Chapter 1: The Nature of Science Section 2:Scientific Enterprise
A Work in Progress; even today!!! 1. Early civilizations believed that mythological gods were responsible for creating storms, causing volcanoes to erupt, causing earthquakes, bringing the seasons, and making comets appear in the sky. ***** a. Scandinavian and Germanic people believed the weather was controlled by a god named Thor.Do Not Copy This Slide
A. Recording Observations 1. Early civilizations started recording events; developed calendars. 2. Six thousand years ago, Egyptian farmers realized the Nile River flooded their lands around the same time every year. a. What do you think the farmers started doing with their crops? 3. They noticed that the brightest star in the sky, SIRIUS, appeared at dawn in the east. a. They used this information to develop the calendar based on the appearance of this star, which occurred about every 365 days.
4. Later, civilizations created instruments to measure with. a. Instruments allow precise measurements. b. Instruments improved over time; therefore the accuracy of measurement improved. c. This allowed people to make better conclusions about events.
B. History of Meteorology 1. Meteorology: The study of weather 2. 1600’s; Scientists in Italy began to use instruments to study weather. a. Barometer: Measure air pressure. b. Thermometer: Measure temperature c. Hygrometer: to measure water vapor in the air. d. Anemometer: To measure wind speed
C. Weather Predictions in the United States 1. Benjamin Franklin: first American to suggest that weather could be predicted. a. Study articles about storms across the country; concluded that storms generally move across the country from west to east. b. His ideas were put to use shortly after the telegraph was invented in 1837. i. How do you think his suggestion was used to help people?
2. 1849: organized system of weather observation sites was set up. a. Information was sent by telegraph to the Smithsonian Institution.3. 1850 Joseph Henry began drawing maps from the weather data he received. a. Weather report was sent to the Washington Post for the first weather report in a newspaper.
D. National Weather Service 1. By 1923, weather forecasts were being carried by 140 radio stations across the United States. 2. By 1970 the NWS became part of the National Oceanic Atmospheric Administration. (NOAA) a. Check out www.noaa.gov website. b. This the best site to check for winter storms and school closing possibilities!!!! 3. Today’s weather is forecast using orbiting satellites, weather balloons, radar, and other sophisticated technology. a. Each day 60,000 reports from weather stations, ships, aircraft, and radar transmitters are gathered and filed.
E. Continuing Research 1. Scientists use a variety of technology to study weather, Earth, space, Oceans, etc. a. Technology is always changing to help improve our understanding .
F. Scientific Theories 1. A scientific theory is an explanation or model backed by results obtained rom many tests or experiments. 2. How a hypothesis becomes a theory? a. Read pages 18 to 19 of your ONLINE TEXTBOOK. b. We will read this in class!!! 3. Hypothesis Supported a. In order for a hypothesis to become a theory, it must be supported by years of testing and conclusions that support the hypothesis.
G. Scientific Law 1. A scientific law is a RULE that describes the behavior of something in nautre. a. Describes what will happen, but does not explain WHY it happens. b. Newton’s first law of motion i. An object will continue in motion or remain at rest until it’s acted upon by an outside force. ii. Read page 19 ONLINE TEXTBOOK.
H. Limits of Science 1. Science does not have the answers to all problems in the universe. a. For a question to be scientifically studied, there must be variables that can be observed, measured, and tested. 2. Problems with ethics or belief systems cannot be answered with science methods. a. Ethics: dealing with moral values about what is good or bad. (See next slide)
I. Being Objective 1. Be sure you design experiments to test your hypothesis objectively, without bias. a. Bias: A personal opinion that can affect your observation.J. Being Ethical and Open 1. The opposite of ethical behavior in science is fraud. a. Includes changing data to support your hypothesis, making up data, and taking credit for work done by others.