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How resolve Gem dependencies in your code?

Hiroshi SHIBATA
Hiroshi SHIBATA
Hiroshi SHIBATAOSS programmer at GMO Pepabo, Inc.

Euruko 2023 Day 1

How resolve Gem dependencies in your code?

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Copyright © 2020 Present ANDPAD Inc. This information is confidential and was prepared by ANDPAD Inc. for the use of our client. It is not to be relied on by and 3rd party. Proprietary & Confidential 無断転載・無断複製の禁止
How resolve
Gem dependencies
in your code?
Hiroshi SHIBATA @hsbt
2023/09/21 Euruko 2023
Copyright © 2020 Present ANDPAD Inc. This information is confidential and was prepared by ANDPAD Inc. for the use of our client. It is not to be relied on by and 3rd party. Proprietary & Confidential 無断転載・無断複製の禁止
Hiroshi SHIBATA
https://hsbt.org
@hsbt
Ruby core team
RubyGems/Bundler team
Technical fellow at ANDPAD
Self introduction
Copyright © 2020 Present ANDPAD Inc. This information is confidential and was prepared by ANDPAD Inc. for the use of our client. It is not to be relied on by and 3rd party. Proprietary & Confidential 無断転載・無断複製の禁止
Introduction of ANDPAD
Copyright © 2020 Present ANDPAD Inc. This information is confidential and was prepared by ANDPAD Inc. for the use of our client. It is not to be relied on by and 3rd party. Proprietary & Confidential 無断転載・無断複製の禁止
I'm from Japan where is Ruby birth place
Copyright © 2020 Present ANDPAD Inc. This information is confidential and was prepared by ANDPAD Inc. for the use of our client. It is not to be relied on by and 3rd party. Proprietary & Confidential 無断転載・無断複製の禁止
RubyKaigi 2023
RubyKaigi 2023 is Ruby conference in Japan
Copyright © 2020 Present ANDPAD Inc. This information is confidential and was prepared by ANDPAD Inc. for the use of our client. It is not to be relied on by and 3rd party. Proprietary & Confidential 無断転載・無断複製の禁止
RubyKaigi 2024
RubyKaigi 2024 will be coming Okinawa island in Japan at May, 2024.

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How resolve Gem dependencies in your code?

  • 1. Copyright © 2020 Present ANDPAD Inc. This information is confidential and was prepared by ANDPAD Inc. for the use of our client. It is not to be relied on by and 3rd party. Proprietary & Confidential 無断転載・無断複製の禁止 How resolve Gem dependencies in your code? Hiroshi SHIBATA @hsbt 2023/09/21 Euruko 2023
  • 2. Copyright © 2020 Present ANDPAD Inc. This information is confidential and was prepared by ANDPAD Inc. for the use of our client. It is not to be relied on by and 3rd party. Proprietary & Confidential 無断転載・無断複製の禁止 Hiroshi SHIBATA https://hsbt.org @hsbt Ruby core team RubyGems/Bundler team Technical fellow at ANDPAD Self introduction
  • 3. Copyright © 2020 Present ANDPAD Inc. This information is confidential and was prepared by ANDPAD Inc. for the use of our client. It is not to be relied on by and 3rd party. Proprietary & Confidential 無断転載・無断複製の禁止 Introduction of ANDPAD
  • 4. Copyright © 2020 Present ANDPAD Inc. This information is confidential and was prepared by ANDPAD Inc. for the use of our client. It is not to be relied on by and 3rd party. Proprietary & Confidential 無断転載・無断複製の禁止 I'm from Japan where is Ruby birth place
  • 5. Copyright © 2020 Present ANDPAD Inc. This information is confidential and was prepared by ANDPAD Inc. for the use of our client. It is not to be relied on by and 3rd party. Proprietary & Confidential 無断転載・無断複製の禁止 RubyKaigi 2023 RubyKaigi 2023 is Ruby conference in Japan
  • 6. Copyright © 2020 Present ANDPAD Inc. This information is confidential and was prepared by ANDPAD Inc. for the use of our client. It is not to be relied on by and 3rd party. Proprietary & Confidential 無断転載・無断複製の禁止 RubyKaigi 2024 RubyKaigi 2024 will be coming Okinawa island in Japan at May, 2024.
