Week 4 post method section2


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Week 4 post method section2

  1. 1. POST-METHOD ERA Understanding Post-method pedagogy: Transcending the limitations of the concept of method Communicative language teaching. Task based language teachingWEEK 4
  2. 2. Agenda• Your voices on the readings• Discussion of Task-based vs Communicative language learning• Discussion of Kumar’s article on shifting trends in TESOL
  3. 3. Tips for writing successful and meaningful blogs1. Avoid sentences like “I really like Kumar’s Chapter 4” Delve into the ideas and theories in the articles, not your overall responses.2. Synthesize the readings. Try to find a common theme in all readings. Don’t only focus on one reading each week.3. Ask meaningful questions. Move beyond reading for comprehension, read for critical knowledge building by asking good questions to yourself as a pre-service teacher and to your fellow classmates.4. Write about what makes you passionate in the readings. Quality is more important than quantity. Create a log that is worthwhile reading in the future. That will help you see your own evolving teacher knowledge and identity.5. See blogs as important identity construction sites not as a simple class assignments (where it’s always easy to cut corners by just typing stuff that’s not impactful to you and others)6. Finally, BLOG regularly. Blogs are part of your course requirement and count as part of your final grade.
  4. 4. YOUR VOICES…
  5. 5. Nate says…• I feel that Brown closed this chapter quite nicely, with addressing the dynamic nature of the classroom. While all the approaches throughout the chapter seemed very beneficial to learners, no one approach should not be adopted. This reminded me of the similar mindset towards methods. Just like with methods, a teacher must keep in mind that theoretical stances are always changing and student needs are all different. There are different approaches for different circumstances.
  6. 6. Melissa says…• Brown discusses the concept of "post method" and taps into the different approaches within a language classroom. First, he discusses that it is better to focus on the approach the teacher uses for language teaching (effective tasks and techniques) instead of a method for all. As future teachers, we have to be aware of the learners context and offer the appropriate blend of tasks for each student. Before entering the education program, I had ignored and was oblivious about the fact that a learners needs and geographical, social, and political contexts play a vital part on teaching and learning. We need to consider their context and apply our teaching to their specific needs to appropriately educate them. Now, I have learned to be more focused on the learners background and specific needs, apply it to the approach I am going to use, as well as reflect on my own experiences and practice, to effectively teach every diverse student I will come across in the future.
  7. 7. Melisa adds…• Kumar (the article) suggests that creating a new method is not the way to go, but instead it is to find a new way to help and advise teachers to create a sense of plausibility. Method should not be considered valuable anymore. Post method pedagogy helps language teachers be cautious and value the learners context, carefully assess and treat the learner, and appropriately work with diverse students with aid from "local assessments of students strategies for learning". And finally, he discusses critical discourse emphasizing on the importance of "extending the educational space to the social, cultural, political language use", not just settling on teaching the pragmatic domains of language use. It is to consider the culture and knowledge within the personal experiences of the students and teachers. Teachers have to create a sense of awareness on beliefs, identities and overall structure within the classroom environment.
  8. 8. Lauren says…• In the beginning of his essay Kuma describes the modern way we should be thinking about TESOL practices. He states that before 1990 TESOL was in a period of awareness but now we are in a period of awakening. I like how he says this, as teachers we learn so many pedagogies, methods and techniques we need to take what we think is best look at our students and figure out what is most beneficial for our classroom. We should not just be aware of these teachings we should be “awakened”, figure out how to put these practices into action.
  9. 9. Ryann says…• I want to call attention to a statement Brown makes on page 41. He states, that the problem with the term "method"is that it connotes a fixes set of classroom practices that serve as a prescription. That a method can be applied to any classroom to cure the issues despite context and leads to learning. As we have discussed in class, teaching calls for a pedagogy of particularity. Can we really diagnose what is needed in a classroom and prescribe a remedy? There is not a method for all. As much as we may want an "easy solution" TESOL is complex and as Brown state son page 44, out approaches to language teaching must be designed for specific contexts of teaching.
  10. 10. Ryan says…• While reading I thought about how useful many ELL students may see CLT. Im sure many ELLs would enjoy what is described as purposeful lessons that they can use day-to-day which promotes communicative fluency while still improving grammar. CLT focuses on meaningful exchanges outside of the classroom and is said to use creative classroom activities including games, role playing scenarios etc. to practice this communicative capacity and motivate students. While reading this article, this method sounds wonderful and effective. However, research found three serious doubts on the efficacy of CLT including its authenticity, acceptability and adaptability. Based on classroom observations it has been found that the application of this method really isnt up to par and there is actually very little communicated in the L2 classroom as learners did not have genuine interaction in the classroom. CLT appears to be based off exaggerated claims and misrepresented ideas. Kumar also states that this method lacked adaptability meaning it could not be adapted for various contexts of language teaching to meet different sociocultural demands. Kumar suggests that this pedagogy is center-based and out of sync with local linguistic, educational, social, political and cultural needs (64).
