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TANZANIABY: JAMIE RYLANDS, CHRISTIE KWOLEK, BRITTANY          JAILLET, & KRISTEN DEHART
WHY STUDY INTERNATIONAL             HEALTH?• Studying international health permits in the  discovery of beneficial factors...
TANZANIA• Why? • As a group we decided to   choose a country in Africa. • We wanted to learn about how a   country in Afri...
CLIMATE AND TERRAIN
DISEASES ASSOCIATED IN TANZANIA•   Malaria•   Pneumonia•   Diarrhea•   AIDS
MALARIA
SIGNS AND SYMPTOMS•   fever•   chills•   sweats•   headache•   body aches•   nausea and vomiting•   fatigue
SIDE EFFECTS OF MALARIA•   Jaundice•   Anemia•   Kidney Failure•   Coma•   Death
HOW DO YOU TREAT MALARIA•   Oral medications VS Intravenous•   Aralen•   Vibramycin•   Oracea•   Adoxa•   Atridox•   Clind...
PNEUMONIA
CHALLENGES TO REACHING THAT             GOAL• Finances• Acquiring vaccinations• Space to refrigerate it
WHAT CAN HELP PREVENT             PNEUMONIA?•   Vitamin A supplements•   Promotion of breast feeding•   Handwashing•   Hou...
SIGNS AND SYMPTOMS•   High fever•   Chills•   Cough producing phlegm•   Shortness of breath•   Chest pain when you breath ...
TREATMENTS•   Antibiotics•   Rest•   Antiviral medications•   Oxygen
DIARRHEA
CAUSES OF DIARRHEAL DISEASES•   Bacteria/viruses•   Poor hygiene•   Poor food and water sources•   Poor sanitation•   Maln...
TYPES OF DIARRHEAL DISEASES IN             TANZANIA• Shigellosis• Typhoid fever
MANAGEMENT OF DIARRHEAL           DISEASE• Oral Rehydration Solution• Immunizations• Education
AIDS• 1.5 million people diagnosed with AIDS• Prevalence (age vs gender)• Challenges Tanzania faces
DEMOGRAPHIC CHARACTERISTICS• population make-up by age, ethnicity, gender birth  rates, poverty rate, unemployment rate
POPULATION MAKE UP• Total Population: 46,912,768  • 0-14 years: 45%  • 15-64 years: 52.1%  • 65 years and over: 2.9%• By E...
BIRTH RATES• 5.08 children born/ woman• 37.7 births/1,000 population• Sex ratio at birth: 1.03 males/ 1 female
UNEMPLOYMENT & POVERTY• Unemployment Age 15-24  • total: 8.8%  • male: 7.4%  • female: 10.1%• 33.4% of population living i...
TANZANIA RELIGION•   Christians•   Muslims•   Hinduism•   Indigenous
CULTURAL INFLUENCES ON HEALTH• Traditional healers• Unsafe practices associated with diseases• Poor farming techniques
CELEBRATIONS IN TANZANIA• Christmas• EID-ul-fitr• Navratri and Diwali
HEALTH STATUS• Life expectancy, infant mortality, immunization rate,  major age-specific mortality & morbidity, major  cau...
LIFE EXPECTANCY• Total Life Expectancy: 53.14 years  • male: 51.62 years  • female: 54.7 years• Total Infant Mortality: 46...
IMMUNIZATIONS• 1-year-old children immunized against: •   Tuberculosis •   Diphtheria, Pertussis, and Tetanus •   Polio • ...
CAUSES OF DEATH AMONGADULTS 15-59 YEARS, BY SEX                             3
PUBLIC HEALTH AND TECHNOLOGY• Clean, safe water and sanitation in schools and health  facilities is declining• Transportat...
TANZANIAN TRAINING CENTER FOR    INTERNATIONAL HEALTH• Located in Ifakara in the  Morogoro region• Mission: To provide qua...
TTCIH CONTINUED• Courses offered:  • Assistant medical officer  • Clinical officer refresher  • Integrated Management of C...
GLOBAL SERVICE CORPS• Offered to health professionals, pre-med and medical  students and others interested in health care•...
TANZANIAN FIELD EPIDEMIOLOGY AND    LABORATORY TRAINING PROGRAM• Two-year Masters of Science  course (MSc) program in  App...
TANZANIA’S GOVERNMENT• The United Republic of Tanzania
PUBLIC HEALTH IN TANZANIA
PUBLIC HEALTH PROGRAMS
GOVERNMENTS ROLE IN HEALTHCARE• At the early stages of the independence in 1961, there were:  • 22 health centers  • 875 s...
