2010 SBES - Um Estudo Experimental sobre a Relação entre o Uso de Práticas Ágeis e o Sucesso de Projetos de Software que utilizam Scrum

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Um Estudo Experimental sobre a Relação entre o Uso de Práticas Ágeis e o Sucesso de Projetos de Software que utilizam Scrum
Leila M. R. de Souza Mariz, A. César C. França, Fabio Q. B. da Silva

Abstract-This work has the goal of investigating the relationship between the use of agile practices and the success of software projects that use Scrum. The method used in the investigation was a cross-sectional survey that collected data from 62 software engineers associated to 11 projects in 9 different software firms, representing 75% of the population in the studied projects. The results show that only 8 of the 25 attributes associated with agile practices have significant correlation with project success. These results suggest that it is important to consider carefully which agile practices must be prioritized in order to increase the effectiveness of the deployment of agile methodologies in the software industry.

Paper presented at the XXIV Simpósio Brasileiro de Engenharia de Software, Salvador, 2010.


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2010 SBES - Um Estudo Experimental sobre a Relação entre o Uso de Práticas Ágeis e o Sucesso de Projetos de Software que utilizam Scrum

  1. 1. S O P E I Influences Is influenced An Empirical Study on the Relationship between the Use of Agile Practices and the Success of Software Projects that Use Scrum Leila Mariz; A. César C. França; Fabio Q. B. da Silva < leilamariz@yahoo.com.br, cesarfranca@gmail.com, fabio@cin.ufpe.br>
  2. 2. S O P E I Influences Is influenced Research Project 2 (empirical) research project on the influence of human factors on software engineering Long Term Objective: to understand the influence of personality, behavior, and cognition on individuals, teams, projects, processes, and organizations in software engineering.
  3. 3. S O P E I Influences Is influenced Research Project 3 (empirical) research project on the influence of human factors on software engineering Centro de Informática – UFPE Since 2003 ... 1 professor/researcher 4 PhD students 18 master students
  4. 4. S O P E I Influences Is influenced Research Project 4 (Book) Um Estudo sobre Motivação de Integrantes de Equipes de Engenharia de Software
  5. 5. S O P E I Influences Is influenced Context 5 Critical Success Factors Agile Attibutes Delivery strategy A01 Regular delivery of software A02 Delivering most important features first Agile software engineering techniques A03 Well-defined coding Standards up front A04 Pursuing simple design A05 Rigorous refactoring activities A06 Right amount of documentation A07 Correct integration testing Team capability A08 Team members with high competence and expertise A09 Team members with great motivation A10 Managers knowledgeable in agile A11 Managers who have adaptative management style A12 Appropriate technical training to team Project management process A13 Following agile-oriented requirement management process A14 Following agile-oriented project management process A15 Following agile-oriented configuration management process A16 Good progress tracking mechanism A17 Strong communication focus with daily face-to-face meetings A18 Honoring regular working Schedule Team environment A19 Collocation of the whole team A20 Coherent, self-organizing team-work A21 Projects with small team A22 Projects with no multiple independent teams Customer involvement A23 Good customer relationship A24 Strong customer commitment and presence A25 Customer having full authority T. Chow, e D. Cao, "A Survey Study of Critical Success Factors in Agile Software Projects.", The Journal of Systems and Software, n. 81, 2007, pp. 961–971
  6. 6. S O P E I Influences Is influenced Context and Goals 6 Critical Success Factors Agile Attibutes Delivery strategy A01 Regular delivery of software A02 Delivering most important features first Agile software engineering techniques A03 Well-defined coding Standards up front A04 Pursuing simple design A05 Rigorous refactoring activities A06 Right amount of documentation A07 Correct integration testing Team capability A08 Team members with high competence and expertise A09 Team members with great motivation A10 Managers knowledgeable in agile A11 Managers who have adaptative management style A12 Appropriate technical training to team Project management process A13 Following agile-oriented requirement management process A14 Following agile-oriented project management process A15 Following agile-oriented configuration management process A16 Good progress tracking mechanism A17 Strong communication focus with daily face-to- face meetings A18 Honoring regular working Schedule Team environment A19 Collocation of the whole team A20 Coherent, self-organizing team-work A21 Projects with small team A22 Projects with no multiple independent teams Customer involvement A23 Good customer relationship A24 Strong customer commitment and presence A25 Customer having full authority Is the adoption of the 25 agile attributes related to the success of software development projects managed using Scrum?
