Good evening Frankie and judges, my final year project today will be on the topic ‘Using Hype to enhance marketing campaign effectiveness in the movie industry’ Besides looking at literature reviews concerning decision making process, response process and involvement theories, I will be presenting an evaluation on the marketing campaign for the 2008 movie The Dark Knight, which had won many favorable critics as well as holding the record of the highest grossing film for opening weekends of all times. The reason I work on this topic is simply because I thought it is very interesting and also because I like to go to the movies. At the same time, I am really intrigue by the success of The Dark Knight and its strong positioning as the highest grossing movie of all times till date.
Based on statistics given by Motion Picture Association of America, worldwide box office for all films reached US$29.9 billion in 2009, representing a 7.6% increase from 2008. From statistics like this, it might seem that movie making is a lucrative business, but in actual fact many movies are facing challenge to break even. Nonetheless, it is evident that the earning power of movies is huge, but so is the amount of investment required.
Research has showed that marketing expenses for movie making can cost as high as half of the production costs. Such allocation of budget reflects studios’ awareness of the importance of marketing to drive ticket sales. I mean you can have a great movie, but if you don’t market it well, nobody will be intrigued to watch the movie. Then, it will not get the attendance it deserves.
Zooming right down to the essence of the project, let’s look at the definitions of hype.Through my research, it is interesting to see that dictionary definitions imply very negative meaning, while scholastic definitions provide more positive connotations. In addition, I’ve also did a quick exploratory pilot study to find out more for myself. Interesting, the findings conclude the elusiveness of the definition of hype. The responses I received contained polar opposite connotation such as….
How do we determine that a movie is well hype? One very logical indicator will be the opening weekend sales. A well-hype movie is injected with all the anticipation and excitement. The impact of it in the minds of the target audience is that not only ‘this is the movie I have to watch’, but ‘this is the movie I can’t wait to watch!’Secondly, buzz is definitely an important of well-hyped movies. Hype can create and conversations offline and online, between consumers and amongst the media. When everyone starts talking about an upcoming movie, it will achieve an escalation of anticipation and excitement for the movie’s release.
The hypothesis is that by including hype element in the movie marketing, the anticipation and excitement generated and build up leading to a movie’s release will help to drive demand and consequently have a positive impact on the movie performance upon its release.
Buying a movie ticket is just like buying any other products. To study on how hype can be incorporated to enhance movie marketing effectiveness, is also to look into on how hype can trigger consumer purchase behavior. Next, we look at Responses Process Towards Movie advertising because a clear understanding of the process will help to develop effective communication programs for the movie’s target audience.Last but not least, I like The Consumer Involvement Theory developed by the company Adcracker, because it gives a practical and insightful classification of consumers’ involvement level versus rational or emotional scale.
In summary, I’ve concluded these findings from the literature reviews.Firstly, due to the nature of movie as a low-involvement and low risk product, moviegoers rarely follow a sequential decision process. Secondly it is very impractical to typify a standard response process towards movie advertisement for movie goers. I’ve performed an exploratory pilot study to prove that different personalities have different decision making process. Nonetheless, selection of movie to watch is often based on emotions rather than logic.Fourthly, the strong social component in movie validated the influential power from social groups.Last but not least, the CIT proves that due to its low-involvement nature, supplying volumes of information about the movie will not have an impact on ticket sales. Rather, effective movie marketing leverages on the promise of pleasure, and emotional gratification for the moviegoers.
Literature Review Conclusion
At comic con, players gathered to take their first order from the Joker. Working with players online, they scavenged for clues and found a big one typed out in the sky.
In conclusion, the project proves the hypothesis true. Indeed, the successful usage of hype elements in movie marketing campaigns will have a positive impact on demand leading to the movie’s release, and at the same time, resulted in better movie performance.
Take Comic-Con. That was a very nontraditional approach to generating buzz for the film but the payoff was Warner Brothers let us release the teaser trailer. There you have a very traditional asset but it's released in an unconventional way that allows all the people who are participating to feel a lot of ownership in that asset, and they feel very evangelistic about it.
This sort of interactivity is not only the essence of viral marketing; it’s also the heart of transmedia storytelling. When a studio provides mysteries and answers through cross media platforms, fans essentially become willing participants in marketing the movie. Participants of the game were able to look at all movie posters, trailers, photos, and movie clips before anyone else. Of course, this was partly to market the movie, but it was also to market it in such way, which made it the fans movie. Just wondering how Warner Bros is going to market their next Batman -movie, which should be released in summer 2012. We will see.
