Biometric Presentation


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Biometric Presentation

  1. 1. <ul><li>LEGEND </li></ul>
  2. 2. <ul><li>- Why ? </li></ul>Biometrics - Which ? - How ? - Where ? - Who ? - When ? Content The Need For Biometrics Biometrics Technologies: Which is Better How It Works Applications of Biometrics Our Customers Evolution of Biometrics
  3. 3. <ul><li>Currently, the most common methods of identifying a person are Signature, RSA/ID Cards, and PIN/Passwords. </li></ul><ul><li>All these identity methods are becoming increasingly vulnerable day by day. </li></ul><ul><li>Stealing the Identity of a person is the most easiest and the most rewarding theft currently. </li></ul><ul><li>Identity theft represented 42% of the frauds reported by Americans last year amounting to over $437 million. </li></ul>Need For Biometrics Why Biometrics ?
  4. 4. <ul><li>Users are finding it extremely difficult to comply with strict/complex identity procedures & password policies. </li></ul><ul><li>People are inclined/compelled to compromise these procedures due to the complexities, and get exposed to risks often. </li></ul><ul><li>Those who strictly comply with these complex procedures also end up in troubles. 40 % of the calls to the Technical help desk are on password related problems. ( Source: Industry Reports : Pl Click This ) </li></ul><ul><li>This makes it apparent that, the Current Identity Methods are slowly becoming deficient to meet the needs and challenges of today and New technologies are needed to deal with the Identity Crisis. </li></ul>Need For Biometrics Why Biometrics ?
  5. 5. A Survey Report in BBC News Any Security Procedure Is Only As Strong As The Weakest Link The Users Are The Weakest Link <ul><ul><li>More than 70% of people revealed their computer password in exchange for a bar of chocolate </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>66 % of staff have given their password to a colleague </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>75 % knew their co-workers passwords </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>60 % use the same password for everything, including their personal banking </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The most common password was &quot;password&quot; (12 %)‏ </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The most popular part of their own name (16 %) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Their football team (11 %) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Their date of birth (8 %)‏ </li></ul></ul>Source / Reference: BBC News : Please Click This Need For Biometric Why Biometrics ?
  6. 6. <ul><li>Reliable and Robust: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Biometric identification is technically more robust than </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Signatures, ID Cards, Passwords, PIN numbers etc. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cannot be Stolen, Spied, Delegated, Proxyed, Misplaced and </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>therefore can not be Misused </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cannot be forgotten and therefore always available 24X7X365. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Very Convenient : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>No Need to carry anything with a fear of its theft. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>No Need to memories multiple passwords/ PINs with a fear of </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>forgetting them and access denied to resources. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Can use a single biometric protection for multiple & all login </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>accesses. </li></ul></ul>Benefits of Biometrics Why Biometrics ?
  7. 7. &quot;The most successful businessman is one, who holds on to the old just as long as it is good and, grabs the new just as soon as it is better.“ - Robert P. Vanderpoel. <ul><li>Time Tested </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Used for making contracts since Babylonian period ~4000 years. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Used by Judicial Systems all over the world for 200 years. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Legal challenges to biometrics have been infrequent and largely </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>unsuccessful for over 150 years. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Easy to maintain </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Biometric can eliminate the need for remembering multiple </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>passwords and therefore can eliminate up to 40% of corporate </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>help desk breakdown calls. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Legislative Requirement / Preference </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Several federal and state Laws and, literally, hundreds of Govt. institutions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>world over, campaign for the use of biometrics . In India, SEBI, RBI,RTO, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>VISA, Passport, Election Commission and so on. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Users frequently forget passwords, but they rarely forget fingers </li></ul><ul><li>People like biometrics because they believe in them </li></ul><ul><ul><li>― Tom Rowley, Veridicom CEO </li></ul></ul>Benefits of Biometrics Why Biometrics ?
  8. 8. <ul><ul><li>Various Biometrics Technologies </li></ul></ul>Others: DNA Retina recognition Thermograms Gait Keystroke Ear Geometry Skin reflection Lip motion Dynamic Grip Recognition Common: Fingerprint Recognition Face Recognition Voice Recognition Iris Recognition Hand Geometry Signature verification Which Biometrics ?
