Biometrics and Authentication           Shivani Kirubanandan
Lets Define !  “A biometric is a physiological or behavioralcharacteristic of a human being that can distinguishone person...
Biometrics as AuthenticationAuthentication depends on• What you have• What you know• What you ARE !
Why Biometrics?•   Identity thefts•   Something you know can be stolen•   Predicted or hacked•   Reliability on manual ver...
Application Categories Biometric applications available today are categorized into 2 sectors• Psychological: Iris, Fingerp...
Biometric Authentication Process•   Acquisition•   Creation of Master characteristics•   Storage of Master characteristics...
The metrics of Biometrics•   FTE – Failure To Enroll•   FTA – Failure To Accept•   FAR – False Acceptance Rates•   FRR – F...
Essential parameters•   Liveness testing•   Tamper resistance•   Secure communication•   Security Threshold level•   Fall ...
Fingerprint recognition•   Divides print into loops, whorls and arch•   Calculates minutiae points (ridge endings)•   Comp...
Fingerprint techniques•    Optical•    Capacitive•    Thermal•    Ultrasonic
Disadvantages•   Racial issues•   Dirt , grime and wounds•   Placement of finger•   Too big a database to process•   Can b...
Hand Geometry• Geometry of users hands• More reliable than fingerprinting• Balance in performance and usability
Disadvantage• Very large scanners
Retinal Scanning•   Scans retina into database•   User looks straight into retinal reader•   Scan using low intensity ligh...
Disadvantages• User has to look “directly”• FTE ratio high in this biometric• Acceptability concerns  –   Light exposure  ...
Iris Scanner•   Scans unique pattern of iris•   Iris is colored and visible from far•   No touch required•   Overcomes ret...
Face recognition•   User faces camera•   Neutral expression required•   Apt lighting and position•   Algorithms for proces...
Issues with Face Recognition?
Issues•   Identification across expression•   FRR or FAR fluctuate•   Easily spoofed•   Tougher usability•   High Environm...
Behavioral• Voice• Signature• Typing pattern
Voice Recognition• Speech input  –   Frequency  –   Duration  –   Cadence• Neutral tone• User friendly
Disadvantages•   Local acoustics•   Background noise•   Device quality•   Illness , emotional behavior•   Time consuming e...
Signature Recognition•   Signature measures (dynamic)    –   Speed    –   Velocity    –   Pressure    •   Captures images ...
Issues•   Signature variable with    – Age, illness, emotions    • Requires high quality hardware    • High FRR as signatu...
Typing Patterns•   User typing pattern    –   Speed    –   Press and Release Rate    •   Unique patterns are generated    ...
Issues•   Not very scalable•   FRR is high•   Can be spoofed – by simple    technology (recorders)
Usability issues in Biometrics•   User acceptability•   Knowledge of technology•   Familiarity with biometric characterist...
Usability issues…• Environment of use• Transaction criticality• Time consuming tasks
Biometric solutions•   Educate•   Train•   Explain Interfaces•   Use Trainers•   Supervised Playtime
General issues•   FTE posses problem•   Biometric characteristics are not encrypted•   Trust on input device•   Cannot aut...
Current applications•   Banks•   Immigration facilities across USA•   IDwidget – interesting research•   Eyegaze at Stanford
Class task• Sell your biometric product  Case1  A bank needs an appropriate  authentication mechanism to allow remote  use...
Class task…  Case 2:• Suggest certain areas in which biometrics  would prove disastrous• Note- You may suggest a particula...
Thank You!!
070327 biometrics
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070327 biometrics

  1. 1. Biometrics and Authentication Shivani Kirubanandan
  2. 2. Lets Define ! “A biometric is a physiological or behavioralcharacteristic of a human being that can distinguishone person from another and that theoretically can beused for identification or verification of identity.”
  3. 3. Biometrics as AuthenticationAuthentication depends on• What you have• What you know• What you ARE !