Gwen Goh - Final Year Project
HYPEin the movie industry<br />Presented by: Goh Guan Yi Gwen (UB No. 08028639) <br />
The U.S. Movie Industry<br />Worldwide box office for all films reached US$29.9 billion in 2009, a 7.6% increase from 2008<br />
Marketing expenditure for a movie can cost as high as 50%of the production costs.<br />
What is Hype?<br />Dictionary:‘Deception’, ‘A confidence trick’ or ‘A publicity stunt’<br />Scholars:‘Mechanism to stimulate an atmosphere of excitement or enthusiasm’<br />Responses from exploratory pilot study: ‘To amplify and make something bigger than it really is’<br />‘Excessive publicity’<br />‘Bring up the energy to a very high level’<br />‘A sense of excitement that intrigues your motivation towards accomplishing something’<br />
Indicators of Well-Hyped Movies<br />Opening weekend sales<br />Representation of the motivational power of an effective marketing campaign to convert hype and anticipation for a movie into ticket sales.<br />Buzz<br />Where hype is present, there must be significant word-of-mouth or buzz.<br />Buzz is a dominant force in building hype<br />
Hypothesis<br />Marketing campaign effectiveness for movies in the 21st century revolves around hype; hype is critical in the formation of demand for a movie before its release and it also determines the overall success of the movie.<br />
Literature Review<br />Making a purchase decision<br />Consumer Decision Process<br />Social Influence and Peer Pressure<br />Response process towards movie advertising<br />Traditional Hierarchy Models<br />Alternate Hierarchy Models<br />Consumer Involvement Theory (Adcracker.com)<br />
Literature Review Summary<br />Decision to watch a movie do not follow a sequential thought process .<br />Response process towards movie advertising varies amongst consumers.<br />Selection of the movie to watch is based on emotional reasons rather than logic.<br />The strong social component in movie validated the influential power from social groups.<br />Consumer involvement theory is the most relevant and practical.<br />Movie as a product: Low involvement / emotional<br />
The Dark KnightWhy So Serious Campaign <br />SOSTAC Analysis<br />
SOSTAC<br />Situational Analysis<br />The campaign was concentrated in the U.S. market.<br />Primary target audience are mainly Batman fans. <br />Secondary target audience are comic books fans or people who like super hero films.<br />
SOSTAC<br />Pest Analysis<br />Economic<br />Launched during 2008 subprime mortgage crisis.<br />Social culture<br />Hollywood has a significant cultural impact worldwide.<br />Going to the movie is a lifestyle activity for Americans.<br />Technology<br />Filmed in 2-D rather than 3-D.<br />
SOSTAC<br />SWOT Analysis<br />Strengths<br />Proven track record<br />Weaknesses<br />Death of Heath Ledger<br />Opportunities<br />Death of Heath Ledger<br />Strategic timing of film release<br />Threats (Potential)<br />Movies launched near the same period<br />
SOSTAC<br />Objectives<br />Marketing <br />Drive ticket sales<br />Dominate box office sales<br />Surpass gross revenue record of its 1st batman sequel<br />Marketing Communications<br />Generate anticipation for the movie by creating buzz<br />
SOSTAC<br />Strategies<br />Message<br />Appeal to the inner child within the target audience<br />Media<br />Online and offline element<br />Alternate reality game<br />Form deeper engagement with audience<br />Enhanced realism of The Gotham City<br />
SOSTAC<br />Tactics<br />Outdoor ad buys<br />Fictional websites<br />Leveraging on Comic Con Exhibition<br />Rallies for Harvey Dent<br />Scavenger hunts<br />Collaboration with Domino<br />Collaboration with Nokia<br />
SOSTAC<br />Action<br />Campaign was launched in May 2007, slightly over a year before the movie’s release in July 2008.<br />Rolled out in multiple phases, each with a different objective.<br />Pre-Phases<br />First aim was to create a general awareness of the movie.<br />Participants with Joker make-up roamed the streets.<br />ARG<br />Rise of the Joker<br />Campaigning for Harvey Dent<br />Uncovering cell phones in cakes<br />Scavenger hunts<br />
SOSTAC<br />Control<br />Campaign activities were limited within the confines of the U.S.<br />More variables can be controlled<br />Ground staff could be easily mobilized<br />Well-thought out activities to minimized possibilities of causing harm and disruption.<br />Buzz<br />
Over 2,000,000 unique downloads of The Dark Knight preview trailer
Over 70,000 phone calls</li></li></ul><li>“One of the most interactive movie-marketing campaigns ever hatched by Hollywood”<br />- LA Times, March 2008 <br />
Primary Research<br />Objectives<br /><ul><li>Determine if hype marketing done before the movie is critical in the formation of demand and whether it has a direct impact on the success of the movie as the top grossing movie for opening weekends of all times.</li></ul>Research Design<br /><ul><li>Online survey
Targeted at US respondents from The Dark Knight’s Facebook page.
Putting the Campaign into Perspective<br />Hype creation goes beyond traditional marketing<br />Marketing traditional assets in unconventional way<br /><ul><li>Using Comic Con to release movie trailers.</li></ul>Motivation for tickets purchase stems from emotional aspect<br />Majority follow a ‘FeelThinkDo’ process.<br /><ul><li>Introduce arousing elements to get the target audience to be emotionally engaged</li></ul>Implication of the nature of movie (as a product)<br />Strong social component: Introducing social component into the campaign<br /><ul><li>Leverage on core target audience to reach out</li></ul>Low involvement: Consumers engagement may be a challenge<br /><ul><li>Roll out multiple phases of activities </li></li></ul><li>Strategic Recommendation<br />
Hype Creation for Movies<br /><ul><li>Low involvement product; high involvement marketing.