Independent Research Project Agreement:

This information packet was designed to help you successfully complete your indep...
Parent/guardian signature: ___________________________________________________ Date: ____________
Partner Project Agreement
In order to for a partner project to be approved, the topic must be a highly challenging topic. ...
Project Proposal                                                            Name(s): Brad Peck
Topic/Title: *The effect of...
Name(s):
                                    Literature Search Review Grade & Cover Sheet

Title of your experiment: **

S...
Guide for Writing an Introduction
Do Not use I, you, your, he, she, his, her, me, my, the researcher/experimenter/scientis...
Name(s):
INTRODUCTION RUBRIC & COVER SHEET
(10 points each)
1. NO personal pronouns or rhetorical questions (no exceptions...
Guide for Writing Methods and Materials (procedure)
DO NOT use I, you, your, his, hers, he, she, me, my, the researcher/ex...
Name(s):

METHODS AND MATERIALS RUBRIC & COVER SHEET
(10 points each)

1. NO personal pronouns or rhetorical questions (no...
Guide for Constructing Raw Data Tables (1 inch margins, 12 font)
NOTE: You don’t need RAW DATA tables, but if you put them...
Note: You must do a statistical data table for EACH effect you are measuring. In the example above, mass
      differences...
Guide for Analyzing Data using a Chi-Square Test

** Chi-Square tests used in experiments with qualitative data!! (measure...
Degrees               Probability (Level of Significance)
                   of
                                0.1       ...
Guide for Analyzing Data using a T-test

** T-tests are used for experiments with quantitative measurements. Therefore, yo...
t-Test Sample Distribution Table


                      Degrees               Probability (Level of Significance)
       ...
Guide for Results and Communicating Statistical Significance
Summarize the trends for EACH DV that you’ve measured in a pa...
Name(s):

RESULTS RUBRIC & COVER SHEET
(10 points each)

1. Descriptive and Inferential data table results included a para...
Guide for Writing a Conclusion

** There are many questions that need to be answered in your 2-3 page conclusion.(PAST TEN...
Name(s):

DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSIONS RUBRIC & COVER SHEET
(10 points each)

1. NO personal pronouns or rhetorical question...
Guide for Writing an Abstract
(PAST TENSE)
        An abstract is a very important part of a research project and should b...
Name(s):

ABSTRACT RUBRIC & COVER SHEET
(10 points each)

1.   NO personal pronouns or rhetorical questions (no exceptions...
Name(s):

Completed Research Paper Evaluation Coversheet:

Attach this entire page to the front of your final paper.