  7. 7. S O P E I Influences Is influenced Study Design 7 Method Cross sectional survey
  8. 8. S O P E I Influences Is influenced Study Design 8 Context Small software firms Located in Recife.br Finished Scrum Project Method Cross sectional survey
  9. 9. S O P E I Influences Is influenced Study Design 9 Method Cross sectional survey Context Small software firms Located in Recife.br Finished Scrum Project Perspective/Population Scrum Team, Scrum Master, Product Owner
  10. 10. S O P E I Influences Is influenced10 Study Design Method Cross sectional survey Context Small software firms Located in Recife.br Finished Scrum Project Perspective/Population Scrum Team, Scrum Master, Product Owner
  11. 11. S O P E I Influences Is influenced Study Design 11 Method Cross sectional survey Context Small software firms Located in Recife.br Finished Scrum Project Perspective/Population Scrum Team, Scrum Master, Product Owner Questionnaire Closed questions Perception of use of agile attribute Perception of project success Hackman (1990) and Hallows (1998)
  12. 12. S O P E I Influences Is influenced Study Design 12 Method Cross sectional survey Context Small software firms Located in Recife.br Finished Scrum Project Perspective/Population Scrum Team, Scrum Master, Product Owner Questionnaire Closed questions Perception use agile attribute Perception of project success Variables A01 ... A25: level of use of Agile Attribute S: project success Scale Five point Likert type
  13. 13. S O P E I Influences Is influenced Study Design 13 Method Cross sectional survey Context Small software firms Located in Recife.br Finished Scrum Project Perspective/Population Scrum Team, Scrum Master, Product Owner Questionnaire Closed questions Perception use agile attribute Perception of project success Variables A01 ... A25 and S Study Design
  14. 14. S O P E I Influences Is influenced Development 14 Method Cross sectional survey Context Small software firms Located in Recife.br Finished Scrum Project Perspective/Population Scrum Team, Scrum Master, Product Owner Questionnaire Closed questions Perception use agile attribute Perception of project success Variables A01 ... A25 and S Study Design Time July-August, 2009
  15. 15. S O P E I Influences Is influenced Development 15 Method Cross sectional survey Context Small software firms Located in Recife.br Finished Scrum Project Perspective/Population Scrum Team, Scrum Master, Product Owner Questionnaire Closed questions Perception use agile attribute Perception of project success Variables A01 ... A25 and S Study Design Time July-August, 2009Context 9 firms 11 projects Recife Scrum Group
  16. 16. S O P E I Influences Is influenced Development 16 Method Cross sectional survey Context Small software firms Located in Recife.br Finished Scrum Project Perspective/Population Scrum Team, Scrum Master, Product Owner Questionnaire Closed questions Perception use agile attribute Perception of project success Variables A01 ... A25 and S Study Design Time July-August, 2009 Context 9 firms 11 projects Recife Scrum Group Participants (62) 48 Scrum Team 10 Scrum Master 4 Product Owner
  17. 17. S O P E I Influences Is influenced Development 17 Method Cross sectional survey Context Small software firms Located in Recife.br Finished Scrum Project Perspective/Population Scrum Team, Scrum Master, Product Owner Questionnaire Closed questions Perception use agile attribute Perception of project success Variables A01 ... A25 and S Study Design Time July-August, 2009 Context 9 firms 11 projects Recife Scrum Group Participants (62) 48 Scrum Team 10 Scrum Master 4 Product Owner Questionnaire 65 questionnaire sent 62 answered 95% response rate
  18. 18. S O P E I Influences Is influenced Statistical Analysis 18 Method Cross sectional survey Context Small software firms Located in Recife.br Finished Scrum Project Perspective/Population Scrum Team, Scrum Master, Product Owner Questionnaire Closed questions Perception use agile attribute Perception of project success Variables A01 ... A25 and S Study Design Time July-August, 2009 Context 9 firms 11 projects Recife Scrum Group Participants (62) 48 Scrum Team 10 Scrum Master 4 Product Owner Questionnaire 65 questionnaire sent 62 answered 95% response rate Correlation Spearman's rank correlation coefficient Development
  19. 19. S O P E I Influences Is influenced Results: Correlation 19 Critical Success Factors Agile Attibutes Delivery strategy A01 Regular delivery of software A02 Delivering most important features first Agile software engineering techniques A03 Well-defined coding Standards up front A04 Pursuing simple design A05 Rigorous refactoring activities A06 Right amount of documentation A07 Correct integration testing Team capability A08 Team members with high competence and expertise A09 Team members with great motivation A10 Managers knowledgeable in agile A11 Managers who have adaptative management style A12 Appropriate technical training to team Project management process A13 Following agile-oriented requirement management process A14 Following agile-oriented project management process A15 Following agile-oriented configuration management process A16 Good progress tracking mechanism A17 Strong communication focus with daily face-to-face meetings A18 Honoring regular working Schedule Team environment A19 Collocation of the whole team A20 Coherent, self-organizing team-work A21 Projects with small team A22 Projects with no multiple independent teams Customer involvement A23 Good customer relationship A24 Strong customer commitment and presence A25 Customer having full authority