ECONOMIC STATUS• Status of country (developed, developing, under-  developed)• Resources for improving the nations’ health
TANZANIA’S ECONOMICS•   Underdeveloped•   Low Income Level•   Limited financial and human resources•   Tanzania Global Hea...
MEDA & MALARIA
WHAT IS MEDA?• Mennonite Economic Development  Associates (MEDA)• Non-profit, non-governmental organization  (NGO) that is...
MEDA AND MALARIA• The Tanzania National Voucher Scheme (TNVS) • It is popularly known by its Swahili program name Hati   P...
MEDA VIDEOClick picture to play video…               http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Tw5rrdhMaZU
CHOLERA OUTBREAK*Cholera Treatment Center in Tanzania*
RESPONSE TO CHOLERA OUTBREAKS• Cholera is one of the major causes of  morbidity and mortality in Africa• Within 20 days of...
HIV PREVENTIONClick picture to play video…                   http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=EyWeCASsOUQ&playnext=1&list=PL...
SUMMARY• Overall…•*How should I sum it up? Any ideas I’m struggling*
SUMMARY CONTINUED• Recommendations for improving health in  Tanzania…•*Any ideas?*
SOURCES…1.     https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-       factbook/geos/tz.html2.     http://www.unicef.org...
SOURCES CONTINUTED..1. http://www.cehurd.org/wp-   content/uploads/2011/01/Review-of-Public-Health-   Laws-and-Policies-in...
SOURCES CONTINUED…• "Embassy of the United States Dar Es Salaam,  Tanzania." Success Stories. N.p., n.d. Web. 04 Jan.  201...
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Tanzania powerpoint

  1. 1. TANZANIABY: JAMIE RYLANDS, CHRISTIE KWOLEK, BRITTANY JAILLET, & KRISTEN DEHART
  2. 2. WHY STUDY INTERNATIONAL HEALTH?• Studying international health permits in the discovery of beneficial factors leading to the improvement of health across the nation.• "The more tools you have in the toolbox, the better prepared and useful youll be.” – Dr. Steven Reynolds
  3. 3. TANZANIA• Why? • As a group we decided to choose a country in Africa. • We wanted to learn about how a country in Africa dealt with diseases, and how their health care worked if they had any.
  4. 4. CLIMATE AND TERRAIN
  5. 5. DISEASES ASSOCIATED IN TANZANIA• Malaria• Pneumonia• Diarrhea• AIDS
  6. 6. MALARIA
  7. 7. SIGNS AND SYMPTOMS• fever• chills• sweats• headache• body aches• nausea and vomiting• fatigue
  8. 8. SIDE EFFECTS OF MALARIA• Jaundice• Anemia• Kidney Failure• Coma• Death
  9. 9. HOW DO YOU TREAT MALARIA• Oral medications VS Intravenous• Aralen• Vibramycin• Oracea• Adoxa• Atridox• Clindamycin• Achromycin• Malarone
  10. 10. PNEUMONIA
  11. 11. CHALLENGES TO REACHING THAT GOAL• Finances• Acquiring vaccinations• Space to refrigerate it
  12. 12. WHAT CAN HELP PREVENT PNEUMONIA?• Vitamin A supplements• Promotion of breast feeding• Handwashing• House sanitation• VACCINATIONS!!!!
