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THEORIES OF KNOWLEDGE <ul><li>Concern about the origin or source of our knowledge </li></ul><ul><li>criteria for truth </l...
The EMPERICISM <ul><li>philosophical doctrine which claims that human knowledge comes from sense experience </li></ul><ul>...
The RATIONALIST <ul><li>philosophical doctrine which claims that ideas are formed through reason alone </li></ul><ul><li>g...
The SKEPTICISM <ul><li>philosophical doctrine which doubt on the knowledge of things </li></ul><ul><li>we don’t have  “cer...
CRITERIA FOR TRUTH <ul><li>Refers to the criterion/a or the basis for affirming the veracity of something </li></ul><ul><l...
Correspondence Theory <ul><li>popularized by  Plato  and English Philosopher  Bertrand Russell </li></ul><ul><li>Plato pro...
Correspondence Theory <ul><li>The most common & widespread way of understanding the  nature of truth & falsehood </li></ul...
Correspondence Theory Critique <ul><li>problem in history </li></ul><ul><li>later found to be unsatisfactory  by both Plat...
Pragmatic Theory  <ul><li>a philosophical theory of truth popularized by American philosopher William James  </li></ul><ul...
Pragmatic Theory  <ul><li>Theories & ideas are to be considered good or truthful must be tested first for their desirabili...
Pragmatic Theory  <ul><li>truth is something which can be verified or at least verifiable by experienced </li></ul><ul><li...
Pragmatic Theory  Critique <ul><li>there is always exception to the rule </li></ul><ul><li>what is true with you may be fa...
Coherence Theory <ul><li>philosophical theory  of truth popularized by both  Hegel  and  Spinoza </li></ul><ul><li>a set o...
Coherence Theory <ul><li>philosophical theory which  holds that every bit of knowledge is  consistent and harmonious  with...
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Logic4

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Logic4

  1. 1. THEORIES OF KNOWLEDGE <ul><li>Concern about the origin or source of our knowledge </li></ul><ul><li>criteria for truth </li></ul>
  2. 2. The EMPERICISM <ul><li>philosophical doctrine which claims that human knowledge comes from sense experience </li></ul><ul><li>our knowledge is A Posteriori </li></ul><ul><li>knowledge is acquired / learned thru experience </li></ul><ul><li>denies innate ideas, claims anything is knowable a posteriori </li></ul><ul><li>John Locke </li></ul><ul><li>Human mind is in the state of TABULA RASA (blank tablet) upon birth </li></ul><ul><li>Nihil in intellectu nisi prisi in sensu </li></ul>Critique <ul><li>senses can fail; wrong perception </li></ul>
  3. 3. The RATIONALIST <ul><li>philosophical doctrine which claims that ideas are formed through reason alone </li></ul><ul><li>gives knowledge as A Priori </li></ul><ul><li>knowledge is acquired or gained independent of the sense experience </li></ul><ul><li>intuition & deduction provide us with knowledge </li></ul>Critique <ul><li>A proposition can give us an intellectual insight, can warrant an accepted truth </li></ul><ul><li>guilty of hallucination </li></ul><ul><li>ambiguity of language </li></ul><ul><li>problem of the senses </li></ul>
  4. 4. The SKEPTICISM <ul><li>philosophical doctrine which doubt on the knowledge of things </li></ul><ul><li>we don’t have “certain” knowledge of the external world based on our sense experience or intuitive knowledge based on deduction </li></ul><ul><li>Rene Descartes </li></ul><ul><li>“ Cogito Ergo Sum ” </li></ul><ul><li>doubt makes you think </li></ul><ul><li>we will never arrived at any certain truth – we can ONLY have ideas through their association </li></ul><ul><li>we can only have sense perception </li></ul><ul><li>perceive things through their association </li></ul><ul><li>no absolute truth </li></ul>Critique
  5. 5. CRITERIA FOR TRUTH <ul><li>Refers to the criterion/a or the basis for affirming the veracity of something </li></ul><ul><li>What is truth? </li></ul><ul><li>stems from a belief in constancy within the universe </li></ul><ul><li>a constant to which we refer for guidance </li></ul><ul><li>How do we test for constancy, test for truth? </li></ul>
  6. 6. Correspondence Theory <ul><li>popularized by Plato and English Philosopher Bertrand Russell </li></ul><ul><li>Plato proposed a theory based on intuitive recognition that true knowledge corresponds to the facts; agrees with the reality & false knowledge is the other way around </li></ul><ul><li>want to distinguish true beliefs from the false one </li></ul>
  7. 7. Correspondence Theory <ul><li>The most common & widespread way of understanding the nature of truth & falsehood </li></ul><ul><li>An idea which corresponds to reality is true while that which do not corresponds to reality is false </li></ul><ul><li>philosophical theory which claims that truth exist if there is an agreement or conformity b/w what is in the mind with what is in reality truth is whatever corresponds to reality </li></ul><ul><li>e.g the idea of winged horse is true if Pegasus indeed exist </li></ul>
  8. 8. Correspondence Theory Critique <ul><li>problem in history </li></ul><ul><li>later found to be unsatisfactory by both Plato & Russell </li></ul><ul><li>unsatisfactory because it wont allow false belief </li></ul><ul><li>a belief is false because it there is no fact to which it corresponds; would be a belief on nothing; ergo not a belief at all </li></ul>
  9. 9. Pragmatic Theory <ul><li>a philosophical theory of truth popularized by American philosopher William James </li></ul><ul><li>Charles Sanders Peirce coined the term pragmatism </li></ul><ul><li>influenced American culture </li></ul><ul><li>philosophical theory which claims that an idea is good when it produces the desired results </li></ul><ul><li>practicality is the most simple application this theory </li></ul>
  10. 10. Pragmatic Theory <ul><li>Theories & ideas are to be considered good or truthful must be tested first for their desirability & undesirability </li></ul><ul><li>anything that is workable or feasible must be true, if failure occurred the criterion is rejected </li></ul><ul><li>philosophical theory which claims that whatever works must be the truth </li></ul><ul><li>For James, Knowledge is true when it serves the right purpose </li></ul>
  11. 11. Pragmatic Theory <ul><li>truth is something which can be verified or at least verifiable by experienced </li></ul><ul><li>personal experience is the basis for true knowledge </li></ul><ul><li>according to James the existence of God is partly verifiable because many people derive benefits from believing </li></ul>How about the idea of GOD?
  12. 12. Pragmatic Theory Critique <ul><li>there is always exception to the rule </li></ul><ul><li>what is true with you may be false with others </li></ul><ul><li>the refusal for the belief on absolute results problems on the concept of justice </li></ul><ul><li>truth is something which can be verified or at least verifiable by experienced </li></ul><ul><li>personal experience is the basis for true knowledge </li></ul>
  13. 13. Coherence Theory <ul><li>philosophical theory of truth popularized by both Hegel and Spinoza </li></ul><ul><li>a set of beliefs is true if such beliefs are comprehensive and do not contradict each other </li></ul><ul><li>The most reliable and most acceptable criteria and theory on truth </li></ul>
  14. 14. Coherence Theory <ul><li>philosophical theory which holds that every bit of knowledge is consistent and harmonious with all other knowledge </li></ul><ul><li>As long as we have total knowledge available before performing any test, then coherence is the strongest of all criteria </li></ul><ul><li>philosophical system in which all facts of experience are integrated ; requires that related facts be positioned appropriately & that nothing ultimately contradicts anything else </li></ul><ul><li>used in many scientific researches </li></ul>
  15. 15. Thank you folks…till next meeting!

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