  20. 20. S O P E I Influences Is influenced Results: PCA 20 C1 Management style A17 Strong communication focus with daily face-to-face meetings A10 Managers knowledgeable in agile A18 Honoring regular working Schedule A11 Managers who have adaptative management style A20 Coherent, self-organizing team-work C2 Software process A23Good customer relationship A13Following agile-oriented requirement management process A15 Following agile-oriented configuration management process A14Following agile-oriented project management process A02Delivering most important features first C3 Team Structure A22Projects with no multiple independent teams A21Projects with small team C4 Technical Procedures A03 Well-defined coding Standards up front A07 Correct integration testing A12 Appropriate technical training to team A04 Pursuing simple design C5 Team capability A09Team members with great motivation A08Team members with high competence and expertise C6 Customer commitment A24Strong customer commitment and presence A06Right amount of documentation C7 Delivery strategy A01Regular delivery of software C8 Team Location A19Collocation of the whole team A05 Rigorous refactoring activities C9 Customer awareness A25Customer having full authority A16Good progress tracking mechanism
  21. 21. S O P E I Influences Is influenced Results:Discussion 21 Critical Success Factors Agile Attibutes Delivery strategy A01 Regular delivery of software A02 Delivering most important features first Agile software engineering techniques A03 Well-defined coding Standards up front A04 Pursuing simple design A05 Rigorous refactoring activities A06 Right amount of documentation A07 Correct integration testing Team capability A08 Team members with high competence and expertise A09 Team members with great motivation A10 Managers knowledgeable in agile A11 Managers who have adaptative management style A12 Appropriate technical training to team Project management process A13 Following agile-oriented requirement management process A14 Following agile-oriented project management process A15 Following agile-oriented configuration management process A16 Good progress tracking mechanism A17 Strong communication focus with daily face-to-face meetings A18 Honoring regular working Schedule Team environment A19 Collocation of the whole team A20 Coherent, self-organizing team-work A21 Projects with small team A22 Projects with no multiple independent teams Customer involvement A23 Good customer relationship A24 Strong customer commitment and presence A25 Customer having full authority Helps to predict risks Contributes to product quality and customer satisfaction
  22. 22. S O P E I Influences Is influenced Results:Discussion 22 Critical Success Factors Agile Attibutes Delivery strategy A01 Regular delivery of software A02 Delivering most important features first Agile software engineering techniques A03 Well-defined coding Standards up front A04 Pursuing simple design A05 Rigorous refactoring activities A06 Right amount of documentation A07 Correct integration testing Team capability A08 Team members with high competence and expertise A09 Team members with great motivation A10 Managers knowledgeable in agile A11 Managers who have adaptative management style A12 Appropriate technical training to team Project management process A13 Following agile-oriented requirement management process A14 Following agile-oriented project management process A15 Following agile-oriented configuration management process A16 Good progress tracking mechanism A17 Strong communication focus with daily face-to-face meetings A18 Honoring regular working Schedule Team environment A19 Collocation of the whole team A20 Coherent, self-organizing team-work A21 Projects with small team A22 Projects with no multiple independent teams Customer involvement A23 Good customer relationship A24 Strong customer commitment and presence A25 Customer having full authority Key activity
  23. 23. S O P E I Influences Is influenced Results:Discussion 23 Critical Success Factors Agile Attibutes Delivery strategy A01 Regular delivery of software A02 Delivering most important features first Agile software engineering techniques A03 Well-defined coding Standards up front A04 Pursuing simple design A05 Rigorous refactoring activities A06 Right amount of documentation A07 Correct integration testing Team capability A08 Team members with high competence and expertise A09 Team members with great motivation A10 Managers knowledgeable in agile A11 Managers who have adaptative management style A12 Appropriate technical training to team Project management process A13 Following agile-oriented requirement management process A14 Following agile-oriented project management process A15 Following agile-oriented configuration management process A16 Good progress tracking mechanism A17 Strong communication focus with daily face-to-face meetings A18 Honoring regular working Schedule Team environment A19 Collocation of the whole team A20 Coherent, self-organizing team-work A21 Projects with small team A22 Projects with no multiple independent teams Customer involvement A23 Good customer relationship A24 Strong customer commitment and presence A25 Customer having full authority Not a surprise. Happens with non Agile methodologies.