  13. 13. SIGNS AND SYMPTOMS• High fever• Chills• Cough producing phlegm• Shortness of breath• Chest pain when you breath or cough• Feeling worse after cold or flu• Nausea• Diarrhea• Vomiting
  14. 14. TREATMENTS• Antibiotics• Rest• Antiviral medications• Oxygen
  15. 15. DIARRHEA
  16. 16. CAUSES OF DIARRHEAL DISEASES• Bacteria/viruses• Poor hygiene• Poor food and water sources• Poor sanitation• Malnutrition
  17. 17. TYPES OF DIARRHEAL DISEASES IN TANZANIA• Shigellosis• Typhoid fever
  18. 18. MANAGEMENT OF DIARRHEAL DISEASE• Oral Rehydration Solution• Immunizations• Education
  19. 19. AIDS• 1.5 million people diagnosed with AIDS• Prevalence (age vs gender)• Challenges Tanzania faces
  20. 20. DEMOGRAPHIC CHARACTERISTICS• population make-up by age, ethnicity, gender birth rates, poverty rate, unemployment rate
  21. 21. POPULATION MAKE UP• Total Population: 46,912,768 • 0-14 years: 45% • 15-64 years: 52.1% • 65 years and over: 2.9%• By Ethnicity • African 99% (consisting of more than 130 tribes) • other 1% (consisting of Asian, European, and Arab)
  22. 22. BIRTH RATES• 5.08 children born/ woman• 37.7 births/1,000 population• Sex ratio at birth: 1.03 males/ 1 female
  23. 23. UNEMPLOYMENT & POVERTY• Unemployment Age 15-24 • total: 8.8% • male: 7.4% • female: 10.1%• 33.4% of population living in poverty (2007)
  24. 24. TANZANIA RELIGION• Christians• Muslims• Hinduism• Indigenous
  25. 25. CULTURAL INFLUENCES ON HEALTH• Traditional healers• Unsafe practices associated with diseases• Poor farming techniques
  26. 26. CELEBRATIONS IN TANZANIA• Christmas• EID-ul-fitr• Navratri and Diwali
  27. 27. HEALTH STATUS• Life expectancy, infant mortality, immunization rate, major age-specific mortality & morbidity, major cause-specific mortality & morbidity
  28. 28. LIFE EXPECTANCY• Total Life Expectancy: 53.14 years • male: 51.62 years • female: 54.7 years• Total Infant Mortality: 46.5 deaths/1,000 live births • Males: 48.5 deaths/1,000 live births • Females: 44.4 deaths/1,000 live births• Malaria
  29. 29. IMMUNIZATIONS• 1-year-old children immunized against: • Tuberculosis • Diphtheria, Pertussis, and Tetanus • Polio • Measles • Hepatitus B • Haemophilus Influenzae B 2
  30. 30. CAUSES OF DEATH AMONGADULTS 15-59 YEARS, BY SEX 3
  31. 31. PUBLIC HEALTH AND TECHNOLOGY• Clean, safe water and sanitation in schools and health facilities is declining• Transportation• access to health care• health care system (e.g. national insurance or out of pocket payment)• Housing
  32. 32. TANZANIAN TRAINING CENTER FOR INTERNATIONAL HEALTH• Located in Ifakara in the Morogoro region• Mission: To provide quality training facilities and services for the strengthening of human resources development in Tanzania and international health sector.
  33. 33. TTCIH CONTINUED• Courses offered: • Assistant medical officer • Clinical officer refresher • Integrated Management of Childhood Illnesses • Swiss TPH Advanced Studies in International Health • Averting maternal health and disability (external course offered in Columbia) • Disaster medicine and health crisis management (external course offered in Athens) • Malaria Course
  34. 34. GLOBAL SERVICE CORPS• Offered to health professionals, pre-med and medical students and others interested in health care• Requires a nine-week minimum commitment and can be extended to three months or more• International Health Program placements consist of two components • The first segment of the volunteer assignment is approximately three weeks, comprised of a week- long cultural orientation and technical training followed by participation in HIV/AIDS prevention and nutrition community training workshops. • The second phase of the volunteer placement (minimum six weeks) includes participation in a computer-based capacity-building project in conjunction with shadowing health professionals in local hospitals
  35. 35. TANZANIAN FIELD EPIDEMIOLOGY AND LABORATORY TRAINING PROGRAM• Two-year Masters of Science course (MSc) program in Applied Epidemiology and Public Health Laboratory• 46 TFELTP trainees have been enrolled• 21 trainees have already graduated• The program has grown from 28 participants in 2008 to 56 in 2011
  36. 36. TANZANIA’S GOVERNMENT• The United Republic of Tanzania
  37. 37. PUBLIC HEALTH IN TANZANIA
  38. 38. PUBLIC HEALTH PROGRAMS
  39. 39. GOVERNMENTS ROLE IN HEALTHCARE• At the early stages of the independence in 1961, there were: • 22 health centers • 875 small, meagerly staffed and equipped dispensaries operated by local authorities. • The average number of people served by each dispensary was 11 700. • There were about 100 hospitals • 40 of them run by voluntary agencies, such as churches. • The physicians, working in the country numbered 415, only 12 of whom were Tanzanians, and there were 380 rural medical aides. • Total number of nurses was 1400.• The present national healthcare system includes: • 8500 village health posts, • 3000 MCH clinics, • 2644 dispensaries, • 260 health centers, • 98 district hospitals, • 17 regional hospitals, • 4 referral hospitals.• The government health units often face a shortage of trained manpower, inadequate facilities and drugs, and low staff motivation.• Private health facilities are being established in increasing numbers, especially in urban areas.
