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P1121104485

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P1121104485

  1. 1.  Emotions play an important role in the decision making process, as coherent behavior is impossible if they are not considered as a basic element in that process
  2. 2.  In this work is developed a cognitive model that takes into consideration the emotions of a fighter pilot and how they relate to specific behavioral actions of the Red Baron in combat situations.
  3. 3.  To accomplish this: › cognitive model (a mental model and BCA) › cognitive structure of emotions based on the theory of Ortony, Clore, and Collins,  Create the emotional model
  4. 4.  The two models, cognitive and emotional, are combined in a single model, which we will call the EmoCog model.
  5. 5.  The representation model is developed by fuzzy cognitive maps. › This representation permits a validation of the EmoCog model. › Using hypothetical scenarios that simulate the Red Baron’s behavior in combat situations
  6. 6.  Get a model that can include emotions like part of the environment evaluation  And this, make possible the inclusion of emotions in the decision making-process
  7. 7. BEGIN Take off STEP 1 IF (good weather) WHILE (combat situation) REPEAT Watch flanks STEP 2 Look for enemy STEP 3 Identify enemy STEP 4 IF (at advantage) Frame enemy STEP 5 IF (there is ammunition) Attack enemy STEP 6 ELSE Attack enemy without weapons STEP 7 ENDIF ENDIF IF (under enemy attack) Evade enemy STEP 8 ENDIF UNTIL (aircraft conditions are not good OR Fuel is insufficient OR no good weather) ENDWHILE Return to base STEP 9 Land STEP 10 ENDIF END
  8. 8. Verify enemy attack (R) Continue combat (A) Return to base and land (R) Protect flanks (R) Find enemy aircraft (R) Good weather (I) Take off (R) Enough fuel (R)Aircraft good conditon (R) N N N N N N N Check initial conditions (R) Inverted loop (A) maneuver Reduce speed (R) N N Verify advantage (R) N N Confront enemy (R) Identify free (R) enemy aircraft Check ammunition (R) Seek position of advantage (R) Attack enemy aircraft (A) Destroy tail of enemy aircraft (A) Destroy wings of enemy aircraft (A) N N N S S S N N S Check ammunition (R) Find enemy lines on land (R) Attack enemy lines on land (A) (A) Make strafing runs over enemy lines N N N S N N S S S Macrostruture of Red Baron’s goals in action Links’ types: •sufficient (S) •necessary (N) •facilitating (F) • inhibiting (I) Goals’ types: • Active pursuit goals (A) • Goals of interest (I) • Filler goals (R)
  9. 9. Behavioral concepts Steps of develop-ment Elements of the emotions model Take off STEP 1 Temerity(1), Aggressiveness (2), Victory(4), Desire(5), Adrenaline(7), Anxiety(10) Verify good weather Boolean Self preservation(3) Combat situation Boolean Temerity(1), Aggressiveness(2), Victory(4), Desire(5), Adrenaline(7), Glory(9), Anxiety(10), Synchronization(13), Superiority(14), Comradeship (15) Identify enemy STEP 4 Aggressiveness(2), Dexterity(6), Self control(12) Look for enemy STEP 3 Temerity(1), Aggressiveness(2), Victory(4), Superiority(14) Watch flanks STEP 2 Self preservation(3), Fear(8) There is no advantage Boolean Dexterity(6), Fear(8) Attack enemy without weapons STEP 7 Temerity(1), Aggressiveness(2), Victory(4), Glory(9), Superiority(14) Destroy tail of enemy aircraft STEP 7.1 Temerity(1), Aggressiveness(2), Adrenaline(7), Emotivity(11) Destroy wings of enemy aircraft STEP 7.2 Temerity(1), Aggressiveness(2), Adrenaline(7), Emotivity(11), Superiority(14) Strafing run over enemy lines on land STEP 7.3 Temerity(1), Aggressiveness(2), Adrenaline(7), Superiority(14) There are advantage Boolean Superiority(14) EMOCOG MODEL: RELATIONSHIPS BETWEEN EMOTIONS AND BEHAVIOR