  • 7. Copyright © 2020 Present ANDPAD Inc. This information is confidential and was prepared by ANDPAD Inc. for the use of our client. It is not to be relied on by and 3rd party. Proprietary & Confidential 無断転載・無断複製の禁止 What's Dependency Resolution with RubyGems/Bundler?
  • 8. Copyright © 2020 Present ANDPAD Inc. This information is confidential and was prepared by ANDPAD Inc. for the use of our client. It is not to be relied on by and 3rd party. Proprietary & Confidential 無断転載・無断複製の禁止 What are RubyGems and Bundler?
  • 9. Copyright © 2020 Present ANDPAD Inc. This information is confidential and was prepared by ANDPAD Inc. for the use of our client. It is not to be relied on by and 3rd party. Proprietary & Confidential 無断転載・無断複製の禁止 What's package manager? • User interface • Provide commands like install/update/search package • Dependency Resolution • Resolve dependencies of package and provide list of name and version of package • Version locking (NEW!) • Provide environment to lock specified versions of package
  • 10. Copyright © 2020 Present ANDPAD Inc. This information is confidential and was prepared by ANDPAD Inc. for the use of our client. It is not to be relied on by and 3rd party. Proprietary & Confidential 無断転載・無断複製の禁止 What’s rubygems? RubyGems is a package manager of the Ruby language. • rubygems/rubygems.org: • The Ruby community's gem host. • rubygems.org is maintain by infrastructure team of rubygems. It is different team from rubygems cli team. • rubygems/rubygems: • Command line tool for rubygems.org • Now, rubygems maintained rubygems team. I'm member of this team.
  • 11. Copyright © 2020 Present ANDPAD Inc. This information is confidential and was prepared by ANDPAD Inc. for the use of our client. It is not to be relied on by and 3rd party. Proprietary & Confidential 無断転載・無断複製の禁止 Terminology • Gem • A package/library for the Ruby programming language • Gem::Specification • Class for defining metadata including name, version, platform, etc. • gemspec • File describing the Gem::Specification in RubyGems/Bundler • This file is written by you for releasing gem • This file is created at gem install time by RubyGems
  • 12. Copyright © 2020 Present ANDPAD Inc. This information is confidential and was prepared by ANDPAD Inc. for the use of our client. It is not to be relied on by and 3rd party. Proprietary & Confidential 無断転載・無断複製の禁止 What’s Bundler? # frozen_string_literal: true source "https://rubygems.org" gemspec gem "rake", ">= 11.1” • Bundler is also package manager of Ruby language • Bundler focused version locking feature • Bundler extends a lot of RubyGems resources like gemspec. • Bundler works with Gemfile like:
  • 13. Copyright © 2020 Present ANDPAD Inc. This information is confidential and was prepared by ANDPAD Inc. for the use of our client. It is not to be relied on by and 3rd party. Proprietary & Confidential 無断転載・無断複製の禁止 Inside of Ruby libraries and gem dependencies.