  40. 40. ECONOMIC STATUS• Status of country (developed, developing, under- developed)• Resources for improving the nations’ health
  41. 41. TANZANIA’S ECONOMICS• Underdeveloped• Low Income Level• Limited financial and human resources• Tanzania Global Health Initiative Strategy 2010-2015
  42. 42. MEDA & MALARIA
  43. 43. WHAT IS MEDA?• Mennonite Economic Development Associates (MEDA)• Non-profit, non-governmental organization (NGO) that is locally registered in Tanzania since 1986.• Our main purpose is to alleviate poverty through sustainable economic development.• MEDA’s Mission
  44. 44. MEDA AND MALARIA• The Tanzania National Voucher Scheme (TNVS) • It is popularly known by its Swahili program name Hati Punguzo in Tanzania • TNVS makes Insecticide Treated Mosquito Nets (ITNs) widely available to pregnant women and infants in Tanzania through vouchers that subsidize the cost of nets at appointed TNVS retailers throughout the country. • The voucher system targets sustainability and accessibility by facilitating the distribution of ITNs through a public- private partnership of clinics, wholesalers, retailers and the net manufacturer. • The top-up amount to be paid by the beneficiary at the retail shop is fixed at 500 Tanzanian Shillings ($0.35 USD).
  45. 45. MEDA VIDEOClick picture to play video… http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Tw5rrdhMaZU
  46. 46. CHOLERA OUTBREAK*Cholera Treatment Center in Tanzania*
  47. 47. RESPONSE TO CHOLERA OUTBREAKS• Cholera is one of the major causes of morbidity and mortality in Africa• Within 20 days of detecting the Cholera outbreak in 2009 there was already 588 cases reported and 16 deaths• Ministry of Health and Social Welfare turned to the Tanzania Field Epidemiology and Laboratory Training Program
  48. 48. HIV PREVENTIONClick picture to play video… http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=EyWeCASsOUQ&playnext=1&list=PL87B964CE4CF0A 98C&feature=results_video
  49. 49. SUMMARY• Overall…•*How should I sum it up? Any ideas I’m struggling*
  50. 50. SUMMARY CONTINUED• Recommendations for improving health in Tanzania…•*Any ideas?*
  51. 51. SOURCES…1. https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world- factbook/geos/tz.html2. http://www.unicef.org/infobycountry/tanzania_statistics.html#883. Boerma, J., Ngalula, J., Isingo, R., Urassa, M., Senkoro, K., Gabone, R. , & Mkumbo, E. (1997). Levels and causes of adult mortality in rural. Health Transition Review, 7(2), 63-74. 4. http://worldpneumoniaday.org/wp-content/uploads/pneumonia- report.pdf 5. http://www.thelancet.com/journals/laninf/article/PIIS1473- 3099(08)70136-1/fulltext 6. http://jcm.asm.org/content/38/12/4459.full 7. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/HIV/AIDS_in_Tanzania 8. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Religion_in_Tanzaniahttp://www.cabdi rect.org/abstracts/19906773768.html;jsessionid=9907683619D93745 C48750B1C870D05A?gitCommit=4.13.11-15-g9672536 9. http://www.indexmundi.com/tanzania/government_profile.html 10. http://www.tanzania.go.tz/administration.html 11. http://cid.oxfordjournals.org/content/9/6/1109.short
  52. 52. SOURCES CONTINUTED..1. http://www.cehurd.org/wp- content/uploads/2011/01/Review-of-Public-Health- Laws-and-Policies-in-Kenya-Uganda-and-Tanzania.pdf2. http://www.cdc.gov/globalhealth/countries/tanzania/3. http://www.afro.who.int/en/tanzania/who-country- office-tanzania.html4. http://africatalksclimate.com/info/tanzania-country- profile5. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tanzania#Geography6. http://wwwnc.cdc.gov/travel/destinations/tanzania.ht m7. http://www.medicinenet.com/malaria/page6.htm8. http://medatanzania.org/
  53. 53. SOURCES CONTINUED…• "Embassy of the United States Dar Es Salaam, Tanzania." Success Stories. N.p., n.d. Web. 04 Jan. 2013.• Tanzanian Training Center for International Health. N.p., n.d. Web. 04 Jan. 2013.• "Tanzania FELTP." Tanzania FELTP. N.p., n.d. Web. 04 Jan. 2013.

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