  11. 11. Brown chapter 3• To assume a gap between theory and practice is dysfunctional indeed!: The Dysfunction of the Theory-Practice Relationship• What were your responses to the questions on page 44?
  12. 12. Communicative Language Teaching• In your groups, define some of the principles of CLT
  13. 13. CLT• In the 1970s, educators began to question if they were really achieving the goal of language classes. Some observed that studenst were producing accurate sentences, but they were not usin the language in appropriate context for appropriate communicative purposes.• In 1980s there was a shift from focused based linguistic centered approach to a Communicative Approach which highlighted the importance of communicative competence (Hymes, 1971)• The main goal of teaching a language is to communicate in the target language.
  14. 14. Main principles of CLT• Communication is purposeful. Language is for communication. Students use language with a communicative intent.• The use of authentic and real world contexts. Materials should help students to develop strategies for understanding language a it is actually used.• Teacher is a facilitator: Monitors student performance and acts as an advisor• Students are communicators. They are actively engaged in negotiating meaning.• Both fluency and accuracy are important. Teachers’ job is to provide appropriate feedback.
  15. 15. Versions of CLT• Indirect approach: Incidental learning without a specific focus on form, rules and language principles (String version of CLT).• Direct approach: Carefully structured tasks for learners. Aid ;learners to develop communicative strategies.
  16. 16. Watch and Evaluate• http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=QirhNeIwQ0w&feature=relatedhttp://www.youtube.com/watch?v=iGDxCg90Its• Define some of the tenants of CLT and TBL through these videos. What are some of the principles/theories represented in these lessons? Do they fit into the descriptions you have read so far? Why? Why not? Do they seem to you more language/learner/learning centered?
  17. 17. Task-based learning• In your groups, define some of the principles of task based learning.
  18. 18. Task-Based“Task is an activity which requires learners to use language, withemphasis on meaning, to attain an objective” (p.50)Tasks contribute to communicative goals.• Aims to provide learners with a natural context for language use.• Learners need to complete a task to have abundant opportunities to interact.• Meaning is primary.• There is always some sort of a problem to solve (genuine problem- solving activity)• Task completion has priority.
  19. 19. Watch and Evaluate• http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=QirhNeIwQ0w&feature=relatedhttp://www.youtube.com/watch?v=iGDxCg90Its• Define some of the tenants of CLT and TBL through these videos. What are some of the principles/theories represented in these lessons? Do they fit into the descriptions you have read so far? Why? Why not? Do they seem to you more language/learner/learning centered?
  20. 20. Other approaches• Learning-Centered• Cooperative Learning• Interactive Learning• Whole Language Education• Content-Based Instruction• Lexical Approach• Multiple Intelligences
  21. 21. Kumar’s 2006 article• In your groups, please define these three main theoretical and pedagogical shifts in the field of TESOL. Our class facilitators will be mentoring you during the process of defining and discussing the main shifts.• 1) From CLT to TBL• 2) From Method based to Post-Method• 3) From systemic discovery to critical discourse
  22. 22. SHIFT # 1: From CLT to Task-based… CLT develops as a response to the Audiolingual method Scholars find shortcomings with CLT: Prabhu (1987), Chick (1996), Shamim (1996), Li (1998), Yu (2001), etc. Holliday (1994) adapts the CLT by suggesting an appropriate methodology (method that is sensitive to sociocultural demands)
  23. 23. SHIFT # 2: From method to post-method• Problem with method: “[method] reflects a particular view of the world and is articulated in the interests of unequal power relations” (Pennycook 1989)• Prabhu – what really matters is the need for teachers to learn “to operate with some personal conceptualization of how their teaching leads to desired learning – with a notion of causation that has a measure of credibility for them”--sense of plausibility!
  24. 24. SHIFT # 3: From systemic discovery to criticaldiscourseDuring 1990s, the TESOL profession took a “critical turn”Teaching languages is also about ideologies. Teaching a language isabout creating cultural forms that give meaning to learners’ livedexperiencesLanguage teaching is a value-laden activity.New ways of looking at classrooms: Participatory pedagogy
  25. 25. An important perspective to take with youtoday…“We have been awakened to the necessity of making methods-based pedagogies more sensitive to local exigencies, awakened to the opportunity afforded by postmethod pedagogies to help practicing teachers develop their own theory of practice, awakened to the multiplicity of learner identities, awakened to the complexity of teacher beliefs, and awakened to the vitality of macrostructures–social, cultural, political, and historical– that shape and reshape the microstructures of our pedagogical enterprise.” (Kuma 75)