  • 14. Copyright © 2020 Present ANDPAD Inc. This information is confidential and was prepared by ANDPAD Inc. for the use of our client. It is not to be relied on by and 3rd party. Proprietary & Confidential 無断転載・無断複製の禁止 gemspec in your code • You can see gemspec with `Gem.loaded_specs` like this: • `Gem::Speci fi cation#dependencies` is important parts of your application. >> Gem.loaded_specs["rack"] => Gem::Speci fi cation.new do |s| s.name = "rack" s.version = Gem::Version.new("2.2.8") s.installed_by_version = Gem::Version.new("3.4.10") s.authors = ["Leah Neukirchen"] s.date = Time.utc(2023, 7, 31) s.dependencies = [Gem::Dependency.new("minitest", Gem::Requirement.new(["~> 5.0"]), :development), Gem::Dependency.new("minitest-sprint", Gem::Requirement.new([">= 0"]), :development), Gem::Dependency.new("minitest-global_expectations", Gem::Requirement.new([">= 0"]), :development), Gem::Dependency.new("rake", Gem::Requirement.new([">= 0"]), :development)] s.description = "Rack provides a minimal, modular and adaptable interface for developingnweb applications in Ruby. By wrapping HTTP requests and responses innthe simplest way possible, it uni fi es and distills the API for webnservers, web frameworks, and software in between (the so- callednmiddleware) into a single method call.n" (...snip...) end
  • 15. Copyright © 2020 Present ANDPAD Inc. This information is confidential and was prepared by ANDPAD Inc. for the use of our client. It is not to be relied on by and 3rd party. Proprietary & Confidential 無断転載・無断複製の禁止 What's Default gems • The Ruby core team released "Default gems" to the rubygems.org. • You can install standard libraries of Ruby via RubyGems. • Default gems are openssl, psych, json, etc… You can see all of default gems at https://stdgems.org/ • Rubygems have a detection method for default gems. >> require 'rss' => true >> Gem.loaded_specs["rss"].default_gem? => false >> require 'openssl' => true >> Gem.loaded_specs["openssl"].default_gem? => true
  • 16. Copyright © 2020 Present ANDPAD Inc. This information is confidential and was prepared by ANDPAD Inc. for the use of our client. It is not to be relied on by and 3rd party. Proprietary & Confidential 無断転載・無断複製の禁止 What's Bundled gems • We bundled *.gem and unpacked fi les to tarball package for Bundled gems with `gems/bundled_gems` in ruby/ruby repository like this: • `make install` installed Bundled gem your box.
  • 17. Copyright © 2020 Present ANDPAD Inc. This information is confidential and was prepared by ANDPAD Inc. for the use of our client. It is not to be relied on by and 3rd party. Proprietary & Confidential 無断転載・無断複製の禁止 Performance issues with RubyGems • RubyGems extends `require`, `gem` and `warn`. • Because Ruby startup time is slow with RubyGems. • Bundler resolve this slow down. def require(path) # :doc: return gem_original_require(path) unless Gem.discover_gems_on_require begin RUBYGEMS_ACTIVATION_MONITOR.enter path = path.to_path if path.respond_to? :to_path if spec = Gem. fi nd_unresolved_default_spec(path) # Ensure -I beats a default gem resolved_path = begin rp = nil (snip)
  • 18. Copyright © 2020 Present ANDPAD Inc. This information is confidential and was prepared by ANDPAD Inc. for the use of our client. It is not to be relied on by and 3rd party. Proprietary & Confidential 無断転載・無断複製の禁止 Performance issues • Bundler also extends RubyGems classes/methods. It's enabled when we used Bundler. • `Gem::Specification#extension_dir` needs to handle git resource of Gemfile like this: # for gem “rails”, git: “https://github.com/rails/rails" alias_method :rg_extension_dir, :extension_dir def extension_dir # following instance variable is already used in original method # and that is the reason to prefix it with bundler_ and add rubocop exception @bundler_extension_dir ||= if source.respond_to?(:extension_dir_name) unique_extension_dir = [source.extension_dir_name, File.basename(full_gem_path)].uniq.join("-") File.expand_path(File.join(extensions_dir, unique_extension_dir)) else rg_extension_dir end end
  • 19. Copyright © 2020 Present ANDPAD Inc. This information is confidential and was prepared by ANDPAD Inc. for the use of our client. It is not to be relied on by and 3rd party. Proprietary & Confidential 無断転載・無断複製の禁止 Architecture of RubyGems/Bundler Update Install Commands Bundler.definition Extended classes of RubyGems Resolver Resolver Engine PubGrub Update Commands Install Resolver Resolver Engine Molinillo Gem::Specification Request::Set Etc... RubyGems Bundler
  • 20. Copyright © 2020 Present ANDPAD Inc. This information is confidential and was prepared by ANDPAD Inc. for the use of our client. It is not to be relied on by and 3rd party. Proprietary & Confidential 無断転載・無断複製の禁止 Terminology • Resolution • Ensuring that the dependency constraint are satisfied the combinatorial constraints of multiple libraries. • Resolver Engine • Performs dependency resolution with library name and version combinations and provides a list of libraries if resolved. RubyGems uses Mollinilo, Bundler uses PubGrub • Resolver • Provides the Resolver Engine with the necessary data abstraction and library dependency resolution • Provides list of libraries including their names and versions to be installed.