  9. 9. Universality describes how commonly a biometric is found in each individual. Uniqueness how well the biometric separates one individual from another. Permanence measures how well a biometric resists aging. Collectability explains how easy it is to acquire a biometric for measurement. Performance indicates the accuracy, speed, and robustness of the system capturing the biometric. Acceptability indicates the degree of approval of a technology by the public in everyday life. Circumvention is how hard it is to fool the authentication system. <ul><ul><li>Various Biometrics Technologies : Which is Better ? </li></ul></ul>The following seven parameters have to be analyzed to find out which biometric technology would suit your requirement better. (As Suggested by Dr. A.K Jain, Michigan State University)‏ Which Biometrics ?
  10. 10. <ul><ul><li>Various Biometrics Technologies : Which is Better </li></ul></ul>The Measurement Medium High Medium Medium High Medium Medium Ear Recognition Medium High Low High Low Low Medium Gait Low Low High Low High High High DNA Low Medium Low Low High High High Odor High High Medium High Low High High Facial Thermograph Medium Medium Medium High Medium Medium Medium Hand Geometry Medium Medium Low Medium Low Low Low Keystrokes High Medium Medium Medium Medium Medium Medium Hand Veins High Low High Low Medium High High Retinal Scan Low High Low Medium Low Low Medium Voice Low High Low High Medium Low High Face High Low High Medium High High High Iris Medium Medium High Medium High High Medium Fingerprint Low High Low High Low Low Low Signature Circumvention *  Acceptability   Performance   Collectability   Permanence   Uniqueness  Universality   Which Biometrics:   Which Biometrics ?
  11. 11. Various Biometric Technologies : Market Distribution in 2007 Which Biometrics ?
  12. 12. April 14, 2010 Biometric Technology <ul><ul><li>Various Finger Print Technologies : Which is Better ? </li></ul></ul>RF Optical Capacitive Pressure Swipe Touch Swipe Touch Swipe Touch Swipe Touch Which Biometrics ?
  13. 13. April 14, 2010 Biometric Technology Advantages of RF vs. Capacitive Wider range of Skin density Works well with the Softest and also the Hardest finger Skin conditions Not subject to dirt pollution. Thicker coating for better resistance to shocks and abrasion Complete encapsulation of the sensor Advantages of RF vs. Optical: Much cheaper and smaller. Advantages of Swipe vs. Touch: Self-cleaning process = No latent print : don’t leave the key on the lock! Longer image for more data and better performance Legend Scanners Use the Most Reliable and Durable Technology RF - Swipe <ul><ul><li>Various Finger Print Technologies : Which is Better ? </li></ul></ul>Which Biometrics ?
  14. 14. How Biometric Works <ul><li>The flow of the ridges and patterns has been classified into 5 broad classes. </li></ul><ul><li>Classification helps in narrowing down possible matches </li></ul><ul><li>In reality, the class distribution is skewed (>65% are loops)‏ </li></ul><ul><li>A fingerprint can be classified based on type the ridge flow pattern </li></ul>April 14, 2010 Biometric Technology Different Fingerprint Classes How Biometrics ?
  15. 15. Different Matching Paradigms <ul><li>Manual </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Human experts use a combination of visual, textural, minutiae cues and experience for verification </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Still used in the final stages of law enforcement applications </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Image based </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Utilizes only visual appearance. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Requires the complete image to be stored (large template sizes)‏ </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Texture based </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Treats the fingerprint as an oriented texture image </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Less accurate than minutiae based matchers since most regions in the fingerprints carry low textural content </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Minutiae based </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Uses the relative position of the minutiae points </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The most popular and accurate approach for verification </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Resembles manual approach very closely </li></ul></ul>April 14, 2010 Biometric Technology How Biometrics ?
  16. 16. <ul><li>Fingerprints can be distinguished based on the ridge characteristics </li></ul><ul><li>Ridge characteristics mark local discontinuities in the ridge flow </li></ul><ul><li>No two individuals have the same pattern of ridge characteristics at the same relative locations </li></ul>April 14, 2010 Biometric Technology Different Ridge Characteristics How Biometrics ?
  17. 17. The Technology – Step by Step <ul><li>The process consists of the following </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Image from Scanner </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ridge Detection </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Image Enhancement & Binarization (Threshold)‏ </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Thinning </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Minutiae detection & extraction </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Post processing </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Above process is common for both enrollment and verification </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Enrollment stores template in the database </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Verification compares the fresh image with the image extracted from the template in the database. </li></ul></ul>April 14, 2010 Biometric Technology How Biometrics ?
  18. 18. <ul><li>The objective of the ridge detection algorithm is to separate ridges from the valleys in a given fingerprint image. </li></ul>April 14, 2010 Biometric Technology Ridge Detection How Biometrics ?