I. A...
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  1. 1. Independent Research Project Agreement: This information packet was designed to help you successfully complete your independent research project. It is meant to be read step by step, NOT all at once or the night before a component is due. DO NOT throw any of this away or lose it, as it will be your guide to completing the assignment. If you lose any or all of the components to this packet, it is YOUR responsibility to find another copy for yourself either via computer or a classmate. DO NOT throw ANY graded components away. This is a required part of the Honors Curriculum. Failure to complete an independent research project OR earning a failing grade will result in your not receiving credit for the CLASS. Guides = should be used to complete parts of the project Coversheets = are used as a rubric for grading, therefore you should use them as final checklists 1. All major components that are turned in will be counted as TEST grades. Major components: introduction, methods & materials (procedure), results, conclusion, abstract and works cited, and the final paper itself. All components MUST have the proper coversheet (provided in this packet) or they will not be accepted!!! 2. Assignments are due at the beginning of class, therefore assignments must be printed and have coversheets before you enter class. LATE assignments will be accepted for a grade with TEN points deducted for each class period it is late. An assignment is over 10 classes late, may be turned in for improvement comments. Once you have finished a component/section, move on to the next...Snow days DO NOT effect due dates!!!! (check the web page for most current timeline information) 3. You must use coversheets provided to submit each component. All major components will be graded and returned. IF TURNED IN ON TIME (with a coversheet), you will have the opportunity to make corrections and resubmit for an additional grade to be averaged with the first submission grade. ALL resubmissions must include a new coversheet and the entire first submission. Therefore, do not throw away ANY graded work. 4. All resubmissions are due two class periods after receipt of the first evaluation. 5. ALL WORK MUST BE TYPED (Times-New Roman regular 12 font) AND DOUBLE SPACED. You are expected to backup your work everyday (hard copy, disk, or server), therefore a broken computer is not an excuse. Partners are equally responsible for all components. If, for any reason, you are without access to a computer, see me to set up an account in the school, as you may work in the library before and after school. 6. A minimum of FIVE sources is required in the works cited. These sources must be current scientific journals or books within the past 8 years. Encyclopedias and text books WILL NOT be accepted as part of the five required sources. You may use them, but make sure you have at least 5 other sources that are from journals or other books. All internet sources must be traced back to paper sources to ensure reliability. 7. The final grade will be based on content, structure, neatness, and following directions. I assess the components as separate grades throughout the year and do a final assessment of the completed paper as a whole. This allows for corrections you may have made after initial evaluations. The final grade will count for TWO test grades for that marking period. 8. For submission to the Virginia Junior Academy of Science, you must complete the very simple VJAS forms and submit FIVE COPIES of your paper (including VJAS forms for each copy). 9. If your paper is accepted by the Metro Richmond Science Fair OR submitted to VJAS, you will receive a 100 quiz grade. 10. If your paper is accepted by VJAS you will be REQUIRED to present your paper in May. After presenting, you will receive a perfect project score and an additional perfect test score. PRINT OUT THIS ENTIRE PAGE, SIGN, and RETURN to teacher I have read the attached guides and coversheets in this packet. I understand and acknowledge all requirements. I understand that failure to successfully complete this research project will result in failing the course for the year. Student signature: _________________________________________________________ Date: ____________
  2. 2. Parent/guardian signature: ___________________________________________________ Date: ____________
  3. 3. Partner Project Agreement In order to for a partner project to be approved, the topic must be a highly challenging topic. Partner projects are sometimes more difficult to manage than single author projects for several reasons: 1. coordinating adequate work time around partners’ schedules 2. work load is rarely shared equally between partners 3. quality of work may vary between partners, which impacts grades Reminders for Partner projects: PLEASE READ THIS SECTION BEFORE SIGNING 1. Each partner is expected to work together, equally on EACH graded component. a. alternating assignments is NEVER acceptable b. partners should schedule “project work times” at least once a week c. one or both partners will be removed from the project if they are found to shirk responsibility 2. Each partner will receive the same score for each graded component. a. late work penalties will apply to each partner (NO EXCEPTIONS) b. plagiarism/cheating punishments will apply to each partner ____________________________________ is electing to perform an independent research project with a partner. In doing so, each partner is agreeing to perform equal work and understands that if work is not shared both equally and adequately, one or both partners will be assigned new projects to perform separately. Student signature: __________________________________________________________________ Date: ____________ Parent/guardian signature: ____________________________________________________________ Date: ____________