  • 21. Copyright © 2020 Present ANDPAD Inc. This information is confidential and was prepared by ANDPAD Inc. for the use of our client. It is not to be relied on by and 3rd party. Proprietary & Confidential 無断転載・無断複製の禁止 Basic case of Gemfile and bundle exec
  • 22. Copyright © 2020 Present ANDPAD Inc. This information is confidential and was prepared by ANDPAD Inc. for the use of our client. It is not to be relied on by and 3rd party. Proprietary & Confidential 無断転載・無断複製の禁止 Basic case of Gemfile and Bundler • How Bundler lock gem versions? • I'll introduce how resolve these paths with examples. # Gem fi le # frozen_string_literal: true source "https://rubygems.org" gem "rss" # Gem fi le.lock GEM remote: https://rubygems.org/ specs: rexml (3.2.5) rss (0.2.9) rexml PLATFORMS arm64-darwin-23 DEPENDENCIES rss BUNDLED WITH 2.5.0.dev
  • 23. Copyright © 2020 Present ANDPAD Inc. This information is confidential and was prepared by ANDPAD Inc. for the use of our client. It is not to be relied on by and 3rd party. Proprietary & Confidential 無断転載・無断複製の禁止 What's Bundler.setup def setup(*groups) @definition.ensure_equivalent_gemfile_and_lockfile if Bundler.frozen_bundle? # Has to happen first clean_load_path specs = @definition.specs_for(groups) SharedHelpers.set_bundle_environment Bundler.rubygems.replace_entrypoints(specs) # Activate the specs load_paths = specs.map do |spec| check_for_activated_spec!(spec) Bundler.rubygems.mark_loaded(spec) spec.load_paths.reject {|path| $LOAD_PATH.include?(path) } end.reverse.flatten Bundler.rubygems.add_to_load_path(load_paths) setup_manpath lock(:preserve_unknown_sections => true) self end • `Bundler.setup` and `Bundler.require` is most important parts of Bundler • These methods defined at `runtime.rb`. • `bundle exec` call `Bundler.setup` and `Kernel.exec`.
  • 24. Copyright © 2020 Present ANDPAD Inc. This information is confidential and was prepared by ANDPAD Inc. for the use of our client. It is not to be relied on by and 3rd party. Proprietary & Confidential 無断転載・無断複製の禁止 Reset your environment with Bundler @definition.ensure_equivalent_gemfile_and_lockfile if Bundler.frozen_bundle? # Has to happen first clean_load_path • At first, Bundler update your lockfile and install new versions if it's needed. After that, Reject gem paths that are not `require` yet. def clean_load_path loaded_gem_paths = Bundler.rubygems.loaded_gem_paths $LOAD_PATH.reject! do |p| resolved_path = resolve_path(p) next if $LOADED_FEATURES.any? {|lf| lf.start_with?(resolved_path) } loaded_gem_paths.delete(p) end $LOAD_PATH.uniq! end
  • 25. Copyright © 2020 Present ANDPAD Inc. This information is confidential and was prepared by ANDPAD Inc. for the use of our client. It is not to be relied on by and 3rd party. Proprietary & Confidential 無断転載・無断複製の禁止 • `Bundler.definition` and `Bundler::Resolver` is core parts for this. • Bundler.definition create instance of `Bundler::Resolver` and call resolution methods inside `specs_for`. • `specs` is instance of Bundler::SpecSet. • Bundler inject `bundler` as dependency into Gemfile. How select dependencies by Bundler.definition specs = @definition.specs_for(groups) SharedHelpers.set_bundle_environment Bundler.rubygems.replace_entrypoints(specs) >> specs.map(&:name) => ["bundler", "rexml", "rss"]