  19. 19. <ul><li>Removing noise and sharpening the ridges using various filters. </li></ul><ul><li>Making a binary image from the enhanced image. </li></ul>April 14, 2010 Biometric Technology Image Enhancement and Binarization How Biometrics ?
  20. 20. <ul><li>The objectives of this step is to obtain a thinned image on binary images. </li></ul><ul><li>All the ridges are only 1- pixel thick </li></ul>April 14, 2010 Biometric Technology Thinning How Biometrics ?
  21. 21. <ul><li>Once the thinned ridge map is available, the ridge pixels with three ridge pixel neighbors are identified as Ridge bifurcations and those with one ridge pixel neighbor are identified as Ridge endings . </li></ul>April 14, 2010 Biometric Technology Minutiae Detection How Biometrics ?
  22. 22. Challenges – Non-linear Distortion April 14, 2010 Legend Systems How Biometrics ?
  23. 23. Challenges – Quality and Intra user variance April 14, 2010 Variation in quality Intra-user variation Biometric Technology How Biometrics ?
  24. 24. Fingerprint scanning ( Minutiae based approach )‏ How Biometrics ?
  25. 25. Fingerprint Matching Software Enrollment Process Authentication Process How Biometrics ?
  26. 26. Legend Scanners Allow only Live Fingers - They Cannot be Fooled by any of these
  27. 27. A Brief History of The evolution of Biometric Fingerprints have been used for a long time… Babylonians used them to sign contracts in 2000BC Fingerprints have been used as signatures in India, Japan and China. The fingerprint was recognized in Ancient China Where it was used to forge contracts. The technique of using fingerprints to identify a person was developed by Henry Faulds. William James Herschel used fingerprints to identify Indian pension claimants in the 1860s. However he failed to get his approach adopted by the British administration Henry Faulds When Biometrics ?
  28. 28. Juan Vucetich developed the first criminal ID system in Argentina in 1891. Francis Galton made the first attempt at the scientific study of fingerprints and corresponded extensively with Herschel. He published his book on fingerprints in 1892. Influenced by Galton’s work Edward Henry reintroduced fingerprints as a means of identification in India in 1893. In conjunction with two Indian co-workers he devised an ingenious classification system that made handling large fingerprint collections feasible. He went to found the Fingerprint Bureau at Scotland Yard. A Brief History of The evolution of Biometric When Biometrics ?
  29. 29. Fingerprints Important Milestones Crossed <ul><li>Alphonse Bertillon develops identification system based on body measurements ... Bertillon system </li></ul><ul><li>Fingerprints begin to be recognized as unique means of identification </li></ul><ul><li>The West Case at Leavenworth Penitentiary ... value of fingerprints demonstrated </li></ul><ul><li>Fingerprint Bureau established at Leavenworth Penitentiary </li></ul><ul><li>FBI Identification Division established (now the CJIS Division </li></ul><ul><li>FBI Latent Fingerprint Section established </li></ul>1870 1880s 1903 1904 1924 1933 When Biometrics ?
  30. 30. <ul><li>In 1903 The value of fingerprints demonstrated in The Famous </li></ul><ul><li>West Case at the Leavenworth Court. The Judgment : </li></ul>Identification Picture of Will West who was wrongly booked, but was released by the court just because his fingerprints did not match. Identification Picture of William West Who committed the act and was found many years later Will West is NOT William West When Biometrics ?
  31. 31. Various Applications of Finger Print Biometrics Where Biometrics ?
  32. 32. <ul><li>Banking / Credit </li></ul><ul><li>Computer / Network Security </li></ul><ul><li>Law Enforcement </li></ul><ul><li>Business & Residential Access Control </li></ul><ul><li>Automobile Security / Access Control </li></ul><ul><li>Cellular Phone Security </li></ul><ul><li>Benefits Identification </li></ul><ul><li>Time and Attendance/Child Care Security </li></ul><ul><li>Large-scale National ID Projects/Voter Registration </li></ul><ul><li>Military ID and Access Control </li></ul><ul><li>Hotel Access Control & Personalization </li></ul><ul><li>Interactive TV </li></ul>Various Applications of Finger Print Biometrics Where Biometrics ?
  33. 33. Few of Our Valued Customers Where Biometrics ?
  34. 34. For More Details Please Contact : R.Subramanian Consultant – Technical E- mail : Mobile : 09283137349 LEGEND SYSTEMS Pvt LIMITED Any Questions Please….