Designing effective medicine labelsfor senior citizens in Hong KongBrian Kwok and Keith TamInformation Design LabSchool of ...
The population is rapidly ageing in Hong Kong              10                                                             ...
Media reports on the existing medicine label designSource: Age-friendly medicine label survey reported by Sik Sik Yuen
2010 age-friendly medicine label surveyOf the 569 senior respondents . . .• 96% felt that the type sizes were too small• 9...
Main barriers of communication with older people inthe visual presentation of information (WHO)• Font sizes on text materi...
Three types of medicine labels in Hong KongHospital Authority                       Private clinicsHealth Department
Hospital Authority medicine label from 1982 (still in current use)     Precautions                                        ...
Information listed on the medicine label1 Name of patient2 Date of dispensing3 Address of clinical hospital and name of do...
Comparing medicine labels from different countries
Objectives• Understand the daily lives of the elderly and observe how  the local older patients take their medicines• Iden...
1                                   2Legibility tests conducted by the   Redesigning medicine labels asInformation Design ...
1 Legibility tests by IDLVariables tested• Typefaces• Type sizes• Colours• Information prioritisation• Spatial organisation
Seniors aged 60–84 at a community centre for seniors
Observations at the seniors’ homes• Many do not know much about the medicine and its side effects• Main concerns are dosag...
Information searching12 participants were asked tosearch for phrases on severallabels. Durations were recorded.     Search...
Prototype combinations developmentThis matrix was used to develop 18 prototype combinations based onthe interrelationships...
Black and white prototypes: 1 Kai / 2 Song / 3 Hei12 point                14 point                     16 point
Colour prototypes: 1 Kai / 2 Song / 3 HeiColour for dividing line   Colour for patient name   Colour for dosage
Prototype rating
Finding the best one amongst the prototypes
Prioritisation of information
Information chunking
Information chunking
Information organisation
Information organisation
Four types of information groupings and prioritisations1   Patient information2   Medical information3   Precautions4   Cl...
Typeface preferences         字體            Kai                       (calligraphic)                                       ...
Chinese versus Arabic numeralsMany Chinese numerals share similar strokesand therefore less distinctive than Arabicnumeral...
Date formats                              4 / 12 / 2012   4–12–2012                                                  ...
16pt for main information, others no smaller than 8pt     Precautions                                        Quantity of d...
Spatial arrangement             Clinical Information   Patient Information             Medicine Information   Precautions
More variables to be tested . . .• Portrait versus landscape format• Accommodating varied content• Label sizes for various...
2 Student assignment30 students from the Visual CommunicationDesign undergraduate programmeparticipated in the project
Student participation• Started in November 2011• Over a period of two semesters• Higher diploma and degree students• 80 de...
Test participantsMore than 70 senior participants with chronic illnesses70–85 years oldThree categories of participants• N...
Card sortingTo understand how theelderly participants organiseinformation
儷黑 Pro 14ptTypeface and type size testing                                                      Andale Mono 6pt            ...
Symbol testing
Symbol testing
Colour testing
Label orientation testing
Students’ prototypes
Students’ prototypes
Students’ prototypes
Students’ prototypes
Students’ prototypes
Students’ prototypes
Damien Hirst   Image 2 caption
For more information, please visitwww.infodesignlab.orgBrian Kwok brian@infodesignlab.orgKeith Tam  keith@infodesignlab.or...
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in …5
×

Designing effective medicine labels for senior citizens in Hong Kong

3,241 views

Published on

Mistakes in medicine intake is common among older patients in Hong Kong. Some may lead to fatalities, particularly for older patients who live alone. These elderly patients have to struggle with the small print and poor information design often found on medicine labels. A two-year research project of redesigning medicine labels was launched in 2011 in response to the imminent need for improving medicine labels in public hospitals. The aim of the project is to decrease the number of errors related to medicine intake and to enhance active ageing in the local community through effective information design.