  • 26. Copyright © 2020 Present ANDPAD Inc. This information is confidential and was prepared by ANDPAD Inc. for the use of our client. It is not to be relied on by and 3rd party. Proprietary & Confidential 無断転載・無断複製の禁止 Basic scenario of Bundler resolution • `Bundler.rubygems.replace_entrypoints` inject gemspecs of default gems into dependencies of Gemfile. specs = Declared in Gemfile: rails, nokogiri, sidekiq, etc... default_spec = Default gems: csv, psych, json, etc... + Bundler.rubygems.default_stubs.each do |stub| default_spec = stub.to_spec default_spec_name = default_spec.name next if specs_by_name.key?(default_spec_name) specs << default_spec specs_by_name[default_spec_name] = default_spec end
  • 27. Copyright © 2020 Present ANDPAD Inc. This information is confidential and was prepared by ANDPAD Inc. for the use of our client. It is not to be relied on by and 3rd party. Proprietary & Confidential 無断転載・無断複製の禁止 Update your LOAD_PATH with scratch ~/.rbenv/versions/master/lib/ruby/gems/3.3.0+0/gems/rss-0.2.9/lib ~/.rbenv/versions/master/lib/ruby/gems/3.3.0+0/gems/rexml-3.2.5/lib ~/.rbenv/versions/master/lib/ruby/gems/3.3.0+0/gems/bundler-2.5.0.dev/lib # Activate the specs load_paths = specs.map do |spec| check_for_activated_spec!(spec) Bundler.rubygems.mark_loaded(spec) spec.load_paths.reject {|path| $LOAD_PATH.include?(path) } end.reverse.flatten Bundler.rubygems.add_to_load_path(load_paths) setup_manpath lock(:preserve_unknown_sections => true) self • These logic is easy to understand. We generate paths generated by resolved gemspec. `Gem::Specification#load_paths` returns load paths from gemspec. • `load_paths` returns like this:
  • 28. Copyright © 2020 Present ANDPAD Inc. This information is confidential and was prepared by ANDPAD Inc. for the use of our client. It is not to be relied on by and 3rd party. Proprietary & Confidential 無断転載・無断複製の禁止 How resolve library dependency by Bundler?
  • 29. Copyright © 2020 Present ANDPAD Inc. This information is confidential and was prepared by ANDPAD Inc. for the use of our client. It is not to be relied on by and 3rd party. Proprietary & Confidential 無断転載・無断複製の禁止 How works PubGrub and Bundler
  • 30. Copyright © 2020 Present ANDPAD Inc. This information is confidential and was prepared by ANDPAD Inc. for the use of our client. It is not to be relied on by and 3rd party. Proprietary & Confidential 無断転載・無断複製の禁止 What's PubGrub? • PubGrub is next generation resolution engine developed by Natalie Weizenbaum a.k.a @nex3. • PubGrub is for Dart language. But we have Ruby implementation that is `pub_grub`. • If resolution conflict occurs with PubGrub, PubGrub give up immediately to resolving loop. This makes faster resolution with complex Gemfile. https://nex3.medium.com/pubgrub-2fb6470504f
  • 31. Copyright © 2020 Present ANDPAD Inc. This information is confidential and was prepared by ANDPAD Inc. for the use of our client. It is not to be relied on by and 3rd party. Proprietary & Confidential 無断転載・無断複製の禁止 Easy scenario of PubGrub source = PubGrub::StaticPackageSource.new do |s| s.add 'foo', '2.0.0', deps: { 'bar' => '1.0.0' } s.add 'foo', '1.0.0' s.add 'bar', '1.0.0', deps: { 'foo' => '1.0.0' } s.root deps: { 'bar' => '>= 1.0.0' } end solver = PubGrub::VersionSolver.new(source: source) result = solver.solve p result #=> {#<PubGrub::Package :root>=>0, "bar"=>#<Gem::Version "1.0.0">, "foo"=>#<Gem::Version "1.0.0">} • This is basic scenario of dependency resolution. • We can see Resolution with PubGrub::VersionSolver and package source definition provided by PubGrub.
  • 32. Copyright © 2020 Present ANDPAD Inc. This information is confidential and was prepared by ANDPAD Inc. for the use of our client. It is not to be relied on by and 3rd party. Proprietary & Confidential 無断転載・無断複製の禁止 Easy scenario of PubGrub I want bar-1.0.0 or higher bar-1.0.0 foo-1.0.0 foo-2.0.0 • We want to use `bar >= 1.0.0`. bar-1.0.0 wants foo-1.0.0. • We can get resolution result that is `bar-1.0.0` and `foo-1.0.0`.