  4. 4. Project Proposal Name(s): Brad Peck Topic/Title: *The effect of volume on video game scores* Hypothesis: *If the volume of the television is increased then the scores will also increase* Independent Variable: *Volume* Levels of Independent Variable: *0, 25, 50, 75* Dependent Variable(s) (with units): *Game scores, Kills, deaths, assists* Control: *The control is the zero volume level or when it is muted. Materials: (note all materials needed along with any special equipment and how you will obtain it) *xbox 360, xbox controller, Call of Duty 4 game, person to play it* Constants: * same xbox used, same person playing, same game (Call of Duty 4), same controller, same tv * Number of trials (MUST be at least 10 for each level of your IV): *12 for each level of IV* 1. How long will it take to perform the entire experiment? *It will probably take about three hours* 2. If you work with vertebrates, who will be your mentor (doctor, veterinarian, nurse, etc)? *I am not using vertebrates.* 3. If you work in psychology, who will be your mentor (doctor, psychology teacher, etc)? *not working in psychology* 4. If you work with human subjects, you must agree to an ethical code of conduct with informed consent and confidentiality provisions. It is your responsibility to make, distribute, and collect consent forms for your subjects. It is also your responsibility to submit a final log of names in order to award extra credit points for participants. Consent forms must contain: a. your name(s) and a brief description of the project b. meeting times (extended study, after school, before school, or private residence) c. dates (can be assigned later) d. space for participant’s name, extended study teacher & room#, and any allergies e. compensation for participant’s time and effort (5 points on a quiz or a free homework grade) f. signature lines and dates for parents and participants Sample Consent Form: Brad Peck is conducting an experiment studying The Effect of volume on video game scores. The participant will be asked to play the game Call of Duty 4 to the best of his ability on different volume levels. The experiment will be conducted on the weekend at Ryan Zimmerlee’s house. The dates are to be announced in the near future. Students returning this form and participating in the experiment will earn 5 points on a quiz grade or one free homework grade in science. Student name (printed): __________________________________________________ Extended study teacher/room ____________________________ Student signature: _______________________________________________________ Date: ________________ Parent/guardian signature: _________________________________________________ Date: ________________ following is for your teacher’s use~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~The NOT APPROVED APPROVED !!!!! 1. over-tested, try to create fresh approach Make an appointment with your 2. hypothesis not testable teacher to discuss your procedure. 3. design is weak a. too few trials b. no control group c. no constants d. DV must be quantitative e. too many independent variables f. hypothesis is illogical
  5. 5. Name(s): Literature Search Review Grade & Cover Sheet Title of your experiment: ** Source (book, journal, interview, internet sources MUST be traced back to a paper source!!) : ** Proper Citation: this means print it exactly how it will appear in your literature cited page. (see Introduction coversheet for some examples) General format is as follows: author last name, first name. year. “title of article.” name of periodical/book. publisher. vol (#), pg. ** DIRECTIONS!!! You will complete a total of 8 literature reviews; therefore you will need 8 copies of this page. FIVE of these literature reviews must be from scientific journals, internet journals (not just internet sites), books, etc. In other words, only 3 of these 8 literature reviews TOTAL may be from texts or encyclopedias. INTERNET WEBSITES, WEB ADDRESSES or DATABASE ADDRESSES ARE UNACCEPTABLE…you MUST trace them back to their paper source and use that in your literature cited. 1. This should be at least 3 paragraphs long. 2. This is information that you will use in your introduction, conclusion, bibliography, and possibly your abstract, so don’t throw this or your lit review away after it is returned because it could come in handy in the event of a technological disaster! 3. The information in this report MUST be pertinent to your scientific investigation. 4. Write the most important, helpful, or interesting facts learned from the article. Paragraph 1-Rationale for choosing this article. What is your topic? How is this article (the article you chose to read) related to your topic? How will you use the information gathered? Paragraph 2-Major facts and ideas. What background information did you learn? Remember to list AND explain the major facts and ideas in detail. Paragraph 3-Scientific conclusion. What was the scientific conclusion of the article? How did the scientists reach this conclusion or why did the scientists feel their experiment turned out this way?
  6. 6. Guide for Writing an Introduction Do Not use I, you, your, he, she, his, her, me, my, the researcher/experimenter/scientist, one, or rhetorical questions. TENSE: facts/research gathered and used to support your ideas are ‘present,’ information about your particular experiment (last paragraph) is ‘past.’ A. First SEVERAL paragraphs (2-3 pages) should give general background on your IV and DV. 1. Background info. about the IV & DV is discussed (order depends on your topic) 2. DO NOT state the IV or DV here. That will go at the end of the introduction. 3. EX. If you are working with E. coli and different types of antibiotics, first write general background information on E. coli, then write general background about antibiotics and dosages. B. The next paragraph(s) should be written about how the IV and DV are related (2-3 paragraphs is great). 1. Discuss how your IV is related to or effects your DV. 2. DO NOT state the IV or DV here. That will go at the end of the introduction. 3. EX. If you are working with different types of antibiotics and their effect on E. coli, then discuss how E. coli is effected by antibiotics in general and how each particular antibiotic works to destroy E. coli. C. The next paragraph should be an explanation of the your interest with the subject. 1. State how this research can be USEFUL to the community or to the manufacturers of the products being tested. How can the topic be useful to someone working in that field? 2. State how this project may help you in the future...perhaps at the workplace. 