14668033 project-report-on-entrepreneurship-in-india


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14668033 project-report-on-entrepreneurship-in-india

  1. 1. Scope of Entrepreneurship development in IndiaINTRODUCTIONIndia is a very young nation – just over 61 years since independence – setting outon a path of sustained economic growth, for decades to come.We already have over a billion fellow Indians. Within the next 20 years, we willhave 400 million people below the age of 35 years – more than the entirepopulation of the United States! Each person, in this bold new generation, will bein the prime of his or her life, striving for a better tomorrow – creating, in theprocess, new growth opportunities, for budding entrepreneurs!On the most conservative basis, our domestic consumption, in virtually any sector,has the potential to at least double, or treble, from current levels – perhaps, just tocatch up with a country like China.Then, there is the entire global opportunity, across diverse sectors internationally,the "Made in India" tag is now an increasingly respected brand, valued for quality,reliability, and competitiveness.Truly, with economic reforms in the country, and with the virtual removal of alltrade barriers, the world is now our market and our opportunity.The pursuit of these opportunities requires an indomitable spirit ofentrepreneurship.Entrepreneurship is often a difficult undertaking, as a vast majority of newbusinesses fail. Entrepreneurial activities are substantially different depending onthe type of organization that is being started. Entrepreneurship ranges in scale fromsolo projects (even involving the entrepreneur only part-time) to majorundertakings creating many job opportunities. Many "high-profile" entrepreneurial
  2. 2. ventures seek venture capital or angel funding in order to raise capital to build thebusiness. Angel investors generally seek returns of 20-30% and more extensiveinvolvement in the business ENTREPRENEURSHIP Definition Entrepreneurship is niegther science nor an art . It is the practice. It has aknowledge base . -- Peter Drucker Entrepreneurship is the practice of starting new organizations or revitalizingmature organizations, particularly new businesses generally in response toidentified opportunities.Entrepreneurship is a creative human act involving the mobilization of resourcesfrom one level of productive use to a higher level of use. "It is the process bywhich the individual pursue opportunities without regard to resources currentlycontrolled."Entrepreneurship involves a willingness to take responsibility and ability to putmind to a task and see it through from inception to completion. Another ingredientof entrepreneurship is sensing opportunities, while others see chaos, contradiction,and confusion. Essence of Entrepreneurship is going against time with maturity andserving as a change agent.SCOPE OF ENTREPRENEURSHIPDEVELOPMENT IN INDIAIn India there is a dearth of quality people in industry, which demands high level ofentrepreneurship development programme through out the country for the growthof Indian economy.The scope of entrepreneurship development in country like India is tremendous.Especially since there is widespread concern that the acceleration in GDP growthin the post reforms period has not been accompanied by a commensurate expansionin employment. Results of the 57th round of the National Sample SurveyOrganization (NSSO) show that unemployment figures in 2003-04 were as high as8.9 million. Incidentally, one million more Indian joined the rank of theunemployed between 2005-06 & 2007-08. The rising unemployment rate (9.2%2008 est.) in India has resulted in growing frustration among the youth. In additionthere is always problem of underemployment. As a result, increasing theentrepreneurial activities in the country is the only solace. Incidentally, both thereports prepared by Planning Commission to generate employment opportunities
  3. 3. for 10 crore people over the next ten years have strongly recommended self-employment as a way-out for teaming unemployed youth.We have all the requisite technical and knowledge base to take up theentrepreneurial challenge. The success of Indian entrepreneurs in Silicon Valley isevident as proof. The only thing that is lacking is confidence and mentalpreparation. We are more of a reactive kind of a people. We need to get out of thisand become more proactive. What is more important than the skill and knowledgebase is the courage to take the plunge. Our problem is we do not stretch ourselves.However, it is appreciative that the current generations of youth do not have hang-ups about the previous legacy and are willing to experiment. Theses are the peoplewho will bring about entrepreneurship in India.At present, there are various organizations at the country level & state leveloffering support to entrepreneurs in various ways. The Govt. of India & variousState Govts. have been implementing various schemes & programmes aimed atnurturing entrepreneurship over last four decades. For example, MCED inMaharashtra provides systematic training, dissemination of the information & dataregarding all aspects of entrepreneurship & conducting research inentrepreneurship. Then there are various Govt. sponsored scheme for the buddingentrepreneurs.Recognizing the importance of the entrepreneur development in economic growth& employment generation, Maharashtra Economic Development Council (MEDC)has identified entrepreneurial development as the one of the focus area for Councilactivities two years ago.Various Chambers of Commerce & apex institutions have started organizingseminars & workshops to promote entrepreneurship. Incidentally, variousmanagement colleges have incorporated entrepreneurship as part of theircurriculum. This is indeed a good development. This shows the commitment of theGovt. & the various organizations towards developing entrepreneurial qualities inthe individuals. CHARACTERISTICS OF AN ENTREPRENEURSHIP Future PerspectiveEntrepreneurship as in the past will determine technical innovations, status ofsocial institutions and political management systems. On the basis of these factors,we can expect the future to be a place where basic needs will remain and only thewants will change. India will overcome the barriers of infrastructure; we will alsovisualize a strong manufacturing and agricultural sector.Entrepreneurs and not managers will be in demand, as only they will be equipped
  4. 4. to find order in chaos. The focus of entrepreneurial energy will shift fromachieving volume sales to fulfill a specific requirement. Governance will becomemore transparent and will be willing to accept changes necessary for growth anddevelopment. More autonomy will become the basis of all issues.The future will see Entrepreneurship as the key driver of economic developmentTechnological obsolescence will become order of the day and there will be morespace for leisure. New businesses will be credited with providing variety of newjobs in the economy. New and small business will also develop more than theirshare of product and service innovation. At one end we will see the technologicalupheavals in quick succession and on the other end there will be social valuesystems and cultural issues undergoing slow but dynamic transformations. TOP COMPANIES IN INDIA Reliance Industries Limited This is the largest private sector conglomerate in India founded by DhirubhaiAmabani with an annual turnover of about US$ 35.9.This Fortune Global 500company have its businesses in materials and energy value chain. It enjoys theposition of the global leadership and is also the largest producer of yarn and fibrein the world. It ranks among the top ten producers across the globe in majorpetrochemical products. The primary subsidiaries of the company are RelianceRetail Limited and Reliance Petroleum Limited along with Reliance IndustrialInfrastructure Limited. Dhirubhai AmbaniA proud son of this glorious state of Gujarat, and a man with long ties with this