  • 33. Copyright © 2020 Present ANDPAD Inc. This information is confidential and was prepared by ANDPAD Inc. for the use of our client. It is not to be relied on by and 3rd party. Proprietary & Confidential 無断転載・無断複製の禁止 Conflict scenario of PubGrub source = PubGrub::StaticPackageSource.new do |s| s.add 'foo', '2.0.0', deps: { 'bar' => '1.0.0' } s.add 'foo', '1.0.0' s.add 'bar', '1.0.0', deps: { 'foo' => '1.0.0' } s.root deps: { 'foo' => '>= 2.0.0' } end solver = PubGrub::VersionSolver.new(source: source) result = solver.solve p result #=> pub_grub/version_solver.rb:233:in `resolve_conflict': Could not find compatible versions (PubGrub::SolveFailure) • This is conflict scenario of dependency resolution. • If PubGrub couldn't resolve their versions, it raises `SolveFailure`.
  • 34. Copyright © 2020 Present ANDPAD Inc. This information is confidential and was prepared by ANDPAD Inc. for the use of our client. It is not to be relied on by and 3rd party. Proprietary & Confidential 無断転載・無断複製の禁止 Easy scenario of PubGrub I want foo-2.0.0 or higher bar-1.0.0 foo-1.0.0 foo-2.0.0 • We want to use `foo >= 2.0.0`. • But foo-2.0.0 wants bar-1.0.0, and bar-1.0.0 wants foo-1.0.0. This is not foo-2.0.0
  • 35. Copyright © 2020 Present ANDPAD Inc. This information is confidential and was prepared by ANDPAD Inc. for the use of our client. It is not to be relied on by and 3rd party. Proprietary & Confidential 無断転載・無断複製の禁止 A bit of complex scenario of PubGrub source = PubGrub::StaticPackageSource.new do |s| s.add 'foo', '3.0.0', deps: { 'bar' => '> 1.0.0' } s.add 'foo', '2.0.0', deps: { 'bar' => '1.0.0' } s.add 'foo', '1.0.0' s.add 'bar', '1.0.0', deps: { 'foo' => '1.0.0' } s.add 'bar', '2.0.0' s.add 'buzz', '1.0.0', deps: { 'foo' => '> 1.0.0' } s.root deps: { 'buzz' => '1.0.0' } end solver = PubGrub::VersionSolver.new(source: source) result = solver.solve p result #=> {#<PubGrub::Package :root>=>0, "buzz"=>#<Gem::Version "1.0.0">, "foo"=>#<Gem::Version "3.0.0">, "bar"=>#<Gem::Version "2.0.0">} • This is additional scenario for PubGrub. We have three versions of foo, two versions of bar, and buzz.
  • 36. Copyright © 2020 Present ANDPAD Inc. This information is confidential and was prepared by ANDPAD Inc. for the use of our client. It is not to be relied on by and 3rd party. Proprietary & Confidential 無断転載・無断複製の禁止 A bit of complex scenario of PubGrub I want buzz-1.0.0 buzz-1.0.0 foo-1.0.0 foo-2.0.0 foo-3.0.0 bar-1.0.0 bar-2.0.0 This is not foo > 1.0.0 for buzz We want to use buzz-1.0.0, buzz-1.0.0 wants foo > 1.0.0. PubGrub resolve it with foo-2.0.0 or foo-3.0.0, But foo-2.0.0 conflicts with bar-1.0.0.
  • 37. Copyright © 2020 Present ANDPAD Inc. This information is confidential and was prepared by ANDPAD Inc. for the use of our client. It is not to be relied on by and 3rd party. Proprietary & Confidential 無断転載・無断複製の禁止 A bit of complex scenario of PubGrub I want buzz-1.0.0 buzz-1.0.0 foo-1.0.0 foo-2.0.0 foo-3.0.0 bar-1.0.0 bar-2.0.0 We finally get buzz-1.0.0, foo-3.0.0 and bar-2.0.0 as resolution result.