3. State your basic interest in the topic and give at least ONE good reason why you chose this topic. DO NOT use “The researcher chose this topic because...” This topic was chosen out of interest in video games. D. Final paragraph should incorporate all of the following items IN ORDER: (ALL PAST TENSE) 1. Identify your IV and DV (spell out independent and dependent variable). a. EX. In this investigation ____ was the independent variable and ____ was the dependent variable. b. EX. The independent variable was the different types of antibiotics (list them) used, and the zone of inhibition (mm) was the dependent variable. 2. Next, state the control group and give reason why—explain why. a. If for some reason you don’t have a control, you must state that. b. EX. The control group was the _____ receiving (level of IV). c. EX. The control group was the E. coli receiving ampicillin. 3. The final few sentences should contain your hypothesis and your reasons for selecting that hypothesis. USE references to back up your reasoning. a. The hypothesis must be in IF...THEN form, for example “If (list the levels of IV) are applied/used/treated, then (statement of DV). b. Give background or previous research that supports your hypothesis, then... c. EX. Based on the ideas/theories/experiments that stated ___, it is believed that if (levels of the IV) are used, then the group receiving (level of IV) will (statement about measurement of the DV). Examples of citing references in text (you need at least 5 total, 3 from scientific journals): ** Texts and encyclopedias are considered ‘general knowledge’ or reference materials, you shouldn’t cite them in the text of your paper, but they must be in the works cited section. ** Credit for information that is another’s idea is given at the end of a sentence or group of sentences. You MUST reword the original author’s work (DO NOT COPY OR QUOTE!!) (see a. below) ** If a single source has co-authors, you only put the (first author listed, et. al., year) (see b. below) ** Citation ‘c’ below shows 3 different studies the writer found that had similar findings. a. A recent study concluded there was a correlation between radiation and germination (Lee, 2003). b. When indirect sunlight is used, toxic chemicals build up, especially in shoots and stems (Owen, et. al., 2002). c. A plant’s growth may be stunted because certain types of mulch and/or ground coverings filter out important nutrients, leaving the roots unable to absorb essential minerals needed for maximum growth (Hull, 1999; Rowland, 2001; and Sherrier, 2002). You must provide a Literature Cited page with your introduction (see Introduction Grade Sheet for guidelines) If it’s not in the literature cited page you can’t use it in your paper! NEXT GO TO METHODS AND MATERIALS (Procedure)
  7. 7. Name(s): INTRODUCTION RUBRIC & COVER SHEET (10 points each) 1. NO personal pronouns or rhetorical questions (no exceptions). 2. Written in proper tense (facts/research gathered and used to support your ideas are ‘present,’ information about your particular experiment (last paragraph) is ‘past.’ 3. Use of general background information (provided and explained) 4. Use of previous research relating to your topic 5. Relating the independent variable to the dependent variable 6. Rationale for conducting experiment is stated 7. IV, DV, control, hypothesis stated (along with reasons for choosing that hypothesis) 8. Structure (grammar, sentence structure, punctuation, organization, line spacing, proper length, margins and font) 9. Sources of information cited in text correctly (at least 5 citations) Examples of citing references in your paper: ** Since texts and encyclopedias are considered ‘general knowledge’ or reference materials, you shouldn’t cite them in the text of your paper, but they must be in the literature cited section. ** Credit for information that is another’s idea is given at the end of a sentence or group of sentences. You MUST reword the original author’s work (DO NOT COPY OR QUOTE!!) (see a. below) ** If a single source has co-authors, you only put the (first author listed, et. al., year) (see b. below) ** Citation ‘c’ below shows 3 different studies the writer found that had similar findings. a. A recent study concluded there was a correlation between radiation and germination (Lee, 2003). b. Toxic chemicals tend to build up in plant tissue, especially shoots and stems, when indirect sunlight is used (Owen, et. al., 2002). c. A plant’s growth may be stunted because certain types of mulch and/or ground coverings filter out important nutrients, leaving the roots are unable to absorb essential minerals needed for maximum growth (Hull, 1999; Rowland, 2001; and Sherrier, 2002). 10. Literature Cited of at least 5 different approved sources in proper format **Internet sources/addresses are UNACCEPTABLE: ALL .edu, .gov, and .org must be traced to a paper source. **There are many acceptable ways to cite research, just make sure they are correct by checking with Media Specialists **Pretend that all of the following examples (below) are used in the same paper, notice they: a. are in alphabetical order with each line after the first indented. b. are single spaced within and double spaced between the entry. c. are NOT numbered. **In the first example below, 36 is the volume, (9) is the number, and 478-485 are the pages. See Sample Literature Cited Page Below Literature Cited Branch, Barbara. 2001. “Thought Maps: The Growing Concept.” Educational Leadership. 36(9), 478-485. Owen, Michael, Chris Ramsey, and Sue Hoyle. 1999. “Concept maps for lecture notes.” Journal of Reading. December 1999/January 2000, 67-71. Smithson, Gerald and Beth Turman. 2002. “Using graphic organizers and concept maps to increase the understanding of mathematics concepts.” Reading Teacher. 48(3), 290-297. Smithson, Gerald and Beth Turman. 1998. “Concept mapping for better reading and comprehension.” Reading Teacher. 44(7), 421-427.
