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  1. 1. SUHARJOKO, MOHAMMAD BISRI, RISPININGTATI, MUHAMMAD RUSLIN ANWAR / International Journal of Engineering Research and Applications (IJERA) ISSN: 2248-9622 Vol. 3, Issue 1, January -February 2013, pp.231-237 Modelling Of Groyne Placement On The River Bend Based On Sedimentation Analysis Using Numerical Simulation Approach By Finite Difference Method SUHARJOKO1, MOHAMMAD BISRI2, RISPININGTATI3, MUHAMMAD RUSLIN ANWAR3 1 Doctoral Student At Master And Doctoral Program, Faculty Of Engineering, Brawijaya Unversity And Lecturer At Civil Engineering And Planing Departement, Its, Surabaya, 2 professor At Civil Engineering Program, Faculty Of Engineering Science, Brawijaya University, Malang, 3 associate Professor At Civil Engineering Program, Faculty Of Engineering, Brawijaya University. Malang, (Indonesia)ABSTRACT Modelling of groyne placement on the direction of flow (Louvre Groyne). Effectively,riverbend based on sedimentation analysis having overcompensation is possible so that the depositiona goal to development the good placement of height resulting from the constriction scour isgroyne to be considered of the sedimentation minimized and the frequency of occurrence andaccumulation volume on groyne field. To solved size of undepths is minimized. The sheltering effectModelling groyne placement would be simulation of the flow through the opening and the Island /many case of groyne placement using lengthening of the groyne head itself turn themathematical modeling approach by finite sediment balance in the groyne fields from net-different method. erosion to net-deposition, thus minimizing the This research plant to simulation for the sediment load on the fairway during emerged state.450 cases, that were combinations of various the Because of this, it is expected that maintenancegroyne position, various the groyne length, dredging can be minimized importantly. Fang,various of the flow velocities, various of the radius (2005) [10], To improved of bend flow sedimentbend and various of the suspended load transport model has been developed by taking theconcentrations. From the data simulation influence of secondary current vertical velocity onoutcome, can be solved by regression analysis to vertical sediment concentration distribution intoobtain suitability coefficients Cvol.. account. But existing vertical velocity profiles of secondary current and vertical sedimentKeyword : groyne placement, riverbend, concentration profiles in river bends are hardlysedimentation analysis, mathematical modeling. available, further experiment study is necessary for improving bend flow sediment transport models.I. INTRODUCTIONS Duan 2006 [6], developed applications of On the issues of concerning the groyne numerical hydrodynamics modeling twoplacement, has been studied as follows; Suharjoko dimensional depth averaged to simulate suspended1999 [1] and (2001) [2], has analyzed and reviewed sediment at the confluence of the rivers to get angroyne has carried out to get changes conduct of flow illustrated of the sediment concentrationpattern and the best distance between groynes distribution around groyne. Zhang (2007) [7], thisimpermeable using Computational hydrodinamics study investigates the flow and process of riverbedsimulations on a straight channel. The results of the change at a river rehabilitation projects by usinganalysis was obtained relationship between the physical model and mathematical model. ProhaskaFroude number (Fr.) with long of embankment (2007) [5], results showed that conservativeprotected and other parameters the results can be methods to determine erosion and to controlused to shown the best distance between the groyne. erosion around krib. The analysis gives theJungseok, 2005 [3], that research has carried out the effective value of the critical erosion shear stress todistance between groyne used Numerical Modeling be smaller than the average value of the assentto single permeability Groyne on rectangular channel shear stress. Susceptibility of erosion sediment to(CFD) Flow-3D Software. While Heereveld (2006) contaminated pollutants is difficult to predict of the[4], built the groyne river with consider the time physical processes because its had complexcontradictive assertions such as the reduction of the influence, chemistry and biology, as well as theriverbed flow velocities and an increase fairway on lack of information. Armanini, 2010 [8], doingthe the top. At the extremities of the main channel, analysis experiment results of research withthe aforementioned bed level increase is expected to physical models in problems of scouring andbe larger, but this will be countered through the deposits around groyne. Formation of the groyneIsland and lengthening of the groyne head in the 231 | P a g e