  5. 5. wonderful city of Ahmedabad, was the greatest example of this spirit ofentrepreneurship!In a short span of less than 25 years, and without even the benefit of a formaleducation, Dhirubhai Ambani built Reliance, a first generation enterprise, into oneof the world’s 200 most profitable companies!He started out in life, working as a mere petrol pump attendant in Aden, Yemen.He had no technical knowledge, of any of the businesses he wished to create inIndia. Products & Brands The Company expanded into textiles in 1975. Since its initial public offering in1977, the Company has expanded rapidly and integrated backwards into otherindustry sectors, most notably the production of petrochemicals and the refining ofcrude oil. The Company now has operations that span from the exploration and productionof oil and gas to the manufacture of petroleum products, polyester products,polyester intermediates, plastics, polymer intermediates, chemicals and synthetictextiles and fabrics. The Company from time to time seeks to further diversify into other industries. InJanuary 2006, the Company approved a plan to establish a retail business through asubsidiary Reliance Retail Limited that will operate, among other things,supermarkets, convenience stores and specialty stores across India. The Companyapproved initial expenditure of US$ 750 million to fund the initial stages of thisplan. The Companys subsidiary Reliance Jamnagar Infrastructure Limited is currentlyestablishing infrastructure facilities such as roads and buildings for the proposedSpecial Economic Zone (SEZ) at Jamnagar, Gujarat. The Companys major products and brands, from oil and gas to textiles are tightlyintegrated and benefit from synergies across the Company. Central to theCompanys operations is its vertical backward integration strategy; raw materialssuch as PTA, MEG, ethylene, propylene and normal paraffin that were previouslyimported at a higher cost and subject to import duties are now sourced from withinthe Company. This has had a positive effect on the Companys operating marginsand interest costs and decreased the Companys exposure to the cyclicality ofmarkets and raw material prices. The Company believes that this strategy is alsoimportant in maintaining a domestic market leadership position in its major productlines and in providing a competitive advantage. The Companys operations can be classified into four segments namely: • Petroleum Refining and Marketing business • Petrochemicals business
  6. 6. • Oil and Gas Exploration & Production business • Others The Companys refinery at Jamnagar is the third largest refinery at a single location in the world. The Company is: • The worlds largest producer of Polyester Fibre and Yarn o 4th largest producer of Paraxylene (PX) and Purified Terepthalic Acid (PTA) • 6th largest producer of Mono Ethylene Glycol (MEG) • 7th largest producer of Polypropylene (PP) Milestones • Starting as a small textile company, Reliance has in its journney crossed several milestones to become a Fortune 500 company in less than 3 decades. • Reliance continues to cross newer & bigger milestones in its quest for what is known as "Growth is Life". Growth through Recognition Reliance has merited a series of awards andrecognitions for excellence for businesses and operations. 2007-2008 • Shri Mukesh Ambani was awarded the Defence India Excellence Award 2007. The Award is a salute to those who have made the country proud. • Shri Mukesh Ambani was conferred the Indian of the Year Award by NDTV. This is India’s most prestigious award for outstanding contribution towards the betterment of the nation. Shri Mukesh Ambani received the coveted award in the Business Category. • Shri Mukesh Ambani was conferred the Outstanding Business Leader of the Year Award by CNBC TV18. • Shri Mukesh Ambani was awarded the Business Leadership Award 2007 by NDTV Profit. • Shri Mukesh Ambani was conferred the Leadership Award for Global Vision by the United States India Business Council.
  7. 7. • Shri Mukesh Ambani was elected to be a member of the Honorary Fellows of The Institution of Chemical Engineers, UK. • On invitation to Shri Mukesh Ambani, Reliance Industries Limited became a Council Member of World Business Council for Sustainable Development (WBCSD) in July 2007. Presently, Shri Mukesh Ambani is the only Indian CEO who is Council Member of WBCSD. Corporate Ranking and Ratings: Reliance featured in the Fortune Global 500 list of ‘World’s LargestCorporations’ for the fourth consecutive year. • Ranked 269th in 2007 having moved up 73 places from the previous year. • Featured as one of the world’s Top 200 companies in terms of Profits. Among the top 25 climbers for two years in a row. Featured among top 50 companies with the biggest increase in Revenues. Ranked 26th within the refining industry. Reliance is ranked 182nd in the FT Global 500 (up from previous year’s 284thrank). Petroleum Federation of India conferred the “Refinery of the Year Award - 2007”to Jamnagar Manufacturing DivisionExports“The Plastics Export Promotion Council - PLEXCOUNCIL Export Award” in thecategory of Plastic Polymers for the year 2006-2007 was awarded to Reliancebeing the largest exporter in this category.Health, Safety and EnvironmentJamnagar Manufacturing Division was conferred the “Golden Peacock Award forOccupational Health & Safety - 2007” by Institute of Directors.Jamnagar Manufacturing Division was conferred the “ICC Award for WaterResource Management in Chemical Industry”.Hoshiarpur Manufacturing Division bagged the First Prize in “Safety in Punjab”,organized by Punjab Safety Council.Nagothane Manufacturing Division received the “Shrishti G-Cube Award forGood Green Governance” from Minister for Commerce and Industry, on World