  8. 8. Guide for Writing Methods and Materials (procedure) DO NOT use I, you, your, his, hers, he, she, me, my, the researcher/experimenter/one, or rhetorical questions. Try to limit this section to ONE PAGE double spaced!! (PAST TENSE) You MUST make an APPOINTMENT to discuss the intended procedure BEFORE you begin experimenting!!!!! A. Write a detailed list of all the steps taken to conduct the experiment. (do not include this in your paper) 1. Someone should be able to repeat your experiment exactly just by reading your procedure. 2. When conducting your experiment, write down EVERY step being as specific as possible. 3. Be sure to write all units of measurement and devices used. B. Write your detailed list in paragraph form. 1. Include any safety precautions used during the experiment (goggles, apron, gloves, mask). 2. DO NOT list the materials. Instead, incorporate materials into written paragraphs. Spell out numbers if they begin a sentence. Use leading zeros for decimals. 3. Use third person, PAST TENSE. This means, NO PERSONAL PRONOUNS. EX. The bottom of one agar filled Petri dish was divided into equal quadrants using a ruler and permanent black magic marker. The same marker was used to label each of the quadrants A, B, C, and D. This procedure was repeated for nine more Petri dishes. 4. Include all equipment used to conduct the experiment, including detailed explanations of procedures used to construct anything for the project. (Usually belongs in the beginning) EX. If a mouse maze was constructed to train mice for the experiment, include the methods and materials used for its construction. 5. Include all procedures for preparing materials. (Usually belongs in the beginning) EX. If you made a special nutrient broth to grow bacteria, you must include the procedures to formulate it and the equipment used. 6. Put all levels of the IV and control groups labeled group A, group B, group C, etc. 7. Write the method for preparing ONE LEVEL of the IV (with its repeated trials), then explain that the same procedure was followed for each of the other levels, including the control. EX. For group A, ten fresh pieces of bread were placed on a (# units) piece of aluminum foil, side by side in two rows of five. The bread was covered with one (# units) piece of blue plastic wrap. The edges of the aluminum foil were folded up 5 cm over the plastic wrap and folded again to enclose the bread. This procedure was followed for all of the other groups except group B received yellow wrap, group C received red wrap, and group D (control) received clear wrap. 8. Incorporate all constants into the text. Constants are signified by using ( ). EX. The inoculated petri dishes were placed on the top shelf of a temperature controlled incubator (37˚C). 9. Make sure that you state the same number of trials (at least 10 for each level of the IV). 10. THE FINAL SENTENCES should be a statement of what you have done with the data. EX. The data were collected and recorded onto a data table and graph. A t-test was conducted to determine if there were any significant differences between the group means. Example: (be sure YOUR procedure is double spaced) Twenty Venus flytraps were set up under a plant light, separated into two groups of 10, and labeled: (group A) the control group and (group B) the experimental group. Every other day for 10 days, half of the plants were watered with 15 ml of distilled water, and half were watered with 15 ml of 1ppm of gibberellic acid solution, using separate 100ml graduated cylinders. All testing was done on the 11th day. The position and reactions of 5 leaves on each plant were recorded on a data table. Using rubber gloves and tweezers, a small piece of shredded roasted turkey was placed in each leaf before the trigger hairs were stimulated. The Phase I closing time (sec) was measured using a stopwatch and were recorded on data tables for each leaf. While Phase I experimentation continued, frequent observations were made to detect signs of Phase II closing. The time for complete Phase II closing for each leaf was measured with the same stopwatch and were recorded on data tables. The mean time for each closing phase was calculated for both groups, and results were interpreted on line graphs. T-tests were performed on each set of data to determine significant differences between the means of each group. Cothron, Giese, and Rezba. 1993. Students and Research, 2nd ed. Kendall/Hunt Publishing Co. NEXT GO TO THE TABLES and GRAPHS WORKSHEET AND STATISTICS **You may be working on these simultaneously**
  9. 9. Name(s): METHODS AND MATERIALS RUBRIC & COVER SHEET (10 points each) 1. NO personal pronouns or rhetorical questions (no exceptions) 2. Past tense used throughout (no exceptions) 3. Materials are NOT LISTED, but incorporated into the paragraphs 4. All necessary materials are included 5. Procedure is clear and concise 6. All necessary units of measurements are included 7. Procedure is complete 8. Procedure is sequenced correctly 9. Sufficient number of repeated trials are used (must be at least 10 for each level of the IV) 10. Grammar, spelling, sentence structure, punctuation, margins, line spacing, proper length (1 page), and font.
  10. 10. Guide for Constructing Raw Data Tables (1 inch margins, 12 font) NOTE: You don’t need RAW DATA tables, but if you put them in, they should be in the appendix. NOTE: In your text, refer to these as raw data tables located in the Appendix A, Appendix B, etc. A. Title: The effect of IV on DV. B. The IV (with units) is recorded in the left column and are ordered numerically smallest to largest C. The DV (with units) is 1. recorded in the middle column (if data are not averaged) or right column (if averaged). 2. repeated trials are recorded in subdivisions under the DV column. D. Calculated derived quantities or averages are in the right column. Appendix A. Raw data: The Effect of Submersion Times on the Amount of Water Absorbed by Wood. Submersion time Trials: Amount of Water Absorbed (ml) Average water (min) absorbed (ml) 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 10 1 1 1 1 9 1 1 1 1 1 11.1 1 2 0 2 2 1 2 0 2 20 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 14.0 4 4 3 5 4 2 6 4 4 4 30 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 16.0 6 6 6 6 6 4 8 6 6 6 40 1 1 2 1 1 2 1 1 1 2 19.2 9 9 0 9 9 0 9 9 8 0 50 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 22.0 2 1 3 2 2 3 1 2 1 3 Guide for Constructing Statistical Data Tables (1 inch margins, 12 font) NOTE: If in the text, these are referred to as Table 1, Table 2, etc. and go in the results section A. Title: The effect of IV on DV. (don’t forget the units) B. These have 2 major columns (descriptive statistics and IV with units and levels) C. These also have 2 major types of statistics (descriptive and inferential statistics) D. Measures of central tendency are mean, median, or mode. You must choose the most appropriate IF YOU USED A CHI SQUARE FOR STATISTICS, USE THE DATA TABLE DETAILED IN THAT SECTION Table 1: The Effect of Submersion Time (min) on the Amount of Water Absorbed (ml) Descriptive Wood Submersion Times (min) Statistics A: 10 B: 20 C: 30 D: 40 E: 50 (control) Mean 11.1 14.0 16.0 19.2 22.0 Range 3 4 4 2 2 Minimum 12 16 18 18 23 Maximum 9 12 14 20 21 Variance 1.21 1.11 0.88 0.40 0.66 Standard Deviation 1.10 1.05 0.94 0.63 0.81 Number of Trials 10 10 10 10 10 Inferential Statistics (t-tests) A vs B t= 6.04 B vs C t= 4.44 C vs D t= 8.88 Df= 18 A vs C t= 10.88 B vs D t= 13.33 C vs E t= 53.85 = 0.05 A vs D t= 20.25 B vs E t= 1.90 D vs E t= 8.48 table t= 2.101 A vs E t= 25.35