  4. 4. Why Biometrics?• Identity thefts• Something you know can be stolen• Predicted or hacked• Reliability on manual verification
  5. 5. Application Categories Biometric applications available today are categorized into 2 sectors• Psychological: Iris, Fingerprints, Hand, Retinal and Face recognition• Behavioral: Voice, Typing pattern, Signature
  6. 6. Biometric Authentication Process• Acquisition• Creation of Master characteristics• Storage of Master characteristics• Acquisition(s)• Comparison• Decision
  7. 7. The metrics of Biometrics• FTE – Failure To Enroll• FTA – Failure To Accept• FAR – False Acceptance Rates• FRR – False Reject Rates
  8. 8. Essential parameters• Liveness testing• Tamper resistance• Secure communication• Security Threshold level• Fall back node
  9. 9. Fingerprint recognition• Divides print into loops, whorls and arch• Calculates minutiae points (ridge endings)• Comparisons• authentication
  10. 10. Fingerprint techniques• Optical• Capacitive• Thermal• Ultrasonic
  11. 11. Disadvantages• Racial issues• Dirt , grime and wounds• Placement of finger• Too big a database to process• Can be spoofed –liveness important!
  12. 12. Hand Geometry• Geometry of users hands• More reliable than fingerprinting• Balance in performance and usability
  13. 13. Disadvantage• Very large scanners
  14. 14. Retinal Scanning• Scans retina into database• User looks straight into retinal reader• Scan using low intensity light• Very efficient – cant be spoofed!
  15. 15. Disadvantages• User has to look “directly”• FTE ratio high in this biometric• Acceptability concerns – Light exposure – Hygiene
  16. 16. Iris Scanner• Scans unique pattern of iris• Iris is colored and visible from far• No touch required• Overcomes retinal scanner issues• Contact lenses an issue?
  17. 17. Face recognition• User faces camera• Neutral expression required• Apt lighting and position• Algorithms for processing• Decision
  18. 18. Issues with Face Recognition?
  19. 19. Issues• Identification across expression• FRR or FAR fluctuate• Easily spoofed• Tougher usability• High Environmental impact
  20. 20. Behavioral• Voice• Signature• Typing pattern
  21. 21. Voice Recognition• Speech input – Frequency – Duration – Cadence• Neutral tone• User friendly
  22. 22. Disadvantages• Local acoustics• Background noise• Device quality• Illness , emotional behavior• Time consuming enrollment• Large processing template
  23. 23. Signature Recognition• Signature measures (dynamic) – Speed – Velocity – Pressure • Captures images (static) • High user acceptance
  24. 24. Issues• Signature variable with – Age, illness, emotions • Requires high quality hardware • High FRR as signatures are very dynamic
  25. 25. Typing Patterns• User typing pattern – Speed – Press and Release Rate • Unique patterns are generated • comparisons
  26. 26. Issues• Not very scalable• FRR is high• Can be spoofed – by simple technology (recorders)
  27. 27. Usability issues in Biometrics• User acceptability• Knowledge of technology• Familiarity with biometric characteristic• Experience with device
  28. 28. Usability issues…• Environment of use• Transaction criticality• Time consuming tasks
  29. 29. Biometric solutions• Educate• Train• Explain Interfaces• Use Trainers• Supervised Playtime
  30. 30. General issues• FTE posses problem• Biometric characteristics are not encrypted• Trust on input device• Cannot authenticate computers!• Privacy attack?!
  31. 31. Current applications• Banks• Immigration facilities across USA• IDwidget – interesting research• Eyegaze at Stanford
  32. 32. Class task• Sell your biometric product Case1 A bank needs an appropriate authentication mechanism to allow remote user transactions. What kind of multifactor system would you sell them?
  33. 33. Class task… Case 2:• Suggest certain areas in which biometrics would prove disastrous• Note- You may suggest a particular combination of biometrics which may be disastrous to security and privacy
  34. 34. Thank You!!

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