  10. 10. Behavioral concepts Steps of develop-ment Elements of the emotions model Frame the enemy STEP 5 Victory(4), Desire(5), Glory(9) Attack enemy STEP 6 Synchronization(13), Superiority(14), Comradeship(15) Attack enemy aircraft STEP 6.1 Synchronization(13), Superiority(14), Comradeship(15) Seek enemy aircraft STEP 6.2 Temerity(1), Aggressiveness(2), Victory(4), Synchronization(13), Superiority(14) Attack enemy lines on land STEP 6.3 Temerity(1), Aggressiveness(2), Desire (5), Dexterity(6), Adrenaline(7), Superiority(14), Comradeship(15) There are enemy attack Boolean Self preservation(3), Fear(8), Rebelliousness(18) Evade the enemy STEP 8 Temerity(1), Aggressiveness(2), Self preservation(3), Desire (5), Dexterity(6) Inverted loop maneuver STEP 8.1 Dexterity(6) Reduce speed STEP 8.2 Self preservation(3), Dexterity(6) Return to base STEP 9 Victory(4), Self control(12), Abort(16), Error(17) Land STEP 10 Victory(4), Abort(16), Error(17), Rebelliousness(18) EMOCOG MODEL: RELATIONSHIPS BETWEEN EMOTIONS AND BEHAVIOR
  11. 11.  Fuzzy cognitive maps (FCM's) are an artificial intelligence technique for knowledge representation with uncertainty and are used to model the behavior and operation of complex systems. FCM describe the behavior of a system in terms of elements (emotions and actions-event) and causal relationships between these elements.
  12. 12.  There are several elments involved in the macrostructure of Red Baron’s goals. These elments are interrelated through relationships of causality.  Relationships of causality refer to the effect an element has on the rest of them, involved in the description of an environment. The effect is to increase or reduce the likelihood of another element appearing.  Consequently, there are two kinds of relationships: positive (effect: to increase) and Negative (effect: to reduce).
  13. 13. Teme rity (1) Aggre ssive- ness (2) Self- preser vation (3) Victo ry (4) Synch roniza -tion (13) Self- con- trol (12) Emo- tionali- ty (11) Anxie ty (10) Error (17) Rebe- llious ness (18) Com- rade- ship (15) Supe riori- ty (14) Abort (16) Dexte- rity (6) Desi- re(5) Fear (8) Glory (9) Adre- naline (7) Relationship + Relationship - Causal graph of emotional model of a pilot in combat situations 1. Temerity 2. Aggressiveness 3. Self preservation 4. Victory 5. Desire 6. Dexterity 7. Adrenaline 8. Fear 9. Glory 10.Anxiety 11.Emotionality 12.Self control 13.Synchronization 14.Superiority 15.Comradeship 16.Abort 17.Error 18.Rebelliousness
  14. 14.  Positive behavioral elements activated in the input vector: Temerity(1), Aggressiveness(2), Desire(5), Adrenaline(7), and Superiority(14).  Negative behavioral elements activated in the input vector: [None]. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 1 1 1 0 0 1 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 2 0.5 1 0.9 1 0.9 0.9 0.9 0.5 0.5 0.9 0.9 0.5 0.5 0.9 0.9 0.9 0.5 0.5 3 0.0 1 1 0.9 1 0.9 0.9 0.5 0.9 1 0.9 1 0.9 1 0.5 0.5 0.0 0.9 4 0.0 0.9 1 0.9 1 0.9 0.9 0.5 0.6 1 0.9 1 1 0.9 0.0 0.6 0.0 0.9 5 0.1 0.9 1 0.9 1 0.9 0.9 0.5 0.9 1 0.9 1 0.9 0.9 0.0 0.7 0.0 0.9 6 0.0 0.9 1 0.9 1 0.9 0.9 0.5 0.6 1 0.9 1 1 0.9 0.0 0.6 0.0 0.9
  15. 15.  This input scenario represents the optimum psychological state of a fighter pilot just before engaging an enemy in combat. It also shows that he has no indisposition to face the enemy.