  • 38. Copyright © 2020 Present ANDPAD Inc. This information is confidential and was prepared by ANDPAD Inc. for the use of our client. It is not to be relied on by and 3rd party. Proprietary & Confidential 無断転載・無断複製の禁止 What happened with `bundle update rails`
  • 39. Copyright © 2020 Present ANDPAD Inc. This information is confidential and was prepared by ANDPAD Inc. for the use of our client. It is not to be relied on by and 3rd party. Proprietary & Confidential 無断転載・無断複製の禁止 Infinitely case of `bundle update` $ bundle update Fetching gem metadata from https://rubygems.org/............ Resolving dependencies................................................................................................................................. ....................................................................................................................................................... ....................................................................................................................................................... ....................................................................................................................................................... ....................................................................................................................................................... ....................................................................................................................................................... ....................................................................................................................................................... ....................................................................................................................................................... ....................................................................................................................................................... ....................................................................................................................................................... ....................................................................................................................................................... ....................................................................................................................................................... ......................................................................^C
  • 40. Copyright © 2020 Present ANDPAD Inc. This information is confidential and was prepared by ANDPAD Inc. for the use of our client. It is not to be relied on by and 3rd party. Proprietary & Confidential 無断転載・無断複製の禁止 Why rails loops infinite with bundle update? Bundler could not fi nd compatible versions for gem "activesupport": In Gem fi le: inherited_resources (= 1.6.0) was resolved to 1.6.0, which depends on has_scope (~> 0.6.0.rc) was resolved to 0.6.0, which depends on activesupport (>= 3.2, < 5) rails (= 4.2.0) was resolved to 4.2.0, which depends on activesupport (= 4.2.0) Bundler could not fi nd compatible versions for gem "railties": In Gem fi le: inherited_resources (= 1.6.0) was resolved to 1.6.0, which depends on railties (>= 3.2, < 5) rails (= 4.2.0) was resolved to 4.2.0, which depends on railties (= 4.2.0) inherited_resources (= 1.6.0) was resolved to 1.6.0, which depends on responders was resolved to 1.1.2, which depends on railties (>= 3.2, < 4.2) This behavior is derivation of the following events frequently after running `bundle update` at Bundler 2.3 or before.
  • 41. Copyright © 2020 Present ANDPAD Inc. This information is confidential and was prepared by ANDPAD Inc. for the use of our client. It is not to be relied on by and 3rd party. Proprietary & Confidential 無断転載・無断複製の禁止 What's happend called with setup_solver in Bundler? • `bundle update` will create instance of `Resolver` for resolution. • Resolver invoke `setup_solver` and `solve_versions`. `setup_solver` prepared all versions of gemspec(called all_specs) and dependency tree and logger for `solve_versions` >> @all_specs.keys => ["rails", "importmap-rails", "Rubyu0000", "RubyGemsu0000"] >> @all_specs["rails"].map{|s| [s.name, s.version.to_s]} => [["rails", "0.8.0"], ["rails", "0.8.5"], ... ["rails", "7.0.7.2"], ["rails", "7.0.8"]] source "https://rubygems.org" gem "rails" gem "importmap-rails"
  • 42. Copyright © 2020 Present ANDPAD Inc. This information is confidential and was prepared by ANDPAD Inc. for the use of our client. It is not to be relied on by and 3rd party. Proprietary & Confidential 無断転載・無断複製の禁止 How use PubGrub in Bundler? def solve_versions(root:, logger:) solver = PubGrub::VersionSolver.new(:source => self, :root => root, :logger => logger) result = solver.solve result.map {|package, version| version.to_specs(package) }. fl atten.uniq • But real case happens resolution conflicts when a dependent gem under rails, such as `railties`, is version-locked by referencing another gem. • `PubGrub::SolveFailure` exception occurs and this gem is sent to the retry list. • Bundler will resolve dependencies defined at Gemfile and all_specs of gem by PubGrub like sample case.
  • 43. Copyright © 2020 Present ANDPAD Inc. This information is confidential and was prepared by ANDPAD Inc. for the use of our client. It is not to be relied on by and 3rd party. Proprietary & Confidential 無断転載・無断複製の禁止 Real case of PubGrub resolution I want rails-7.0.8 and importmap- rails-1.2.1 rails-0.8.0 activerecord-... rails-7.0.8 ・ ・ ・ importmap-rails-0.1.0 ・ ・ ・ importmap-rails-1.2.1 activemailer-... activesupport-... actionview-... railties-... actionpack-... mini_mime-... mail-... minitest-... tzinfo-... thor-... rake-...