  11. 11. Note: You must do a statistical data table for EACH effect you are measuring. In the example above, mass differences (g) was also measured...Therefore the second data table’s title is: Table 2: The Effect of Submersion Time (min) on the Difference in Mass of Wood (g) NEXT go to Results and Communicating Statistical Significance Guide for Choosing Between Bar and Line Graphs (1 inch margins, 12 font) NOTE: In the text of your paper, graphs placed in the results section are referred to as Figure 1, Figure 2, etc. If you run out of room in the text of your paper, you can put them in the appendix as Appendix A, B, C A. Bar graphs are used for qualitative data (brands, ranking, colors w/out a standard scale). 1. If you were testing the flavor of Jelly Belly Beans, a bar graph is appropriate because flavor is purely qualitative. Just like different brands of golf balls, there is no quantitative value. 2. You should put a graph of the means (not raw data) in your results section. 3. To construct a bar graph: DO NOT USE COLOR IN ANY PART OF YOUR PAPER. a. Title is written as follows... Figure 1: The effect of IV on DV. b. Label the Axes: (horizontal) X axis = IV and the (vertical) Y axis = DV c. Subdivide the X axis to show the discrete values of the IV. d. Determine an appropriate scale for the Y axis that depicts the DV values. e. Construct a vertical bar from the IV level (ie. brand of golf ball) on the X axis up to the DV (distance traveled) value in the Y axis. BE SURE TO LEAVE SPACES BETWEEN EACH BAR. f. Summarize the graph with descriptive sentences...(briefly describe the trends). B. Line graphs are used when ALL of the data are quantitative (height, mass, any standard measures). 1. If you were testing the effect of different concentrations of acid rain on the number of leaves on a bean plant, a line graph is appropriate because BOTH the IV and DV have quantitative values. 2. You should put a GRAPH OF THE MEANS (not raw data) in your results section. 3. To construct a line graph: DO NOT USE COLOR IN ANY PART OF YOUR PAPER. a. Title is written as follows... Figure 1: The effect of IV on DV. b. Label the axes: (horizontal) X axis = IV and (vertical) Y axis = DV c. Determine scales for axes: i. calculate the ‘range’ of your data (largest value - smallest value) ii. divide the range by 5 iii. then round the quotient to the nearest convenient counting number. (numbers counted in multiples are easier...2, 5, 10, etc) d. Starting and ending intervals i. start with an interval less than the smallest datum value... EX. if the smallest data value is 10, then the intervals start at 5 if the smallest data value is 14 mm, then intervals start at 10 mm. ii. end with an interval that allows the largest value to be graphed EX. if the largest value is 19 mm, the last interval would be 20 mm. e. Plot the data points. f. Construct a Line of Best Fit: DO NOT CONNECT THE DOTS! There should be approximately the same number of points on either side of the line. g. Summarize the graph with brief descriptive sentences. NEXT GO TO THE RESULTS SECTION
  12. 12. Guide for Analyzing Data using a Chi-Square Test ** Chi-Square tests used in experiments with qualitative data!! (measured with the 5 senses, psychology, or self-made rating scales) For the sake of this example, pretend you are determining the statistical significance of: The effect of different colored rocks on the preference of salamanders 1. State the null hypothesis. (The IV has no effect on the DV) EX. The frequency distribution of salamanders on colored rocks is not significantly different from the frequency distribution predicted by chance. ** Your research hypothesis is based on your original assumption that there will be some effect by the IV on the DV. It is what you originally thought would happen. ** The null hypothesis is based on the assumption that there will be no difference between any of your groups. A statistician's job is to show that your results were arrived at by error or chance rather than your IV. (In order to help support research hypothesis, you’ll want to reject this.) ** If you can reject the null hypothesis, your research hypothesis is supported by the data, because that 0means that there was a significant effect on the DV by the IV. ** If you must accept the null hypothesis, your data do not support the research hypothesis. 2. Establish the level of significance. Accepted level for student research is Alpha (α)= 0.05, meaning that there is a less than a 5% chance that your data were arrived at by chance or error. 3. Determine the observed frequency distribution. EX. red=30, blue=40, yellow=12, white=18 4. Determine the theoretical (expected) frequency distribution. By chance, you would expect and equal distribution of salamanders across the 4 colors. If the total # of salamanders is 100, you would expect 25 on each color. χ 5. Calculate the Chi-Square . (O=observed, E= expected, ∑= sum) 2 6. Calculate the degrees of freedom. df= (# of categories - 1) ex. df= 4-1, df= 3 χ2 7. Determine the significance of the calculated using the Chi-Square Sample Distribution Table and df. χ2 χ2 8. Decide to reject or accept the null hypothesis calculated < table = accept the null (data not significant) χ2 χ2 calculated > table = reject the null (data significant) 9. Determine if the statistics support the research hypothesis. 10. Construct a data table that communicates your statistics. Table 1: The effect of different colors of rocks on the preference of salamanders Calculation Observed Distribution Expected Distribution Mode blue red, blue, yellow, white Frequency Distribution red 30 25 1.0 blue 40 25 9.0 yellow 12 25 6.7 white (control) 18 25 1.9 Number 100 100 Inferential statistics: Results of chi-square Calculated Chi- df= 3 α =0.05 square= 18.6 table chi= 7.815 Next go to the RESULTS section Chi-Square Sample Distribution Table