  8. 8. Earth Day.Training and DevelopmentJamnagar Refinery was adjudged the winner of the “Golden Peacock NationalTraining Award -2007”.Patalganga Manufacturing Division won the “ASTD (American Society forTraining & Development) Excellence in Practice Award” for innovative practicetitled Learning Function’s role as Business partner: Empowering people withKnowledge to achieve Business Goals.Reliance won the CNBC TV-18 instituted Jobstreet.com Jobseekers’ Employer ofChoice Award.Energy ExcellenceExploration & Production (E&P) Division won “The Infraline Energy ExcellenceAwards 2007: Hydrocarbon Columbus Award for Excellence in PetroleumExploration”.Patalganga Manufacturing Division won the First Prize in “Energy Conservationin State of Maharashtra” organized by Maharashtra Energy Development Agency(MEDA).Jamnagar Manufacturing Division won the “Oil & Gas Conservation Award-2007” from the Centre for High Technology, Ministry of Power & Natural Gasfor the excellent performance in reduction/elimination of steam leaks in the plant.Jamnagar Manufacturing Division was the recipient of the “Infraline EnergyAward-2007” by Ministry of Power.Hazira Manufacturing Division won the Government of India EnergyConservation Award (2007) conferred by the Bureau of energy efficiency andMinistry of Power.Hazira Manufacturing Division was adjudged “Excellent Energy Efficient Unit” atEnergy Summit - 2007 by CII.Vadodara Manufacturing Division received the CII award for “Excellence inEnergy Management - 2007” as energy efficient unit. This division also receivedthe 2nd prize in “National Energy Conservation Award - 2007” from Bureau ofEnergy efficiency, Ministry of Power, Government of India.The Company’s manufacturing divisions at Vadodara and Hazira were honouredwith CII-National award for excellence in water management - 2007 as waterefficient unit in “Within the fence” category. Additionally, Hazira ManufacturingDivision was honoured as water efficient unit “Beyond the Fence” category.Quality
  9. 9. For the first time ever, globally, a petrochemical company bagged the “DemingPrize for Management Quality”. “The Quality Control Award for OperationsBusiness Unit 2007” was awarded to the Hazira Manufacturing Division forOutstanding Performance by Practicing Total Quality Management.“QUALTECH PRIZE 2007”, which recognizes extraordinary results inimprovement and innovation, was won by Hazira Manufacturing Division for itsSmall Group Activity Project.Vadodara Manufacturing Division’s Polypropylene-IV (PP-IV) plant wasconferred the “Spheripol Process Operability Award-2006” for the highestoperability rate with an on stream factor 98.97% by M/s. BASELL, Italy.Allahabad Manufacturing Division won the “Excellent Category Award” atNational Convention of Quality Circle (NCQC) - 07.Six-SigmaLean Six sigma project on “Reducing retention time of caustic soda lye tankers atJamnagar” won the 1st prize in the national level competition held by IndianStatistical Institute (ISI).Patalganga Manufacturing Division’s Six Sigma Project on Improve TransferEfficiency for Automatic winders in PFY won the 2nd Prize for “Best design forSix Sigma Project in International Six Sigma Competition” organized by IQPC(International Quality and Productivity center).Barabanki Manufacturing Division won the 3rd prize in “All India Six Sigma casestudy contest 2008” for the Case study on “Reduction of waste of Plant 2 from16% to 8%”.Hoshiarpur Manufacturing Division won the 2nd prize in “Six Sigma competitionat National Level” organized by ISI and Quality Council of India (inmanufacturing category), while Dhenkanal and Barabanki ManufacturingDivisions won the 3rd prize.Vadodara Manufacturing Division’s Six Sigma project won the 1st prize as the“Best Six Sigma project” at National level by CII.Technology, R&D and InnovationVadodra Manufacturing Division’s R&D bagged an award from Indian Institute ofChemical Engineers for Excellence in Process / Product Development for the workon “Eco friendly Process for Acetonitrile Recovery”.DSIR National Award for R&D Efforts in Industry (2007)” was conferred onHazira Manufacturing Division for the Cyclehexane Recovery Project.
  10. 10. Patalganga Manufacturing Division’s Project titled Augmentation of ETP and useof biogas in Fired heaters won the “Best Innovative Project” from CII.Reliance bagged the “Innovation Award at Tech Converge 2007” for innovativedevelopments in short-cut fibres.Hazira Manufacturing Division won the “Golden Peacock Innovation Award -2007” for its Cyclohexane Recovery Process. Information TechnologyCIO of the Year Award” for the best IT-enabled organization in India for the Year2007.Ones to Watch - CIO - USA Award”, for figuring among the top 20 organizationsfostering excellence in IT team.The Skoch Challenger Award” conferred for the best IT Head (managing the mostIT enabled organization) of the Year 2007.Best IT Implementation Award”, by PC Quest for Knowledge ManagementSystems portal (KMS).CIO Excellence Award” for Chemical Industry Information Technology Forum forexemplary Information Social InitiativesHazira Manufacturing Division won the “Golden Peacock Global Award forCorporate Social Responsibility” - 2008.
  11. 11. OIL & NATURAL GAS CORPORATIONOil and Natural Gas Corporation Limited (ONGC) (incorporated on June 23,1993) is an Indian public sector petroleum company. It is a Fortune Global 500company ranked 335th, and contributes 77% of Indias crude oil production and81% of Indias natural gas production. It is the highest profit making corporation inIndia. It was set up as a commission on August 14, 1956. Indian government holds74.14% equity stake in this company.ONGC is one of Asias largest and most active companies involved in explorationand production of oil. It is involved in exploring for and exploiting hydrocarbons in26 sedimentary basins of India. It produces about 30% of Indias crude oilrequirement. It owns and operates more than 11,000 kilometers of pipelines inIndia. Until recently (March 2007) it was the largest company in terms of marketcap in India.This company is awarded as the Best Oil and Gas company in Asia. It is the lonecontributor of about 84% Indias oil and gas. This company is not only among theleading Indian companies but also a leading company of oil and gas. The highestprofit making corporate of India is ONGC. It has 77% share in the crude oilproduction of India. The companys main activity is to explore,refine, produce,market and transport crude oil, natural gas etc. FOUNDATION In August 1956, the Oil and Natural Gas Commission was formed. Raisedfrom mere Directorate status to Commission, it had enhanced powers. In 1959,these powers were further enhanced by converting the commission into a statutorybody by an act of Indian Parliament. MILE STONE
  12. 12. Columbia University-ISB joint survey finds ONGC top Indian multinationalby foreign assetsApril 20, 2009ONGC advances to 152nd in Forbes Global 2000 metricsApril 19, 2009ONGC receives ‘Leading Oil & Gas Corporate of the Year’ AwardApril 16, 2009ONGC receives Dalal Street Investment Journal Award for Highest Profit amongPSUsMarch 25, 2009 INTERNATIONAL RANKINGSONGC has been ranked at 198 by the Forbes Magazine in their Forbes Global 2000list for the year 2007 .ONGC has featured in the 2008 list of Fortune Global 500 companies at position335, a climb of 34 positions from rank of 369 in 2007.ONGC is ranked as Asia’s best Oil & Gas company, as per a recent surveyconducted by US-based magazine ‘Global Finance2nd biggest E&P company (and 1st in terms of profits), as per the Platts EnergyBusiness Technology (EBT) Survey 2004Ranks 24th among Global Energy Companies by Market Capitalization in PFCEnergy 50 (December 2004).Economic Times 500, Business Today 500, Business Baron 500 and BusinessWeek recognizes ONGC as most valuable Indian corporate, by MarketCapitalization, Net Worth and Net ProfitS.Global RankingONGC ranks as the Numero Uno Oil & Gas Exploration& Production (E&P) Company in Asia, as per Platts 250Global Energy Companies List for the year 2007 based onassets, revenues, profits and return on invested capital(ROIC) (September 2007).ONGC ranks 20th among the Global publicly-listedEnergy companies as per ‘PFC Energy 50” (Jan 2008)ONGC is the only Company from India in the Fortune Magazine’s list of theWorld’s Most Admired Companies 2007.