  2. 2. SUHARJOKO, MOHAMMAD BISRI, RISPININGTATI, MUHAMMAD RUSLIN ANWAR / International Journal of Engineering Research and Applications (IJERA) ISSN: 2248-9622 Vol. 3, Issue 1, January -February 2013, pp.231-237shown clearly the influence of processes Improved a- process is the quantified level of agreementgradations between the river groyne. between experimental data and model prediction, The research mentioned has been applied to as well as the predictive accuracy of the model.simulate the currents flow pattern around groyne andto get shown the distribution of sedimentation B. Developing Mathematical Model andconcentration included concentration of Vortex-flow verification & validationaround the groyne. But there has been no research to Developing the Conceptual Model involvesget the good placement of groyne that considered of identifying the computational objective, thesedimentation accumulation volume on groyne field required level of agreement between theusing numerical simulation approach by depth experiment and simulation outcomes, the domainaveraged two-dimensional fined difference flow of interest, all important physical processes andmodels. assumptions, the failure mode of interest, and the validation metrics (quantities to be measured andII. METHOD the basis for comparison). Once the ConceptualA. Modelling groyne placement. Model is developed, the modeler constructs the A modelling of groyne placement on the Mathematical Model, and the experimenter designsriverbend based on sedimentation analysis, having a the Validation Experiment. The Mathematicalgoal to development the good placement of groyne Model is a set of mathematical equations intendedthat were to be considered of the volume to describe physical reality. The Mathematicalsedimentation accumulation on groyne field. To Model of hydrodinamics includes the masssolved Modelling groyne placement would be conservation equation and momentum equations,simulation many case of groyne placement using the sedimentation equations and temporal domain,mathematical modeling. To development the initial and boundary conditions, the constitutivemathematical/numerical models were used, these equations, and the relationships describing themodels needed process verification and validation model’s uncertainty. (Thacker Ben H., 2004,[11])(V&V). The expected outcome of the model V&V More detail can be seen in figure 1 follow. 232 | P a g e
  3. 3. SUHARJOKO, MOHAMMAD BISRI, RISPININGTATI, MUHAMMAD RUSLIN ANWAR / International Journal of Engineering Research and Applications (IJERA) ISSN: 2248-9622 Vol. 3, Issue 1, January -February 2013, pp.231-237C. Conservation Equations 2 1  36  36Mathematical Model of hydrodinamics includes the ws    d   7.5( p  1) gdn  mass conservation equations and momentum 2.8  n  dnequations. The Conservation Equations calledContinuity equations was based on the conservation Where, dn is Normal diameter, p isof mass concept, Abbort, 1979 [12]. The continuity sediment concentration and g is sedimentequations two dimension horizontal be represented follow   (hu)  (hv)   0 The Migniot (1989) on Signh 2005 [13] formula is t x y used to calculate the cohesive sediment settlingWhere,  = water level fluctuations velocity: h = Water depth, 250 d = still water depth (constant), wsc  ws u = mean velocity in the x direction, d2 v = mean velocity in the y direction. Where : wsc = settling velocitys of cohesive sediment flocsD. Momentum equations ws = settling velocitys of singleThe Momentum equations was constructed based on cohesive sediment Stoke Law isthe Newton II low [12], The momentum equations used to calculate the singletwo dimension horizontal be represented as follow. cohesive sediment particle u u u  g gd 2 u v  g  2 u u 2  v 2   2 u , s  (s   ) t x y x C z 18  v v v  g G. Settlement of Suspended sediments  u  v  g  v u 2  v 2   2 v , t x y y C z 2 Dyer 1986 on widagdo 1998 [15], introduce the equation to calculate the rateo f setled sediment asWhere,  2       . 2 2  2  x  follow,  y 2   dm    Cz = Chezy Coefficient  pws 1      g = gravitation accelerations dt  c  Where m is the mass sediment settle to beE. Equation of suspended sediment dispersed deposited, p is the sediment, , c are the shearWexier (1992) on Signh 2005 [13] developed an stress and critical shear stress for settlementanalytical solution for two-dimensional advection- respectively.diffusion equation including source-sink term.   