  13. 13. Degrees Probability (Level of Significance) of 0.1 0.05 0.01 0.001 Freedom 1 2.706 3.841 6.635 7.879 2 4.605 5.991 9.210 10.597 3 6.251 7.815 11.345 12.830 4 7.779 9.488 13.277 14.860 5 9.236 11.070 15.086 16.750 6 10.645 12.592 16.812 18.548 7 12.017 14.067 18.475 20.278 8 13.362 15.507 20.090 21.955 9 14.684 16.919 21.666 23.589 10 15.987 18.307 23.209 25.188 11 17.275 19.675 24.725 26.757 12 18.549 21.026 26.217 28.300 13 19.812 22.362 27.688 29.819 14 21.064 23.685 29.141 31.319 15 22.309 24.996 30.578 32.801 16 23.542 26.296 32.000 34.267 17 24.769 27.587 33.409 35.718 18 25.989 28.869 34.805 37.156 19 27.204 30.144 36.191 38.582 20 28.412 31.410 37.566 39.997 21 29.615 32.670 38.932 41.401 22 30.813 33.924 40.289 42.796 23 32.007 35.172 41.638 44.181 24 33.196 36.415 42.980 45.558 25 34.382 37.652 44.314 46.928 26 35.563 38.885 45.642 48.290 27 36.741 40.113 46.963 49.645 28 37.916 41.337 48.278 50.993 29 39.088 42.559 49.588 52.336 30 40.256 43.773 50.892 53.672 * 0.05 is the accepted level for student research * a 0.05 level means that there is a 5% chance that your data were arrived at by error, which means that if your data are significant, then you have a 95% level of confidence in your data.
  14. 14. Guide for Analyzing Data using a T-test ** T-tests are used for experiments with quantitative measurements. Therefore, you may only use this analysis if your measurements involve SI or standard metric units. 1. State the null hypothesis. (The IV has no effect on the DV) EX. For the following example: The effect of various stressors on plant height, the null should be “Stressors have no effect on plant height.” ** Your research hypothesis is based on your original assumption that there will be some effect by the IV on the DV. It is what you originally thought would happen. ** The null hypothesis is based on the assumption that there will be no difference between any of your groups. A statistician's job is to show that your results were arrived at by error or chance rather than your IV. (In order to help support research hypothesis, you’ll want to reject this.) ** If you can reject the null hypothesis, your research hypothesis is supported by the data, because that 1means that there was a significant effect on the DV by the IV. ** If you must accept the null hypothesis, your data do not support the research hypothesis. 2. Establish the level of significance. Accepted level for student research is Alpha (α)= 0.05, meaning that there is a less than a 5% chance that your data were arrived at by chance or error. Meaning of symbols in formulas below: s2= variance = mean Σ= sum (add) Xi = individual measurements in a group n = number in group 3. Calculate the means of your control group and each of the experimental groups. EX. for 1 control and 2 experimental groups, you will calculate 3 means. (formula at right) 4. Calculate the variances (s2) of your control group and each of the experimental groups. You are finding the difference between individual values and the group mean. (formula at right) EX. for 1 control and 2 experimental groups, you will calculate 3 variances. For your data table, the standard deviation formula is 5. Calculate t . It compares the control group with each experimental group.(formula below) 0**If your calculated t is a negative number, use the ABSOLUTE VALUE. EX. for 1 control and 2 experimental groups, you will calculate 3 t’s (A to B, A to C, and B to C). n 6. Calculate the degrees of freedom. df= (n-1) + (n-1) *if you have 10 trials your df =18 group 1 group 2 7. Determine the significance of the calculated t value(s) using t-Test Sample Distribution Table and df. 8. Decide to reject or accept the null hypothesis. calculated t < table t = accept null (data not significant) calculated t > table t = reject the null (data significant) 9. Determine if the statistics support the research hypothesis. (based on notes from above) 10. Construct a data table that communicates you statistics. NOTE: to do this, use the notes, instructions, and the example given in “Constructing Statistical Data Tables” worksheet. NEXT go to the RESULTS section
  15. 15. t-Test Sample Distribution Table Degrees Probability (Level of Significance) of 0.1 0.05 0.01 0.001 Freedom 1 6.314 12.706 63.657 636.619 2 2.920 4.303 9.925 31.598 3 2.353 3.182 5.841 12.924 4 2.132 2.776 4.604 8.610 5 2.015 2.571 4.032 6.864 6 1.943 2.447 3.707 5.959 7 1.895 2.365 3.499 5.408 8 1.860 2.306 3.355 5.041 9 1.833 2.262 3.250 4.781 10 1.812 2.228 3.169 4.587 11 1.796 2.201 3.106 4.437 12 1.782 2.179 3.055 4.318 13 1.771 2.160 3.012 4.221 14 1.761 2.145 2.977 4.140 15 1.753 2.131 2.947 4.073 16 1.746 2.120 2.921 4.015 17 1.740 2.110 2.898 3.965 18 1.734 2.101 2.878 3.922 19 1.729 2.093 2.861 3.883 20 1.725 2.086 2.845 3.850 21 1.721 2.080 2.831 3.819 22 1.717 2.074 2.819 3.792 23 1.714 2.069 2.807 3.767 24 1.711 2.064 2.797 3.745 25 1.708 2.060 2.787 3.725 26 1.706 2.056 2.779 3.707 27 1.703 2.052 2.771 3.690 28 1.701 2.048 2.763 3.674 29 1.699 2.045 2.756 3.659 30 1.697 2.042 2.750 3.646 40 1.684 2.021 2.704 3.551 60 1.671 2.000 2.660 3.460 120 1.658 1.980 2.617 3.373 ∞ 1.645 1.960 2.576 3.291 * 0.05 is the accepted level for student research * a 0.05 level means that there is a 5% chance that your data were arrived at by error, which means that if your data are significant, then you have a 95% level of confidence in your data.
  16. 16. Guide for Results and Communicating Statistical Significance Summarize the trends for EACH DV that you’ve measured in a paragraph. (PAST TENSE) 1. This paragraph should follow the last graph for the data. (Order: table, graph, paragraph) 2. The paragraph should consist of the following: a. Topic Sentence that states IV and DV in reference to the graphs. EX. The effect of IV on DV is summarized in table 1 and figure 1. b. Write sentences that compare the measures of central tendency and variation of groups. You should discuss means and standard deviation. EX. Stressed plants exhibited a greater mean height (60 cm) than non-stressed plants (56 cm). Variations within the groups were similar, with stressed plants having a standard deviation of 7.0 and non-stressed plants with a standard deviation of 7.8. Ninety-five percent of the stressed plants ranged from 40.4 to 71.6cm. c. Write sentences to describe statistical test, level of significance, and null hypothesis. EX. The t-test was used to test the following null hypothesis at a 0.05 level of significance: The