Designing effective medicine labels for senior citizens in Hong Kong

  1. 1. Designing effective medicine labelsfor senior citizens in Hong KongBrian Kwok and Keith TamInformation Design LabSchool of Design, Hong Kong Polytechnic University13 April 2012Information Design Conference · Greenwich, UK© Information Design Lab, Hong Kong Polytechnic University 2012
  2. 2. The population is rapidly ageing in Hong Kong 10 8.89 million 8 2,489,984 28% of total 7 million populationHong Kong 910,481 65 years and olderpopulation 6 13% of total (million) population 65 years and older 4 2 0 year 2009 2039 projectedSource: Hong Kong Census and Statistics Department, Hong Kong Population Projections 2010–2039
  3. 3. Media reports on the existing medicine label designSource: Age-friendly medicine label survey reported by Sik Sik Yuen
  4. 4. 2010 age-friendly medicine label surveyOf the 569 senior respondents . . .• 96% felt that the type sizes were too small• 90% suggested that symbols could be used as reminders for times and dosages• 84% requested descriptions of drugs’ shapes and coloursSource: Age-friendly medicine label survey reported by Sik Sik Yuen
  5. 5. Main barriers of communication with older people inthe visual presentation of information (WHO)• Font sizes on text materials are too small to read• Medicine labels are hard to decipher• Page layouts are often confusing• Too much information in small spacesGlobal age-friendly cities guide, 2007, p.63
  6. 6. Three types of medicine labels in Hong KongHospital Authority Private clinicsHealth Department
  7. 7. Hospital Authority medicine label from 1982 (still in current use) Precautions Quantity of drug Name of drug Abbreviated drug nameDosage & method Precautions Name of patient Date of dispensing Name of clinic Codes for internal use
  8. 8. Information listed on the medicine label1 Name of patient2 Date of dispensing3 Address of clinical hospital and name of doctor4 Trade name or pharmacological name of drug5 Dosage6 Method of administration7 Safety precautions.
  9. 9. Comparing medicine labels from different countries
  10. 10. Objectives• Understand the daily lives of the elderly and observe how the local older patients take their medicines• Identify the problems of existing labels on medicines distributed in Hong Kong’s public hospitals• Develop a patient-centered design approach by designing a new series of medicine labels• Explore new possibilities in label design for improving accessibility, comprehensibility and usability to the elderly.
  11. 11. 1 2Legibility tests conducted by the Redesigning medicine labels asInformation Design Lab an undergraduate class project
  12. 12. 1 Legibility tests by IDLVariables tested• Typefaces• Type sizes• Colours• Information prioritisation• Spatial organisation
  13. 13. Seniors aged 60–84 at a community centre for seniors
  14. 14. Observations at the seniors’ homes• Many do not know much about the medicine and its side effects• Main concerns are dosage and method of administration• Mostly rely on memory instead of reading the label• Precautions and expiry dates are easily overlooked• Many reorganised their medicine in their own ways• Many recognise medicine by shape and colour of containers• Many preserve leftover medicine in refrigerator
  15. 15. Information searching12 participants were asked tosearch for phrases on severallabels. Durations were recorded. Search phrases B&W Colourt Expired date Name of hospital Method of administration Dosages7A1 Quantity of drug Precautions Name of patient Functions of drug5A3