  13. 13. ONGC ranked 335th position as per Fortune Global 500 2008 list; up from 369th rank last year, based on revenues, profits, assets and shareholder’s equity. ONGC maintains top rank in terms of profits among seven companies from India in the list. STRATEGIC VISION: 2001-2020 To focus on core business of E&P, ONGC has set strategic objectives of: Doubling reserves (i.e. accreting 6 billion tonnes of O+OEG). Improving average recovery from 28 per cent to 40 per cent. Tie-up 20 MMTPA of equity Hydrocarbon from abroad. The focus of management will be to monetise the assets as well as to assetise the money. Represents India’s Energy SecurityONGC has single-handedly scripted India’s hydrocarbon saga by:Establishing 6.61 billion tonnes of In-place hydrocarbon reserves with morethan 300 discoveries of oil and gas; in fact, 6 out of the 7 producing basins havebeen discovered by ONGC: out of these In-place hydrocarbons in domesticacreages, Ultimate Reserves are 2.36 Billion Metric tonnes (BMT) of Oil Plus OilEquivalent Gas (O+OEG).Cumulatively producing 788.273 Million Metric Tonnes (MMT) of crude and 463Billion Cubic Meters (BCM) of Natural Gas, from 111 fields.
  14. 14. Type Public (BSE, NSE:SBI) & (LSE: SBID)Founded Calcutta, 1806 (as Bank of Calcutta) Corporate Centre,Headquarters Madam Cama Road, Mumbai 400 021 IndiaKey people Om Prakash Bhatt, Chairman BankingIndustry Insurance Capital Markets and allied industries
  15. 15. Loans, Credit Cards, Savings, Investment vehicles, Products SBI Life (Insurance) etc. Revenue ▲ US$ 11.95 billion (2008) Net income ▲ US$ 503 million (2008)[1] Total assets US$ 127 billionIt is the largest Indian bank and one of the leading companies in India.Itoffers banking services through its wide network in India and overseas.With more than 16,000 branches it accounts for the largest bank branchnetwork in India. It offers services like the Mobile Banking, InternetBanking, Demat Services,ATM Services, Corporate Banking,MerchantBanking, Agricultural Banking, online services like online educationalloan, online SME loan and many others.The bank has 52 branches, agencies or offices in 32 countries. It hasbranches of the parent in Colombo, Dhaka, Frankfurt, Hong Kong,Johannesburg, London and environs, Los Angeles, Male in the Maldives,Muscat, New York, Osaka, Sydney, and Tokyo. It has offshore bankingunits in the Bahamas, Bahrain, and Singapore, and representative officesin Bhutan and Cape Town.SBI operates several foreign subsidiaries or affiliates. In 1990 itestablished an offshore bank, State Bank of India (Mauritius). It has twosubsidiaries in North America, State Bank of India (California), andState Bank of India (Canada). In 1982, the bank established itsCalifornia subsidiary, which now has seven branches. The Canadiansubsidiary was also established in 1982 and also has seven branches,four in the greater Toronto area, and three in British Columbia. InNigeria, it operates as INMB Bank . This bank was established in 1981as the Indo-Nigerian Merchant Bank and received permission in 2002 tocommence retail banking. It now has five branches in Nigeria. In NepalSBI owns 50% of Nepal SBI Bank, which has branches throughout the
  16. 16. country. In Moscow SBI owns 60% of Commercial Bank of India, withCanara Bank owning the rest. In Indonesia it owns 76% of PT Bank IndoMonex.State Bank of India already has a branch in Shanghai and plans to openone up in TianjinHistoryThe roots of the State Bank of India rest in the first decade of 19thcentury, when the Bank of Calcutta, later renamed the Bank of Bengal,was established on 2 June 1806. The Bank of Bengal and two otherPresidency banks, namely, the Bank of Bombay (incorporated on 15April 1840) and the Bank of Madras (incorporated on 1 July 1843). Allthree Presidency banks were incorporated as joint stock companies, andwere the result of the royal charters. These three banks received theexclusive right to issue paper currency in 1861 with the Paper CurrencyAct, a right they retained until the formation of the Reserve Bank ofIndia. The Presidency banks amalgamated on 27 January 1921, and thereorganized banking entity took as its name Imperial Bank of India. TheImperial Bank of India continued to remain a joint stock company.Pursuant to the provisions of the State Bank of India Act (1955), theReserve Bank of India, which is Indias central bank, acquired acontrolling interest in the Imperial Bank of India. On 30 April 1955 theImperial Bank of India became the State Bank of India.Offices of the Bank of BengalIn 1959 the Government passed the State Bank of India (SubsidiaryBanks) Act, enabling the State Bank of India to take over eight formerState-associated banks as its subsidiaries. On Sept 13, 2008, State Bankof Saurashtra, one of its Associate Banks, merged with State Bank ofIndia.ASSOCIATE BANKS
  17. 17. State Bank of Indore, State Bank of Bikaner & Jaipur, State Bank ofHyderabadState Bank of Mysore, State Bank of Patiala, State Bank of TravancoreGroup companiesSBI Capital Markets LtdSBI Mutual Fund (A Trust)SBI Factors and Commercial Services LtdSBI DFHI LtdSBI Cards and Payment Services Pvt LtdSBI Life Insurance Co. Ltd - Bancassurance (Life Insurance)SBI Funds Management Pvt LtdSBI Canada
  18. 18. INDIAN OIL CORPORATIONMr. Sarthak Behuria chairmanType PSU (Trading on BSE & NSE)Founded 1964Headquarters New Delhi, IndiaKey people Sarthak Behuria, ChairmanIndustry Petroleum products = Petrol, Diesel, Kerosene, LPG,PetrochemicalsRevenue ▲ र. 2474.79 billion or $61.7 Billion [1] (2007-2008)Net income US$ 1.96 billion (2007) ▲ 12.9% from 2006
  19. 19. Total assets US$ 26.2 billion (2007) Total equity US$ 10.87 billion (2007) Employees ~36,217 (2006)It is a public sector Indian Petroleum company and also the largestcommercial enterprise in India. This company ranks 116 on the list ofthe Fortune Global 500 list in the year 2008.It operates the widest andthe largest network of fuel stations in India which is about 17,606.AutoLPG Dispensing Stations are started by the company and it helps reachIndane Cooking Gas to 47.5 million households. The companysproducts are diesel, petrol , Servo Lubricants etc.It began operation in 1959 as Indian Oil Company Ltd. The Indian OilCorporation was formed in 1964, with the merger of Indian RefineriesLtd. Indian Oil and its subsidiaries account for a 47% share in thepetroleum products market, 40% share in refining capacity and 67%downstream sector pipelines capacity in India. The Indian Oil Group ofCompanies owns and operates 10 of Indias 19 refineries with acombined refining capacity of 60.2 million metric tons per year.ProductsIndian