  • 44. Copyright © 2020 Present ANDPAD Inc. This information is confidential and was prepared by ANDPAD Inc. for the use of our client. It is not to be relied on by and 3rd party. Proprietary & Confidential 無断転載・無断複製の禁止 Bundler handles conflict result of PubGrub • For example, importmap-rails depends on `railtie`. `importmap-rails` was sent into retry list. • `railtie` and `activesupport` are used often as they are rails plugins, so they are almost always included rescue PubGrub::SolveFailure => e incompatibility = e.incompatibility names_to_unlock, names_to_allow_prereleases_for, extended_explanation = fi nd_names_to_relax(incompatibility) names_to_relax = names_to_unlock + names_to_allow_prereleases_for if names_to_relax.any? (snip) root, logger = setup_solver Bundler.ui.debug "Retrying resolution...", true retry end
  • 45. Copyright © 2020 Present ANDPAD Inc. This information is confidential and was prepared by ANDPAD Inc. for the use of our client. It is not to be relied on by and 3rd party. Proprietary & Confidential 無断転載・無断複製の禁止 Bundler will propagate conflict result into next resolution OK, I skip importmap- rails-1.2.1 and its dependencies. rails-0.8.0 activerecord-... rails-7.0.8 ・ ・ ・ importmap-rails-0.1.0 ・ ・ ・ importmap-rails-1.2.1 activemailer-... activesupport-... actionview-... railties-... actionpack-... mini_mime-... mail-... minitest-... tzinfo-... thor-... rake-...
  • 46. Copyright © 2020 Present ANDPAD Inc. This information is confidential and was prepared by ANDPAD Inc. for the use of our client. It is not to be relied on by and 3rd party. Proprietary & Confidential 無断転載・無断複製の禁止 Result of resolution with rails and importmap-rails yay, I got the full list of gems with rails-7.0.8 and importmap- rails-1.2.1 activerecord-... rails-7.0.8 importmap-rails-1.2.1 activemailer-... actionview-... GEM remote: https://rubygems.org/ specs: actioncable (7.0.8) actionpack (= 7.0.8) activesupport (= 7.0.8) nio4r (~> 2.0) websocket-driver (>= 0.6.1) actionmailbox (7.0.8) actionpack (= 7.0.8) activejob (= 7.0.8) activerecord (= 7.0.8) activestorage (= 7.0.8) activesupport (= 7.0.8) mail (>= 2.7.1) net-imap net-pop net-smtp actionmailer (7.0.8) actionpack (= 7.0.8) actionview (= 7.0.8) activejob (= 7.0.8) activesupport (= 7.0.8) mail (~> 2.5, >= 2.5.4) ・ ・ ・
  • 47. Copyright © 2020 Present ANDPAD Inc. This information is confidential and was prepared by ANDPAD Inc. for the use of our client. It is not to be relied on by and 3rd party. Proprietary & Confidential 無断転載・無断複製の禁止 Proposals for the future
  • 48. Copyright © 2020 Present ANDPAD Inc. This information is confidential and was prepared by ANDPAD Inc. for the use of our client. It is not to be relied on by and 3rd party. Proprietary & Confidential 無断転載・無断複製の禁止 Resolve duplicates and redundant of code and commands
  • 49. Copyright © 2020 Present ANDPAD Inc. This information is confidential and was prepared by ANDPAD Inc. for the use of our client. It is not to be relied on by and 3rd party. Proprietary & Confidential 無断転載・無断複製の禁止 Migration RubyGems and Bundler in the future Update Install Commands Bundler.definition Extended classes of RubyGems Resolver Resolver Engine PubGrub Update Commands Install Gem::Specification Request::Set Etc...
  • 50. Copyright © 2020 Present ANDPAD Inc. This information is confidential and was prepared by ANDPAD Inc. for the use of our client. It is not to be relied on by and 3rd party. Proprietary & Confidential 無断転載・無断複製の禁止 Conclusion • I talked about... • Knowledge RubyGems, Bundler and Package Manager. • How works Bundler modify LOAD_PATH of Ruby • How works PubGrub and Bundler < Ruby is a programmer's best friend