  24. 24. S O P E I Influences Is influenced Results:Discussion 24 Critical Success Factors Agile Attibutes Delivery strategy A01 Regular delivery of software A02 Delivering most important features first Agile software engineering techniques A03 Well-defined coding Standards up front A04 Pursuing simple design A05 Rigorous refactoring activities A06 Right amount of documentation A07 Correct integration testing Team capability A08 Team members with high competence and expertise A09 Team members with great motivation A10 Managers knowledgeable in agile A11 Managers who have adaptative management style A12 Appropriate technical training to team Project management process A13 Following agile-oriented requirement management process A14 Following agile-oriented project management process A15 Following agile-oriented configuration management process A16 Good progress tracking mechanism A17 Strong communication focus with daily face-to-face meetings A18 Honoring regular working Schedule Team environment A19 Collocation of the whole team A20 Coherent, self-organizing team-work A21 Projects with small team A22 Projects with no multiple independent teams Customer involvement A23 Good customer relationship A24 Strong customer commitment and presence A25 Customer having full authority Supported by SCRUM
  25. 25. S O P E I Influences Is influenced Results:Discussion 25 Critical Success Factors Agile Attibutes Delivery strategy A01 Regular delivery of software A02 Delivering most important features first Agile software engineering techniques A03 Well-defined coding Standards up front A04 Pursuing simple design A05 Rigorous refactoring activities A06 Right amount of documentation A07 Correct integration testing Team capability A08 Team members with high competence and expertise A09 Team members with great motivation A10 Managers knowledgeable in agile A11 Managers who have adaptative management style A12 Appropriate technical training to team Project management process A13 Following agile-oriented requirement management process A14 Following agile-oriented project management process A15 Following agile-oriented configuration management process A16 Good progress tracking mechanism A17 Strong communication focus with daily face-to-face meetings A18 Honoring regular working Schedule Team environment A19 Collocation of the whole team A20 Coherent, self-organizing team-work A21 Projects with small team A22 Projects with no multiple independent teams Customer involvement A23 Good customer relationship A24 Strong customer commitment and presence A25 Customer having full authority Agrees with research on team work! Not ease to achieve in SE!
  26. 26. S O P E I Influences Is influenced Results:Discussion 26 Critical Success Factors Agile Attibutes Delivery strategy A01 Regular delivery of software A02 Delivering most important features first Agile software engineering techniques A03 Well-defined coding Standards up front A04 Pursuing simple design A05 Rigorous refactoring activities A06 Right amount of documentation A07 Correct integration testing Team capability A08 Team members with high competence and expertise A09 Team members with great motivation A10 Managers knowledgeable in agile A11 Managers who have adaptative management style A12 Appropriate technical training to team Project management process A13 Following agile-oriented requirement management process A14 Following agile-oriented project management process A15 Following agile-oriented configuration management process A16 Good progress tracking mechanism A17 Strong communication focus with daily face-to-face meetings A18 Honoring regular working Schedule Team environment A19 Collocation of the whole team A20 Coherent, self-organizing team-work A21 Projects with small team A22 Projects with no multiple independent teams Customer involvement A23 Good customer relationship A24 Strong customer commitment and presence A25 Customer having full authority Apparently a hygienic factor
  27. 27. S O P E I Influences Is influenced “Surprises” 27 Critical Success Factors Agile Attibutes Delivery strategy A01 Regular delivery of software A02 Delivering most important features first Agile software engineering techniques A03 Well-defined coding Standards up front A04 Pursuing simple design A05 Rigorous refactoring activities A06 Right amount of documentation A07 Correct integration testing Team capability A08 Team members with high competence and expertise A09 Team members with great motivation A10 Managers knowledgeable in agile A11 Managers who have adaptative management style A12 Appropriate technical training to team Project management process A13 Following agile-oriented requirement management process A14 Following agile-oriented project management process A15 Following agile-oriented configuration management process A16 Good progress tracking mechanism A17 Strong communication focus with daily face-to-face meetings A18 Honoring regular working Schedule Team environment A19 Collocation of the whole team A20 Coherent, self-organizing team-work A21 Projects with small team A22 Projects with no multiple independent teams Customer involvement A23 Good customer relationship A24 Strong customer commitment and presence A25 Customer having full authority