Oils product range covers petrol, diesel, LPG, auto LPG, aviationturbine fuel, lubricants, naphtha, bitumen, paraffin, kerosene etc. XtraPremium branded petrol, Xtra Mile high speed diesel, Servo lubricants,Indane LPG, Autogas LPG, Indian Oil Aviation are some of its prominentbrands.Recently Indian Oil has also introduced a new business line of supplyingLNG(Liquefied natural gas) by the cryogenic transportation. Thebranding called "LNG at Doorstep". Lng headquarters are located inscope complex, Lodhi Road Delhi REFINERIES • Digboi Refinery, in Upper Assam, is Indias oldest refinery and was commissioned in 1901. Originally a part of Assam Oil Company, it became part of IndianOil in 1981. Its original refining capacity had been 0.5 MMTPA since 1901. Modernisation project of this refinery has been completed and the refinery now has an increased capacity of 0.65 MMTPA. • Guwahati Refinery, the first public sector refinery of the country, was built with Romanian collaboration and was inaugurated by
  20. 20. Late Pt. Jawaharlal Nehru, the first Prime Minister of India, on 1 January 1962. • Barauni Refinery, in Bihar, was built in collaboration with Russia and Romania. It was commissioned in 1964 with a capacity of 1 MMTPA. Its capacity today is 6 MMTPA. • Gujarat Refinery, at Koyali in Gujarat in Western India, is IndianOil’s largest refinery. The refinery was commissioned in 1965. It also houses the first hydrocracking unit of the country. Its present capacity is 13.70 MMTPA. • Haldia Refinery is the only coastal refinery of the Corporation, situated 136 km downstream of Kolkata in the Purba Medinipur (East Midnapore) district. It was commissioned in 1975 with a capacity of 2.5 MMTPA, which has since been increased to 5.8 MMTPA • Mathura Refinery was commissioned in 1982 as the sixth refinery in the fold of IndianOil and with an original capacity of 6.0 MMTPA. Located strategically between the historic cities of Delhi and Agra, the capacity of Mathura refinery was increased to 7.5 MMTPA. • Panipat Refinery is the seventh refinery of IndianOil. The original refinery with 6 MMTPA capacity was built and commissioned in 1998. Panipat Refinery has doubled its refining capacity from 6 MMT/yr to 12 MMTPA with the commissioning of its Expansion Project .GROUP COMPANIES AND JOINT VENTURES • IndianOil (Mauritius) Ltd. • Lanka IOC PLC - Group company for Sri Lanka retail and storage operations which is listed on Colombos stock exchange. It was locked into a bitter subsidy payment dispute with Sri Lankas Government which has since been resolved. • IOC Middle East FZE • Chennai Petroleum Corporation Ltd. • Bongaigoan Refinery and Petrochemicals Ltd. • Green Gas Ltd. - joint venture with Gas Authority of India for city-wide gas distribution networks. • Indo Cat Pvt. Ltd., with Intercat, USA, for manufacturing 15,000 tonnes per annum of FCC (fluidised catalytic cracking) catalysts & additives in India, for catering to rising global demand.
  21. 21. • Numerous exploration and production ventures with Oil India Ltd., Oil and Natural Gas Corporation INTERNATIONAL RANKINGS Indian Oil is the highest ranked Indian company in the prestigious FortuneGlobal 500 listing, the 116th position(in 2008) based on fiscal 2007 performance. Itis also the 18th largest petroleum company in the world and the number onepetroleum trading company among the National Oil Companies in the Asia-Pacificregion. IOCL was featured on the 2008 Forbes Global 2000 at position 303. AWARDS & ACCREDITATIONS LOYALTY PROGRAMS XTRAPOWER Fleet Card Program is aimed at Large Fleet Operators.Currently it has 1 million customer base. XTRAREWARDS is a recently launchedloyalty program for retail customers where customers can earn reward points ontheir purchases. COMPETITORS Indian Oil Corporation has two major domestic competitors, Bharat Petroleumand Hindustan Petroleum. Both are state-controlled, like Indian Oil Corporation.There are two private competitors, Reliance Petroleum and Essar Oil
  22. 22. Private Type BSE & NSE:ICICI, NYSE: IBN 1955 (as Industrial Credit and Investment Corporation of Founded India) ICICI Bank Ltd., Headquarte ICICI Bank Towers,rs Bandra Kurla, Mumbai, India N Vaghul, K.V. Kamath, Chanda Kochhar, V Key people Vaidyanathan, Madhabi Puri Banking Industry Insurance Capital Markets and allied industries Loans, Credit Cards, Savings, Investment vehicles, Products Insurance etc. Revenue ▲ USD 5.79 billion Total Rs. 3,997.95 billion (US$ 100 billion) at March 31, 2008.assets Website www.icicibank.comThe largest private sector bank in the sector of marketcapitalization in India is ICICI Bank and the second
  23. 23. largest bank in assets. The wide network of the bank has1,399 branches,49 regional processing centres,22regional offices and more than 4,485 ATMs. It providesthe banking services like Personal banking,Corporate NetBanking,NRI,Internet Banking,24-hr Customer Care andmany other banking facilities.History of ICICI1955 The Industrial Credit and Investment Corporation of India Limited(ICICI) was incorporated at the initiative of World Bank, theGovernment of India and representatives of Indian industry, with theobjective of creating a development financial institution for providingmedium-term and long-term project financing to Indian businesses.2000 CI established Banking Corporation as a bankingsubsidiary.formerly Industrial Credit and Investment Corporation ofIndia. Later, ICICI Banking Corporation was renamed as ICICI BankLimited. ICICI founded a separate legal entity, ICICI Bank, to undertakenormal banking operations - taking deposits, credit cards, car loans etc.In 2001 CI acquired Bank of Madura (est. 1943). Bank of Madura was a Chettiarbank, and had acquired Chettinad Mercantile Bank (est. 1933) and Illanji Bank(established 1904) in the 1960s.In 2002The Boards of Directors of ICICI and ICICI Bank approved the reversemerger of ICICI, ICICI Personal Financial Services Limited and ICICI CapitalServices Limited, into ICICI Bank. After receiving all necessary regulatoryapprovals, ICICI integrated the groups financing and banking operations, bothwholesale and retail, into a single entity.Also in 2002, ICICI Bank bought the Shimla and Darjeeling branches that StandardChartered Bank had inherited when it acquired Grindlays Bank.ICICI started its international expansion by opening representative offices in NewYork and London.2003 ICICI opened subsidiaries in Canada and the United Kingdom (UK), and inthe UK it established an alliance with Lloyds TSB.It also opened an Offshore Banking Unit (OBU) in Singapore and representativeoffices in Dubai and Shanghai.
