></ul><ul><li>Writing is a technology, and technology works within limits (Atkinson, 2001, p. 119) </li></ul>
  17. 17. <ul><li>Cultural understanding is not a by-product of learning </li></ul><ul><li>The discussion of culture in language education became important due to globalization, international commerce etc. </li></ul><ul><li>Moving away from dichotomizing cultures </li></ul><ul><li>“ If we develop a notion of culture in TESOL that takes into account the cultural in the individual, and individual in the culture, then we will have a conceptualization that will stand us in good stead in the 21 st century” (Atkinson, 1999 p. 648-49) </li></ul>