  28. 28. S O P E I Influences Is influenced “Surprises” (PCA) 28 C1 Management style A17 Strong communication focus with daily face-to-face meetings A10 Managers knowledgeable in agile A18 Honoring regular working Schedule A11 Managers who have adaptative management style A20 Coherent, self-organizing team-work C2 Software process A23Good customer relationship A13Following agile-oriented requirement management process A15 Following agile-oriented configuration management process A14Following agile-oriented project management process A02Delivering most important features first C3 Team Structure A22Projects with no multiple independent teams A21Projects with small team C4 Technical Procedures A03 Well-defined coding Standards up front A07 Correct integration testing A12 Appropriate technical training to team A04 Pursuing simple design C5 Team capability A09Team members with great motivation A08Team members with high competence and expertise C6 Customer commitment A24Strong customer commitment and presence A06Right amount of documentation C7 Delivery strategy A01Regular delivery of software C8 Team Location A19Collocation of the whole team A05 Rigorous refactoring activities C9 Customer awareness A25Customer having full authority A16Good progress tracking mechanism
  29. 29. S O P E I Influences Is influenced Main Contributions: Academia 29 We need further research! Available study package for replicating the experience
  30. 30. S O P E I Influences Is influenced Main Contributions: Academia 30 Agile practices Some of those practices may have no influence on project success Although we need a in-depth understanding on those influences We need further research! Replicating the expercience
  31. 31. S O P E I Influences Is influenced Main Contributions: Practitioners 31 Agile practices Some of those practices may have no influence on success Decision-making Organizations may choose carefully what agile practices to prioritize We need further research! Replicating the expercience Academia
  32. 32. S O P E I Influences Is influenced Four Areas of Further Research 32 Self-organizing Teams What are they in SE? How to build one? How to keep them cohesive?
  33. 33. S O P E I Influences Is influenced Four Areas of Further Research 33 Motivation How is motivation related to performance? How is motivation related to success? Self-organizing Teams What are they in SE? How to build one? How to keep them cohesive?
  34. 34. S O P E I Influences Is influenced Four Areas of Further Research 34 Motivation How is motivation related to performance? How is motivation related to success? Leadership Style How the style of leadership and management affects success? Self-organizing Teams What are they in SE? How to build one? How to keep them cohesive?
  35. 35. S O P E I Influences Is influenced Four Areas of Further Research 35 Leadership Style How the style of leadership and management affects success? Personality and Behavior Does personality matter? How different team work behavior affects team work effectiveness? Motivation How is motivation related to performance? How is motivation related to success? Self-organizing Teams What are they in SE? How to build one? How to keep them cohesive?
  36. 36. S O P E I Influences Is influenced Conclusions • Limitations and Threats to Validity: – Restricted context – Small number of participants, projects, and firms • Contributions: – New research questions – More detailed factor structure • Future work – To quantify the observed effects – Describe the conditions where the effects occur 36
  37. 37. S O P E I Influences Is influenced An Empirical Study on the Relationship between the Use of Agile Practices and the Success of Software Projects that Use Scrum Leila Mariz; A. César C. França; Fabio Q. B. da Silva < leilamariz@yahoo.com.br, cesarfranca@gmail.com, fabio@cin.ufpe.br>
  38. 38. S O P E I Influences Is influenced Um Estudo Experimental sobre a Relação entre o Uso de Práticas Ágeis e o Sucesso de Projetos de Software que utilizam Scrum by Leila M. R. de Souza Mariz, A. César C. França, Fabio Q. B. da Silva is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial- NoDerivs 3.0 Unported License. Based on a work at the XXIV Simpósio Brasileiro de Engenharia de Software, Salvador, 2010. Permissions beyond the scope of this license may be available at http://www.haseresearch.com

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