  24. 24. 2004 ICICI opens a rep office in Bangladesh to tap the extensive trade between thatcountry, India and South Africa.2005 ICICI acquired Investitsionno-Kreditny Bank (IKB), a Russia bank withabout US$4mn in assets, head office in Balabanovo in the Kaluga region, and witha branch in Moscow. ICICI renamed the bank ICICI Bank Eurasia.Also, ICICI established a branch in Dubai International Financial Centre and inHong Kong.2006 ICICI Bank UK opened a branch in Antwerp, in Belgium. ICICI openedrepresentative offices in Bangkok, Jakarta, and Kuala Lumpur.2007 ICICI amalgamated Sangli Bank, which was headquartered in Sangli, inMaharashtra State, and which had 158 branches in Maharashtra and another 31 inKarnataka State. Sangli Bank had been founded in 1916 and was particularlystrong in rural areas.ICICI also received permission from the government of Qatar to open a branch inDoha.ICICI Bank Eurasia opened a second branch, this time in St. Petersburg.2008 The US Federal Reserve permitted ICICI to convert its representative officein New York into a branch.ICICI also established a branch in Frankfurt.
  25. 25. SMALL SCALE INDUSTRIESThe concept of Small Scale industry varies from one to anothercountry and one time to other in the same country , depending uponthe pattern and stage of development , government policy andadministrative set up of the particular country.ROLE OF SSI IN INDIAN ECONOMY
  26. 26. Small business forms an important sector of the Indian economy. SSIaccounted 40% of the value added by the whole manufacturing sector,and80% of the employment. SSI also contributed to the extent of 42 % withregards to exports.DEFINITIONS OF SSIYEARS DEFINITIO SSI UNIT ANCILLARY EMPLOYEMENT N GIVEN BY UNIT CRITERION1950 Fiscal __ __ 10-50 workers commission1955 SSI board Capital Same ssi unt. Upto 50, if using investment power & less than upto Rs. 100 if not using if 5lacks. not using power1960 Ministry of CI upto Rs.5 SAME employement commerce & lcks. criterion dropped industry1975 Govt. Of CI up to Rs. 15 -do- India (GOI) Rs.10 lacks.1980 GOI uptoRs. 20 Rs.25 -do- lacks.1985 GOI uptoRs. 35 Rs. 45 -do- lack1991 GOI uptoRs. 60 Rs. 75 -do- lcks.1997 GOI Upto Rs.3 Not defined -do- crore2000 GOI uptoRs. 1 -do- -do- crorePOLICIES FOR THE SSI BY INDIAN GOVERNMENT
  27. 27. Office of the Development Commissioner, (MSME) Ministry of Micro, Small & Medium Enterprises Aims and objectivesImparting greater vitality and growth impetus to the Micro, Small and MediumEnterprises (MSME) in terms of output, employment and exports and instilling acompetitive culture based on heightened technology awareness." The Micro, Small and Medium Enterprises (MSME) sector has been recognised asengine of growth all over the world. Many countries of the world have established aSME Development Agency as the nodal agency to coordinate and oversee allGovernment interventions in respect of the development of this sector. In the case ofIndia, also Medium establishment has for the first time been defined in terms ofseparate Act, governing promotion and development of Micro, Small and MediumEnterprises (MSME) i.e. Micro, Small and Medium Enterprises (MSME) developmentAct, 2006 (which has come into force from 02nd Oct, 2006) the Office ofDevelopment Commissioner (Micro, Small and Medium Enterprises) functions as thenodal Developmet Agency under the Ministry of Micro, Small and MediumEnterprises(MSME). Office of Development Commissioner (SSI) was established in 1954 on the basisof the recommendations of the Ford Foundation. Over the years, it has seen its roleevolve into an agency for advocacy, hand holding and facilitation for the smallindustries sector. It has over 70 offices and 21 autonomous bodies under itsmanagement. These autonomous bodies include Tool Rooms, Training Institutionsand Project-cum-Process Development Centres. Office of the DevelopmentCommissioner (MSME) provides a wide spectrum of services to the Micro, Small andMedium Industrial sector. These include facilities for testing, toolmenting, training forentrepreneurship development, preparation of project and product profiles, technicaland managerial consultancy, assistance for exports, pollution and energy audits etc.Office of the Development Commissioner (MSME) provides economic informationservices and advises Government in policy formulation for the promotion anddevelopment of SSIs. The field offices also work as effective links between the Centraland the State Governments. Consequent to the increased globalization of the Indian economy, MSMEs arerequired to face new challenges. Office of the Development Commissioner (MSME)has recognised the changed environment and is currently focusing on providingsupport in the fields of credit, marketing, technology and infrastructure to MSMEs.
