Constitution of india


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Constitution of india

  1. 1. Political philosophies <ul><li>Democracy- </li></ul><ul><li>Pure </li></ul><ul><li>Republican </li></ul><ul><li>Totalitarianism/authoritarianism- </li></ul><ul><li>Theocratic </li></ul><ul><li>Secular </li></ul><ul><li>Tribal. </li></ul>
  2. 2. Political Institutions <ul><li>Legislature-makes laws, approves budgets,controls executive and acts as a mirror of public opinion. </li></ul><ul><li>Executive or Government. </li></ul><ul><li>Judiciary. </li></ul>
  3. 3. Business responsibilities to Government <ul><li>Tax Payment. </li></ul><ul><li>Voluntary programmes. </li></ul><ul><li>Providing information. </li></ul><ul><li>Government contracts. </li></ul><ul><li>Government service. </li></ul><ul><li>Political activity. </li></ul>
  4. 4. Government responsibilities to business <ul><li>Establishment and enforcement of law </li></ul><ul><li>Maintenance of order. </li></ul><ul><li>Money & credit. </li></ul><ul><li>Orderly growth. </li></ul><ul><li>Infrastructure. </li></ul><ul><li>Information. </li></ul><ul><li>Assistance to small industries. </li></ul><ul><li>Transfer of technology. </li></ul><ul><li>Government competition. </li></ul><ul><li>Inspections & licenses. </li></ul><ul><li>Tariffs & Quotas. </li></ul>
  5. 5. Judiciary <ul><li>It ensures that the exercise of executive authority confirms to general rules laid down by Legislature. </li></ul><ul><li>It settles the relationship between private citizens and the government. </li></ul>
  6. 6. Systems of Law <ul><li>Islamic law. </li></ul><ul><li>Common law. </li></ul><ul><li>Civil or code law. </li></ul><ul><li>Marxist legal system. </li></ul>
  7. 7. Judicial powers <ul><li>The authority of the court to settle legal disputes. </li></ul><ul><li>Judicial review-the authority of the court to rule on the constitutionality of legislation. </li></ul>
  8. 8. Judicial Activism <ul><li>First used in USA in 1954 in the Brown vs. Board of Education case. </li></ul><ul><li>It refers to the review power vested with the courts and its scope varies with the width of the power conferred on courts. </li></ul><ul><li>It represents a sustained effort on the part of the highest judiciary to provide access to justice for the deprived sections. </li></ul><ul><li>The scope is wider where the power of judicial review extends not only over executive action,but also other legislative action or even over constitutional amendments. </li></ul><ul><li>Judicial activism should not result in judicial adventurism. </li></ul>
  9. 9. Fundamental Rights <ul><li>Right to equality </li></ul><ul><li>Right to freedom of religion </li></ul><ul><li>Right to cultural and educational freedom </li></ul><ul><li>Right against exploitation </li></ul><ul><li>Right to freedom. </li></ul><ul><li>Right to constitutional remedies </li></ul>
  10. 10. Right to Equality <ul><li>Equality before law- Article 14. </li></ul><ul><li>Prohibition of discrimination- Article 15. </li></ul><ul><li>Equality of opportunity- Article 16. </li></ul><ul><li>Abolition of Untouchability- Article 17. </li></ul><ul><li>Abolition of Titles- Article 18. </li></ul>
  11. 11. Freedom of Religion <ul><li>Freedom of conscience- Article 25. </li></ul><ul><li>Freedom to manage religious affairs- Article 26. </li></ul><ul><li>Freedom for paying taxes for the promotion of religion- Article 27. </li></ul><ul><li>No religious instructions in government educational institutions- Article 28. </li></ul>
  12. 12. Cultural & Educational rights <ul><li>Right to protect language,script and culture- Article 29. </li></ul><ul><li>Right to establish and administer educational institutions- Article 30. </li></ul>
  13. 13. Right against Exploitation <ul><li>Prohibition of traffic in human beings and forced labour- Article 23. </li></ul><ul><li>Prohibition of employment of children- Article 24. </li></ul>