RS , for wide channels hydraulic radius R canDiffusion coefficients and velocity profile were taken be taken as the depth of flow h.constant spatially. He developed an analytical Indri,s formula on Signh 2005 [13] proposed thesolution for the following form of the following formula for critical shear stress foradvectiondiffusion equation, which can be derived by incipient motion for sediment particle are:assuming unit depth and spatially constant diffusioncoefficients and velocity profile. Where c = Critical shear stress in gm/m2, d = mean diameter of sediment in mm, M = uniformity coefficient H. Bed Elevation Change As described in the equation 3.54 the bed elevation change due to sediment erosion and deposition can be represented by the following equation [13]:F. Settling velocity Writing this equation in discrete form forLiu 2001 [14], The settling velocity of the sphere of incorporating in the model for calculating the bedsuspended sediment ws give elevation change after each time step, 233 | P a g e
  4. 4. SUHARJOKO, MOHAMMAD BISRI, RISPININGTATI, MUHAMMAD RUSLIN ANWAR / International Journal of Engineering Research and Applications (IJERA) ISSN: 2248-9622 Vol. 3, Issue 1, January -February 2013, pp.231-237 The parameters were mentioned ; a. Morphology Factor B : River with , R : Radius Bend, β : Angle Bend b. Hydrology and Hydrometry factorwhere is the fractional change in bed elevation u : Flow Velocytiesat the end of nth time step due to the kth fraction of h : Water depthsediment. The total bed elevation change after each  : density of watertime step can be calculated by summing all the  : Viscocty, degree of fluidity in a fluidfractional bed changes due to all sediment fractions: c. Suspended Load p : sediment concentration ,I. Regression Analysis d50 : is mean diameter of soil grain size,Regression analysis can be provide from the  : specific grafity of soil sediment,relationship between variables from one or more free Vol : Sedimentation accumulationvariables to get approximate predictions ,Triatmojo d. Groyne placement factor2001, [16] [17]. The purpose of regression analysis is : Position of Groyne,to obtain a function as a forecast. L : Lengt of Groyne,A linear regression equation with one independent  : angle of Groyne placement, in thisvariable (x)was, recearch  =900 y  a0  a1 xOr nonlinear/exponential regression analysis as Suharjoko (2001) [2], done research on directionalfollows groyne with different angles on the straight channel, resulting that in a groyne was placed Ei  aebxi perpendicular to the flow direction is the best.The exponential regression equation can solved to the Based on this reference, further research waslinear regression equation as follows. restricted the groyne was placed on perpendicular ln(Ei ) = ln(a) + bxi ln(e) to the flow direction (angle  = 900 ). From the explanation above, the parameters thatIII. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION effected to sedimentation accumulations (Vol), canA. The Relationship of SEDIMENTATION be expressed mathematically as follows ; ACCUMULATION with the GROYNE Vol = f ( B, R, β,  , u, h, , p, d50, , , L,t) various of PLAYCEMENT rroyne placement. There is a relationship that influence C. Non-Dimentional Parametersbetween the groyne placement with the sedimentation To get the parameters relationships ofaccumulation on the groyne field. Be expected that a sedimentation accumulation on the groyne field begood groyne placement will be given if volume the come a generaly formulation, be solved with non-sedimentation accumulation is bigger. The groyne dimensional analysis by Stepwise Method,placement, angle bend of the river and radius of the Yuwono 1994 [18]. That is to get how theriver bends are variables which have great impact to parameters relationships be come no-dimensionalcaused the sedimentation accumulation. by elimination of dimension stage by stage. In the Table 1 below were shown a solved non-B. The relationship of Parameters dimensional analysis by Stepwise method.The relationship of parameters there were caused tochanges of sedimentation deposition accumulation on From Table 1 above, non-dimensional value begroyne field shown in figure 1 are; expressed as follows.  Vol B R D d  h gh ut     3 , , , , 50 , , , 2 , tg , p,   h h h h h u  u  h  To be expected that Groyne placement have an impact of sedimentation accumulations on the groyne field was solved to compile an equations formulation from the non-dimensional value be expressed as a model that reflected the relationship of sedimentation accumulations with the parameters to have an impact, as follows, 234 | P a g e