  28. 28. Global trends and national developments have accentuated Office of the DevelopmentCommissioner (MSME)s role as a catalyst of growth of MSMEs in the country INTRODUCTION 1.1 The Small Scale Industry Sector has emerged as Indias engine of growth in the New Millennium. By the end of March 2000, the SSI sector accounted for nearly 40 per cent of gross value of output in the manufacturing sector and 35 per cent of total exports from the country. Through over 32 lakh units, the sector provided employment to about 18 million people. 1.2 The on going programme of Economic Reforms based upon the principle of liberalisation, globalisation and privatisation and the changes at the international economic scene including the emergence of World Trade Organisation (WTO), have brought certain schallenges and several new opportunities before the SSI Sector. The most important challenge faced by the sector is that of growing competition both globally and domestically. At the sametime sector has also been facing some problems which relate to credit, infrastructure, technology, marketing, delayed payment hassels on account of so many rules and regulations etc. In order to enable this sector to avail the opportunities and play its role as an engine of growth, it is essential to address to these problems effectively and urgently. 1.3 With a view to provide more focused attention on the development of SSI ,government of India created a new Ministry of Small Scale Industries & Agro an drur al Industries in October 1999. Immediately after the formation of the Ministry, a Mission for the Millennium giving a blue print for small scale and village industries was announced. To carve out a road map for this sector in the New Millennium, the Honble Prime Minister constituted a Group of Ministers under the Chairmanship of Shri L.K. Advani the Home Minister of India in June 2000. The background material for the consideration of the Group of Ministers was provided by the Interim Report of the S.P. Gupta Study Team constituted by the Planning Commission. 1.4 The Group of Ministers considered the recommendations and came out with a Comprehensive Policy Package for the Small Scale and Tiny Sector which was announced by the Honble Prime Minister Shri Atal Bihari Vajpayee at first ever National Conference on the Small Scale Industries organised by the Ministry of SSI & ARI at Vigyan Bhavan, New Delhi on 30th August 2000. Package were announced by the Honble Prime Minister on 30th August 2000, some others including the Tiny Sector Policy Package were announced by the Ministry of SSI& ARI on 31st August 2000 in the meeting of the SSI Board. SMALL SCALE SECTOR
  29. 29. 2.0 Policy Support2.1 The investment limit for the Tiny Sector will continue to be Rs. 25 lakhs.2.2 The investment limit for the SSI sector will continue to be at Rs. 1 crore.2.3 The Ministry of SSI & ARI will bring out a specific list of hi-tech and exporto riented industries which would require the investment limit to be raised upto Rs.5 crores to admit of suitable technology upgradation and to enable them tomaintain their competitive edge.2.4 The Limited Partnership Act will be drafted quickly and got enacted. Attemptwill be made to bring the Bill before the next session of the Parliament.3.0 FISCAL SUPPORT3.1 To improve the competitiveness of Small Scale Sector, the exemption forexcise duty limit raised from Rs. 50 lakhs to Rs. 1 crore.4.0 CREDIT SUPPORT4.1 The composite loans limit raised from Rs. 10 lakhs to Rs.25 lakhs.4.2 The Small Scale Service and Business (Industry Related) Enterprises (SSSBEs)with a maximum investment of Rs. 10 lakhs will qualify for priority lending.4.3 In the National Equity Fund Scheme, the project cost limit will be raised fromRs. 25 lakhs to Rs. 50 lakhs. The soft loan limit will be retained at 25 per cent ofthe project cost subject to a maximum of Rs. 10 lakhs per project. Assistance underthe NEF will be provided at a service charge of 5 per cent per annum.4.4 The eligibility limit for coverage under the recently launched (August 2000)Credit Guarantee Scheme has been revised to Rs.25 lakhs from the present limit ofRs. 10 lakhs.4.5 The Department of Economic Affairs will appoint a Task Force to suggestrevitalisation/restructuring of the State Finance Corporations.4.6 The Nayak Committees recommendations regarding provision of 20 per centof the projected turnover as working capital is being recommended to the financialinstitutions and banks.5.0 Infrastructural Support5.1 The Integrated Infrastructure Development (IID) Scheme will progressivelycover all areas in the country with 50 per cent reservation for rural areas.5.2 Regarding upgrading the Industrial Estates, which are languishing, the Ministryof SSI & ARI will draw up a detailed scheme for the consideration of the PlanningCommission.5.3 A Plan Scheme for Cluster Development will be drawn up.
  30. 30. 5.4 The funds available under the non-lapsable pool for the North-East will be usedfor Industrial Infrastructure Development, setting up of incubation centres, forCluster Development and for setting up of IIDs in the North-East including Sikkim.6.0 Technological Support and Quality Improvement6.1 Capital Subsidy of 12 per cent for investment in technology in select sectors.An interministerial Committee of Experts will be set up to define the scope oftechnology upgradation and sectorial priorities.6.2 To encourage Total Quality Management, the Scheme of granting Rs.75,000/-to each unit for opting ISO-9000 Certification will continue for the next six yearsi.e. till the end of the 10th plan.6.3 Setting up of incubation Centres in Sunrise Industries will be supported.6.4 The TBSE set up by SIDBI will be strengthened so that it functions effectivelyas a Technology Bank. It will be properly networked with NSIC, SIDO (SENETProgramme) and APCTT.6.5 SIDO, SIDBI and NSIC will jointly prepare a Compendium of availabletechnologies for the R&D institutions in India and abroad and circulate it amongthe industry associations for the dissemination of the latest technology relatedinformation.6.6 Commercial Banks are being requested to develop Schemes to encourageinvestment in technology upgradation and harmonise the same with SIDBI.6.7 One time Capital Grant of 50% will be given to Small Scale Associationswhich wish to develop and operate Testing Laboratories, provided they are ofinternational standard.7.0 Marketing Support7.1 SIDO will have a Market Development Assistance (MDA) Programme, similarto one obtaining in the Ministry of Commerce & Industry. It will be a PlanScheme.7.2 The Vendor Development Programme, Buyer-Seller Meets and Exhibitionswill take place more often and at dispersed locations.8.0 Streamlining Inspections/Rules and Regulations8.1 To minimise harassment to Small Scale Sector a Group will be set up torecommend within 3 months, means of streamlining inspections. This will includerepeal of laws and regulations applicable to the sector that have since becomeredundant.8.2 Self-certification will be progressively encouraged in lieu of inspections, whichshould be prescribed under the three following conditions:l On receipt of specific complaint;l Selection of unit for sample check (Say 10 per cent of total units); and