  14. 14. Right to Freedom <ul><li>Rights under Article 19- </li></ul><ul><li>- speech and expression. </li></ul><ul><li>- to assemble peacefully and without arms. </li></ul><ul><li>- to form associations or unions. </li></ul><ul><li>- to move freely throughout the territory of India. </li></ul><ul><li>- to reside and settle anywhere in India. </li></ul><ul><li>- to practise any profession or to carry on any occupation,trade or business. </li></ul><ul><li>Protection in respect of conviction of an offence- Article 20. </li></ul><ul><li>Protection of life and personal liberty- Article 21. </li></ul><ul><li>Protection against arrest & detention- Article 22. </li></ul>
  15. 15. Right to constitutional remedies <ul><li>Citizen can approach the Supreme Court for implementation of fundamental rights- Article 32(1). </li></ul><ul><li>The Supreme Court has the right to issue writs in the nature of Habeas Corpus, Mandamus, Prohibition, Quo-warranto & Certiorari- Article 32(2). </li></ul><ul><li>The Indian Parliament can power any court to issue notice within its jurisdiction without infringing or influencing the powers of the Supreme Court- Article 32(3). </li></ul><ul><li>The State cannot suspend the right to constitutional remedies except in cases provided by the Constitution- Article 32(4). </li></ul>
  16. 16. Reasons for state intervention <ul><li>Delayed growth must be sponsored. </li></ul><ul><li>Modern economy must be planned. </li></ul><ul><li>Government is bound to enter into industrial & commercial activities in a socialist economy. </li></ul><ul><li>Government policies decide what undertakings should be established,how it should be run etc. </li></ul><ul><li>For economic & social well being of people money can be generated by active participation of government in business. </li></ul><ul><li>For a strong base for future development government must assume responsibility at least in relation to core industries & facilities. </li></ul><ul><li>Government intervention is necessitated by the failure of markets. </li></ul>
  17. 17. Types of State Intervention <ul><li>On the basis of nature </li></ul><ul><li>- formal and informal </li></ul><ul><li>On the basis of approach </li></ul><ul><li>- coercive and inducive </li></ul><ul><li>On the basis of spread </li></ul><ul><li>- direct and indirect </li></ul><ul><li>On the basis of effect </li></ul><ul><li>- promotional and regulatory </li></ul><ul><li>On the basis of effect on competition </li></ul><ul><li>- make competition work </li></ul><ul><li>- set standards for competition </li></ul><ul><li>- supplement competition </li></ul>
  18. 18. Role of Government <ul><li>Regulation. </li></ul><ul><li>Promotion. </li></ul><ul><li>Entrepreneurship. </li></ul><ul><li>Planning. </li></ul>
  19. 19. Directive principles of state policy <ul><li>Provisions dealing with welfare (Art. 38, 42, 45, 47) </li></ul><ul><li>Provisions dealing with social justice/ (Art. 39, 41, 43, 46) </li></ul><ul><li>Provisions promoting democracy (Art. 40, 44, 45) </li></ul><ul><li>Miscellaneous provisions relating to environment etc., (Art. 48, 49, 50, 51) </li></ul>
  20. 20. Significance of DPSP <ul><li>DPSP are backed by public opinion. </li></ul><ul><li>Provide for a welfare state. </li></ul><ul><li>Importance as Moral Ideals. </li></ul><ul><li>Directives constitute a Guide for the State. </li></ul><ul><li>Source of continuity in policies. </li></ul><ul><li>Are supplementary to fundamental rights. </li></ul><ul><li>Yardstick for measuring the Worth of the Government. </li></ul><ul><li>Helpful in interpretation of the Constitution. </li></ul><ul><li>Ambiguity of Directive Principles is useful. </li></ul>
  21. 21. Aim at socio-economic democracy. Provide for political democracy. Type of democracy DPSP unless implemented are in a state of permanent suspended animation. Can be suspended during emergency under article 352. Suspension Are backed by Public Opinion. Are backed by Law. Backing Yet to be attained. Have already been attained. Attainment DPSP are non enforceable. Are legally superior to DPSP,as they are enforceable. Superiority Are not justiceable. Are justiceable. Justiceable DPSP are positive injunctions. Fundamental rights are negative injunctions Injunctions Directive Principles of state policy Fundamental Rights Basis