  5. 5. SUHARJOKO, MOHAMMAD BISRI, RISPININGTATI, MUHAMMAD RUSLIN ANWAR / International Journal of Engineering Research and Applications (IJERA) ISSN: 2248-9622 Vol. 3, Issue 1, January -February 2013, pp.231-237 Vol h   ut position at the beginning of the arc of the p tg (  ) Fr , can be riverbend, Position 2 is the groyne position at ¼ BRL d 50 u h h upper of the arc of riverbend and Position 3 is the simplified groyne position at the middle of the arc of p h riverbend, More details can be seen in Figure 3  BRL  Vol tg (  ) Fr below. t d 50  where : For all case research planned simulation, there were  (Vol) sedimentation accumulation 450 times simulations, that were combinations of  p is the suspended load concentration various the groyne position, various the groyne  Fr. is Froude Number thats equal length, various of the flow velocities, various of the radius bend and various of the suspended load Fr  u gh concentrations. To explained the research of Model groyne placement on the riverbend based of Afterwards to be correction inequalities sedimentation analysis, more detail are shown in formulations above be come an equations, will be Figure 4. done to obtain suitability coefficients Cvol.. The value From the data outcome of the 450 times simulation, of this suitability coefficient can be generated from can be solved using regression analysis to gotten the data analysis from result of the simulation to the suitability coefficient (Cvol) of relationship many variety and combination of other parameters of sedimentation accumulation with parameters that’s groyne. effected,. By getting the suitability coefficient of IV. CONCLUSION sedimentation accumulation Cvol., the relationships This research planed to simulation for the with parameters that effect mentioned above, 450 times, that were combinations of various the becomes a following equation. groyne position, various the groyne length, various of the flow velocities, various of the radius bend p h Vol t  Cvol BRL  d50  tg (  ) Fr m 3  / dt , if and various of the suspended load concentrations. From the data simulation outcome, can be solved to be considered in the different time, so this equation by regression analysis to obtain suitability became the differensial equation as follow, coefficients Cvol.. That is the suitability coefficient be edd to the relationship of sedimentation p h d (Vol ) dt  Cvol BRL  d50  tg (  ) Fr m 3 / dt  accumulation with the parameters that’s effected on groyne placement models. This research planned simulation concerned to three variations of the groyne position; Position 1 is groyne Tabel 1 ; A solved non-dimensi analisis by Stepwise method. Vol B R D  u h  d 50  g t p β M/L2) L 3 L L L M/L 2 L/T L M/LT L M/L3 L/T 2 T 1 1 Vol B R D / u h / d 50 / g t p tg βu  L/T) L3 L L L 1 L/T L L/T L L -1 L/T2 L 1 1 Vol B R D u/u h / u d 50 / g/u 2 ut p tg β 3 -1 -1 h(L) L L L L 1 L 1 L L L 1 1 1 Vol/h 3 B/h R/h D/h / u d 50 /h h / gh/u 2 ut/h p tg β D D L L L D u  u u   B B B GROYNE GROYNE Sedimentation Sedimentation Accumulation Accumulation GROYNE Sedimentation Accumulation R R R Position 1. : Groyne at the upstream Position 2. : Groyne at the 1/4 Position 3. : Groyne at the central art art of riverbend upstream art of riverbend of riverbend Figure 3 : Variaos of groyne positions on the riverbend. 235 | P a g e
  6. 6. SUHARJOKO, MOHAMMAD BISRI, RISPININGTATI, MUHAMMAD RUSLIN ANWAR / International Journal of Engineering Research and Applications (IJERA) ISSN: 2248-9622 Vol. 3, Issue 1, January -February 2013, pp.231-237Reference Coonrod, and Won-Sik Ahn, 1 Suharjoko, Study on Numerical Modeling of NUMERICAL MODELING STUDY Two-Dimentional Horizontal Flow special FOR FLOW PATTERN CHANGES case Groyne on the River Estuary, Thesis INDUCED BY SINGLE GROYNE for the degree of Master Science in Civil Seminario Internacional La Engineering Program, Departement of Hidroinformática en la Gestión Integrada Engineering Science, Post-graduate de los Recursos Hídricos, Universidad del Program, Univercity Of Gajah Mada, Valle/Instituto Cinara Kutija, V. and Yogyakatra, 1999. Murray, M. G. 162 , 2005. 2 Suharjoko,2001, Numerical Modeling of 4 Heereveld ,Zijlstra, RIVER GROYNES Two-Dimentional Horizontal Flow on FOR THE FUTURE innovative groyne Groyne Field due to Groyne Placement on design, EU Water Framework Directive, the River Straight, Recearches Report, EU Habitats Directive. 