  16. 16.  Positive behavioral elements activated in the output vector: Self preservation(3), Victory(4), Dexterity(6), Anxiety(10), Emotionality (11), Self control(12), Synchronization(13), Superiority(14), and Rebelliousness(18).
  17. 17.  The output scenario represents a pilot who has defeated his enemy, with absolute self confidence and a touch of arrogance and satisfaction in having done a good job, who also is difficult to overcome. It shows an ace of aces of the air.
  18. 18.  One of the goals of this paper is to show how actions at a given time are related with emotions and how this example allows us to visualize this phenomenon  We developed an analysis and design of the Red Baron’s behavior with emphasis on combat behavior  We have established relationships between emotions and actions
  19. 19.  We have developed software that can use to test this and others causal matrices ( http://ce.azc.uam.mx/profesores/clc/  You look for it in docencia and inteligencia artificial)
  20. 20.  Alkov, R. (1992). Aviation Safety The Human Factor, Wyoming: Endeavor Books.  Kosko, B. (1986). Fuzzy Cognitive Maps, International Journal of Man-Machine Studies. 24, 65-75.  Kosko, B. (1992). Neural Networks and Fuzzy Systems A Dynamical Systems Approach to Machine Intelligence. New Jersey: Prentice-Hall.  Laureano-Cruces, A. (2000). Interacción dinámica en sistemas de enseñanza inteligentes, Tesis de Doctorado en Investigación Biomédica Básica, Instituto de Investigaciones Biomédicas – UNAM. Retrieved February 1, 2008. From http://ce.azc.uam.mx/profesores/clc/.  Laureano-Cruces, A. & De Arriaga, F. (2000). Reactive Agent Design for Intelligent Tutoring Systems. Cybernetics and Systems (an International Journal), 31, 1-47.  Laureano-Cruces, A., De Arriaga, F. & García-Alegre, M. (2001). Cognitive Task Analysis: a proposal to model reactive behaviours. Journal of Experimental & Theoretical Artificial Intelligence, 13, 227-239.
  21. 21.  Laureano-Cruces, A., Ramírez-Rodríguez, J., Mora-Torres, M. & Espinosa-Paredes, G. (2006). Modeling a Decision Making Process in a Risk Scenario: LOCA in a Nucleoelectric Plant Using Fuzzy Cognitive Maps. Research in Computing Science, 26, 3-13.  Laureano-Cruces, A., Ramírez-Rodríguez, J., Mora-Torres, M., de Arriaga, F. & Escarela- Pérez, R. (2010). Cognitive-Operative Model of Intelligent Learning Systems Behavior. Interactive Learning Environments. ISSN: 1049-4820. UK. Vol. 18, No.1, pp 11-38.  Loewenstein, G., & Lerner, J.S. (2003). The role of affect in decision making. En R. J. Davidson, K. R. Scherer & H. H. Goldsmith (Eds), Handbook of Affective Sciences (pp. 619-642). Oxford New York: Oxford University Press.  Ortony, A., Clore, G. & Collins, A. (1988). The Cognitive Structure of Emotions. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.  Reinhart, R. (1996). Basic Flight Physiology. New York: McGraw-Hill  Saberhagen, F. (1974). Wings Out of Shadow. Retrieved February 1, 2008. Fromhttp://www.webscription.net/chapters/0743498860/07434988609.htm  Villaire, N. & Hansrote, R. (2005). Applied Aviation Physiology. Wyoming: Endeavor Books.  Von Richthofen, M. A. F. (1918). The Red Fighter Pilot. Retrieved February 1, 2008. From http://www.richthofen.com/

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