  16. 16. Prototype combinations developmentThis matrix was used to develop 18 prototype combinations based onthe interrelationships between colour, type size, typeface and leading
  17. 17. Black and white prototypes: 1 Kai / 2 Song / 3 Hei12 point 14 point 16 point
  18. 18. Colour prototypes: 1 Kai / 2 Song / 3 HeiColour for dividing line Colour for patient name Colour for dosage
  19. 19. Prototype rating
  20. 20. Finding the best one amongst the prototypes
  21. 21. Prioritisation of information
  22. 22. Information chunking
  23. 23. Information chunking
  24. 24. Information organisation
  25. 25. Information organisation
  26. 26. Four types of information groupings and prioritisations1 Patient information2 Medical information3 Precautions4 Clinical information
  27. 27. Typeface preferences 字體 Kai (calligraphic) 75.4% 字體 Song (seriffed) 80.7% 字體 Hei (sanserif) 82.0% ✔
  28. 28. Chinese versus Arabic numeralsMany Chinese numerals share similar strokesand therefore less distinctive than Arabicnumerals at a glance 一 二 三 五 六 1 2 3 5 6每日三次,每次一粒 每日3次,每次1粒(3 times a day, one pill each time) ✔
  29. 29. Date formats   4 / 12 / 2012 4–12–2012   Both British and American date formats are used in Hong Kong12 / 4 / 2012 12–4–20122012 / 4 / 12二零⼀一二年四月十二日2012 年 4 月 12 日 ✔
  30. 30. 16pt for main information, others no smaller than 8pt Precautions Quantity of drug Name of drug Abbreviated drug nameDosage & method Precautions Name of patient Date of dispensing Name of clinic Codes for internal use
  31. 31. Spatial arrangement Clinical Information Patient Information Medicine Information Precautions
  32. 32. More variables to be tested . . .• Portrait versus landscape format• Accommodating varied content• Label sizes for various types of medicine containers• Test for other stakeholders.
  33. 33. 2 Student assignment30 students from the Visual CommunicationDesign undergraduate programmeparticipated in the project
  34. 34. Student participation• Started in November 2011• Over a period of two semesters• Higher diploma and degree students• 80 design students participated• 75 user tests in total
  35. 35. Test participantsMore than 70 senior participants with chronic illnesses70–85 years oldThree categories of participants• Normal eye sight• Little to no education• Visually impaired
  36. 36. Card sortingTo understand how theelderly participants organiseinformation
  37. 37. 儷黑 Pro 14ptTypeface and type size testing Andale Mono 6pt 儷黑 Pro 8pt儷黑 Pro 12pt 儷黑 Pro 12pt 儷黑 Pro 10pt儷黑 Pro 10pt 儷黑 Pro 14pt Andale Mono 6pt 儷黑 Pro 12pt 儷黑 Pro 14pt儷黑 Pro 11pt 儷黑 Pro 7pt 儷黑 Pro 8pt儷黑 Pro 15pt 儷黑 Pro 12pt儷黑 Pro 11pt 儷黑 Pro 10pt 儷黑 Pro 12pt 儷黑 Pro 10pt儷黑 Pro 10pt 儷黑 Pro 11pt 儷黑 Pro 7pt 儷黑 Pro 8pt 儷黑 Pro 11ptAndale Mono 7pt儷黑 Pro 15pt 儷黑 Pro 7pt 儷黑 Pro 15pt儷黑 Pro 12pt 儷黑 Pro 15pt儷黑 Pro 1pt 儷黑 Pro 11pt 儷黑 Pro 11pt 儷黑 Pro 10pt儷黑 Pro 10pt 儷黑 Pro 10pt 儷黑 Pro 8pt 儷 Andale Mono 7pt 儷黑 Pro 8pt Andale Mono 7pt 儷黑 Pro 12pt 儷 儷黑 Pro 12pt 儷黑 Pro 1pt
  38. 38. Symbol testing
  39. 39. Symbol testing
  40. 40. Colour testing
  41. 41. Label orientation testing
  42. 42. Students’ prototypes
  43. 43. Students’ prototypes
  44. 44. Students’ prototypes
  45. 45. Students’ prototypes
  46. 46. Students’ prototypes
  47. 47. Students’ prototypes
  48. 48. Damien Hirst Image 2 caption
  49. 49. For more information, please visitwww.infodesignlab.orgBrian Kwok brian@infodesignlab.orgKeith Tam keith@infodesignlab.orgwww.infodesignlab.org@infodesignlab© Information Design Lab, Hong Kong Polytechnic University 2012

×