2006. Departemen of Recearch and Public 5 Prohaska Sandra, Thomas Jancke, Official, Institute of Technologie Sepuluh Bernhard Westrich, MODEL BASED Nopember, Surabaya, 2001. ESTIMATION OF SEDIMENT 3 Jungseok Ho, Hong Koo Yeo, Julie EROSION IN GROYNE FIELDS START River With B = 20 m, Slope So Angle Bend ß = 60 o g, , , d 50 , , Cr, dx, dy, dt T = time simulations jt = T/dt for t=1 to jt Groyne Position: Pos(k) For k=1 to 3 Posisi 1, Posisi 2, Posisi 3 length of Groyne various: LPB(l) For l=1 to 3 L/B=1/5; L/B=1/3; L/B=1/2 velocyties various: u(m) u(1)=0.6; u(2)=0.8; u(3)=1.0; For m=1 to 5 u(4)=1.2; u(5)=1.4 m/dt Radius Bend : R(n) For n=1 to 2 R(1)=30 m, R(2)=40 m. Suspended Load : p(o) p(1)=0.001 %, p(2)=0.005 %, For o=1 to 5 p(3)=0.01%, p(4)=0.03%, p(5)=0.05%. Numerical Modelling of RUNNING SIMULATION USING NUMERCAL MODELLING Hydrodinamics and APPROACH BY FINITE Sedimentation DIFFERENCE METHOD (Regression ANALYSIS ) Outcames Parameter; 450 data to found the corrected of sedimentation formulation accumulation, flow pattern, flow perspective Coefficient Corrected Next : o CVol Next : n Next : m Next : l Next : k The Relationship of SEDIMENTATION Next : t ACCUMULATION with the GROYNE PLAYCEMENT p h d (Vol ) dt  Cvol BRL  d 50  tg (  ) Fr m 3 / dt  End Figure 4 : Researches Method 236 | P a g e
  7. 7. SUHARJOKO, MOHAMMAD BISRI, RISPININGTATI, MUHAMMAD RUSLIN ANWAR / InternationalJournal of Engineering Research and Applications (IJERA) ISSN: 2248-9622 Vol. 3, Issue 1, January -February 2013, pp.231-237 ALONG THE RIVER ELBE University of 13 Singh Vikas, TWO DIMENSIONAL Stuttgart, Institute of Hydraulic Engineering, SEDIMENT TRANSPORT MODEL Stuttgart, Germany, (2007).6 Duan, USING PARALLEL COMPUTERS, A J.G., Nanda, P., 2006, Two-dimensional Thesis for the degree of Master of Science depth-averaged model simulation of in Civil Engineering In The Department of suspended sediment concentration Civil and Environmental Engineer distribution in a groyne field, Journal of B.Tech., Banaras Hindu University, India, Hydrology, Elsevier, (2006). May 2005.7 Zhang Hao, Hajime Nakagawa, Yasunori 14 Liu Zhou, Sediment Transport, Muto, Yosio Muramoto, et al, Laboratoriet for Hydraulik og Morphodynamics of Channel with Groins its Havnebygning, Institute for Vand, Jord og Aplications in River Restoration, Annual of Miljoteknik, Aalborg Universitet, 2001 Disas, Prev. Res. Inst. Kyoto Univ., No. 50 15 Widagdo, Bagyo, TWO DIMENSIONAL B. 2007 NUMERICAL MODELING ON8 Armani A, M. Righety, Sartori F, SUSPENDED COHESIVE SEDIMENT Experimental Analisys of Flufial Groyne, TRANSPORT USING THE MULTY- Proc, of River Flow, Brauschweig, (2010). LAYERED CHARACTERISTIC9 Zhang Hao, Mizutani and Nakagawa, METHOD, a Thesis for the degree of Impact of Grain Size Distribution on Bed Master Science in Civil Engineering Topography around a Groyne,34th IAHR Program, Departement of Engineering worl Congress – Balance and Uncertainty, Science, Post-graduate Program, ISBN 978-0-85825-868-6, Brisbane, Univercity Of Gajah Mada, Yogyakatra, Australia, 26 June-1 July 2011. 1998.10 Fang Chunming, Jixin Mao, and Wen Lu, 2D 16 Triatmodjo Bambang, Numerical Methods DEPTH-AVERAGED SEDIMENT With Computer Program Applications TRANSPORT MODEL TAKEN INTO (Metode Numerik Dilengkapi Dengan ACCOUNT OF BEND FLOWS, US-CHINA Program Komputer), Beta Offset, ISBN WORKSHOP ONADYANCED :979-8541-00-6, Yogyakarta 2002. COMPUTATIONAL MODELLING IIV 17 Chapra Steven C., Raymond P. Canale, HYDROSCIENCE & ENGINEERING Numerical Methods For Engineer With September 19-21, Oxfon - Mississippi, USA, 2005. Personal Computer Applications,11 Thacker, Ben H., Scott W. Doebling, McGraw-Hill Book Company, ISBN :0- Francois M. Hemez, Mark C. Anderson, 07-010664-9, Singapore national printers Jason E. Pepin, Edward A. Rodriguez. LA- (Pte) Ltd. 1985. 14167-MS, “Concepts of Model Verification 18 Nur Yuwono, Hydraulics Modeling, and Validation”, Edited by Charmian Central of University Association on Schaller, Approved for public release;IM-1. Engineering Science, Univercity Of Gajah Los Alamos National Laboratory, is Mada, Yogyakarta,1994. operated by the University of California for 19 Duan Jennifer G. a,*, Pierre Y. Julien b, the United States Department of Energy 2010, Numerical simulation of under contract W-7405-ENG-36, (October meandering evolution, Department of 2004). Civil Engineering and Engineering12 Abbot, M.B. and Price,W.A., Computational Mechanics, 1209 E. 2nd Contents lists Hydroulics Element of the theory of Free available at ScienceDirect, Journal of Surface Flow, Pitman Pulishing Limited, Hydrology 2010. USA, 1979. 237 | P a g e