  31. 31. l For audit and safety purposes.9.0 Entrepreneurship Development9.1 Capacity building in the SSI sector, both for entrepreneurs as well as workers,will be given top priority. The Ministry of SSI & ARI and Ministry of Labour willwork out the strategy jointly.10.0 Facilitating Prompt Payment SMALL SCALE INDUSTRIES NATIONAL AWARD 2000Name and Address of AWARD YEAR PRODUCTthe EnterpriseSh. Umesh Martandrao FIRST AWARD 2000 Chassis assemblies &Dashrathi other components for CNG, LPG driven three-M/s Rohit Industries wheelers and GoodsA 3 MIDC, cariers.Near Railway Station,Aurangabad-431005.(MAHARASHTRA)Sh. Prashant R GandhiM/ SECOND AWARD 2000 Aluminium and Steels. Samruddhi Cops used in DTEngineering, Survey No. Machines, TFO Machines767/3 Village Vadsar,Tal- for synthetic yarn
  32. 32. Kolal,Distt. Gandhinagar. winding.(GUJARAT)Sh. Vinodhbhai Ambalal THIRD AWARD 2000 Pneumetic RubberSoni, M/s. Hi- Tech Fenders, Rubber BuoysElastomers Limited 2 for use in marineChirag Apartments, purposes.Behind Govt.Polytechnic,Gulbai Tekra, Ambawadi,Ahmedabad-380015.(GUJARAT)Smt. Supriya Roy SPECIAL AWARD 2000 Bakery and Fast FoodM/s.The Sugar & Spice, (WOMEN items1/2 HarishMukherjee ENTREPRENEUR)Road, Kolkata- 700020.(WEST BENGAL)Smt. Savitaben Devjibhai SPECIAL AWARD (SC/ST 2000 Glazed Wall Tiles.Paramar M/s Sterling ENTREPRENEUR)Ceramics Pvt.Limited,Kolal-Mehsana Highway,Nandasan (NG), Tal-Kadi.Distt.Mehsana(GUJARAT)Shri Blaise Lawrence Shri Blaise Lawrence 2000 Water Storage Tanks.Costabir, M/s Zarhak Costabir,Moulders Pvt. Limited,Verna Electronic CityVerna GOA M/s Zarhak Moulders Pvt. Limited, Verna Electronic City Verna GOAShri Gurmeet Singh SPECIAL RECOGNITION 2000 Carbonless ComputerBhatia M/s A.G.K. AWARD stationery andComputers Secure Prints Peripherals.Ltd., AGK Complex,D-118, Industrial Area,Phase-VII SAS NagarRopar-160055. (PUNJAB)National Awards for Outstanding Entrepreneurship inMSMEs – 2007
  33. 33. S.No. Category of Award Name & Address of the Entrepreneurs1. First Award Shri Satish Waman Wagh M/s Supriya Chemicals A-5/2 Loteparshuram MIDC Area,Nakhed. MAHARASHTRA Tel.No.022403327272. First Award Shri Debashish Mandal M/s Indo Webal Surgical Ukil para Behind Sub Division Hospital Baruipur, Kolkata WEST BENGAL T.No.91-33 24338997, Fax:91-33 2433 35343. Third Award Shri Surender Pal Singh M/s Premier Solar Systems (P) Ltd. 3rd Floor, V.V.Towers Secunderabad ANDHRA PRADESH T.No.04027744415, 04027744416 M.No.9490167790, Fax:0402777444174. Special Award to Smt Savita Kailash Chhabra outstanding M/s Hygienic Research Institute, woman A/48, MIDC, Marol, Andheri (East), Entrepreneurs Mumbai MAHARASHTRA Tel.No.022 – 28361311 M.No.9820047216 Fax: 022 –28320089 E.mail: Savita@hriindia.com5. Special Award to Shri Debashish Mandal outstanding SC/ST M/s Indo Webal Surgical Ukil para Behind Sub Division Hospital Baruipur, Kolkata-144 WEST BENGAL
  34. 34. T.No.91-33 24338997, Fax:91-33 2433 35346. Special Award to Shri Murli Dhar Khetan outstanding NER M/s North Eastern Cables Pvt. Ltd. A T Road Jorhat-785001 ASSAM Ph.No.0376-2351433, 2350550 Fax: 2351318 E.Mail: necab11@yagii.com(II) National Award for outstanding Entrepreneurship in Micro & Small Enterprises rendering services7. First Award Smt. Triveni Devi M/s Anand Electroplators, B-87,88, Sec-10, Noida Gautam Budh Nagar.8. Second Award Shri Bimal Parkash Jain Adinath Dyeing & Finishing Mills, Dyeing Complex, Ludhiana PUNJAB T.No.0161-5074829, 5074830, 5004876 E.Mail:adinathdyeing@yahoo.co.in BPO BUSINESS OUTSOURSING PROCESSING
  35. 35. DEFINITIONBusiness process outsourcing (BPO) is a form of outsourcing thatinvolves the contracting of the operations and responsibilities of aspecific business functions (or processes) to a third-party serviceprovider. Originally, this was associated with manufacturing firms, suchas Coca Cola that outsourced large segments of its supply chain.. In thecontemporary context, it is primarily used to refer to the outsourcing ofservices.BPO is typically categorized into back office outsourcing - whichincludes internal business functions such as human resources or financeand accounting, and front office outsourcing - which includes customer-related services such as contact center services.Industry size/ GrowthIndia has revenues of 10.9 billion USD[2] from offshore BPO and 30 billion USDfrom IT and total BPO (expected in FY 2008). India thus has some 5-6% share ofthe total BPO Industry, but a commanding 63% share of the offshore component.This 63% is a drop from the 70% offshore share that India enjoyed last year,despite the industry growing 38% in India last year, other locations like EasternEurope, Philippines, Morocco, Egypt and South Africa have emerged to take ashare of the market. China is also trying to grow from a very small base in thisindustry. However, while the BPO industry is expected to continue to grow in
  36. 36. India, its market share of the offshore piece is expected to decline. Importantcenters in India are Bangalore, Hyderabad, Mumbai, Pune, Chennai and NewDelhi.The top five Indian BPO exporters for 2006-2007 according to NASSCOM are :-Genpact,WNS Global Services,Transworks Information Services,IBM Daksh,TCS,HCL,WIPRO,And Dell BPO.According to McKinsey, the global "addressable" BPO market is worth $122 -$154 billion, of which: 35-40 retail banking, 25-35 insurance, 10-12travel/hospitality, 10-12 auto, 8-10 telecoms, 8 pharma, 10-15 others and 20-25 isfinance, accounting and HR. Moreover, they estimate that 8% of that capacity wasutilized as of 2006