mean height of stressed plants is not significantly different from the mean height of non-stressed plants. d. Write sentences comparing the calculated value with the required statistical values and make statements about rejection or acceptance of the null hypothesis. EX1. The null hypothesis was accepted (t= 1.2 < 2.101 at df= 18; p>0.05). EX2. The null hypothesis was rejected (t= 3.2 > 2.101 at df= 18; p<0.05). EX3. The null hypothesis was rejected in all comparisons (t= 2.2 > 2.101; t= 7.34 > 2.101; t= 3.42 > 2.101 at df= 18; p<0.05). EX4. The null hypothesis was rejected when the control was compared to 3mcg of ginkgo and 5mcg of ginkgo (t= 2.2 > 2.101; t= 3.42 > 2.101 at df= 18; p<0.05). The null was accepted when the two dosages were compared (t= 1.97 < 2.101 at df = 18; p>0.05). e. State whether the research hypothesis is supported or not by the data. EX1. The data did not support the research hypothesis that stressed plants would have a different mean height after planting than non-stressed plants EX2. The data supports the research hypothesis that ginkgo effects memory. 3. ALWAYS use leading zeros with decimals. EX. The mean difference was 0.23 cm. (instead of .23 cm) Modified from Students and Research, 2nd ed. Cothron, Giese, and Rezba. Kendall/Hunt publ. co. 1993. NEXT go to the CONCLUSION section
  17. 17. Name(s): RESULTS RUBRIC & COVER SHEET (10 points each) 1. Descriptive and Inferential data table results included a paragraph for each DV being measured a. appropriate measure of central tendency (mean, median, mode) b. measure of variation of data (variance, standard deviation) c. number of trials (must be the same number (at least 10) for each level of IV) 2. Statistical data table results included a. alpha values b. degrees of freedom c. calculated t’s or Chi-square compared to standardized table values 3. Statistics calculated correctly 4. Appropriate statistics used for the data that was collected 5. Graph of results included a. proper title b. X and Y axis labeled correctly c. appropriate units and equal intervals are used for each axis d. legend or key present e. NO COLOR in graph and it has ONE INCH MARGINS 6. Appropriate (bar or line) graph is selected and is NEAT...nothing handwritten is acceptable 7. Data paragraph is grammatically correct with proper font, margins, and spacing: (no personal pronouns, past tense, and all decimals have leading zeros when appropriate). 8. Data paragraph summarizes in words what is indicated on the tables and graphs (discuss range, central tendencies, comparisons of t or Chi-square numbers, and acceptance or rejection of the null hypothesis) 9. Paragraph is based solely on data and does not wander to conclusions…NO personal pronouns. 10. Any raw data, photos, or videos of setup and data collection are included, understandable, and labeled appropriately as appendix material. (Appendix A, B, C, etc)
  18. 18. Guide for Writing a Conclusion ** There are many questions that need to be answered in your 2-3 page conclusion.(PAST TENSE) A. What was the purpose of the experiment? EX 1. The purpose of this experiment was to determine the effect of water temperature on the dissolving time of Brand X effervescent tablets. EX 2. In this experiment, the effect of fertilizers on the size of geranium flowers was tested. B. What were the major findings? (including means and possibly variances) EX 1. At higher temperatures, Brand X tablets dissolved faster with a mean of 7.9 seconds. For each rise in temperature, dissolving time was further reduced. EX 2. When increasing amounts of salt were dissolved in water, no increase in temperature was found. EX 3. Some runway surfaces (sand, paper, flagstone) slowed the car’s speed, while others increased the speed (glass, formica) over the control surface. C. Was the research hypothesis supported by the data? (discuss statistical tests and significance) EX 1. The null hypothesis was rejected (t= 3.97 > 2.101 at df = 18; p<0.05), therefore the data supported the research hypothesis that effervescent tablets dissolve faster in warm water than in cold water . EX 2. The null hypothesis was accepted (t= 1.97 < 2.101 at df = 18; p>0.05), therefore the data did not support the research hypothesis that natural fertilizers produce plants with taller stems and more leaves . D. How did your findings compare with other researchers or information gathered? (You MUST have references cited!! Possibly from the introduction. Go into deeper explanations of how your research compares to other information gathered) EX 1. The findings agree with the solubility rule that solids dissolve faster in warm solvents. EX 2. The findings were consistent with similar (or related) research, in that the mean emergence rate increased as the temperature increased (Jackson, 1998). E. What possible explanations do you have to explain WHY your findings came out the way they did? EX 1. Because molecules move faster in warm water, they would strike the tablet more frequently and tear it apart more quickly. EX 2. The red blocks may have been chosen more frequently than the green blocks because females tend to respond more positively to colors ranging from orange to red, and in this investigation there were more females sampled than boys (Leverett, 2001). EX 3. The results may have been more conclusive if precise dosages were administered, perhaps by injection. Allowing the mice to drink as much or as little water as they desired may have resulted in the mice receiving varying dosages of ginkgo. F. What recommendations do you have for improving the experiment AND further study? (include several related topics and several improvements) EX 1. An improvement for this experiment would be to increase the size of the tanks to accommodate for territorial behaviors. Additional experiments could be performed to examine the effects of ground cover on the lizard’s preference. EX 2. The experiments could be improved by insulating the cups to reduce heat exchange with the room. Additional experiments could be conducted to determine the dissolving rate of other brands. EX 3. The experiment could be improved if the subjects were given precise dosage of ginkgo. Modified from Rezba, R. 1989 NEXT go to the ABSTRACT (but remember that the abstract is placed before the introduction in your final paper)
  19. 19. Name(s): DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSIONS RUBRIC & COVER SHEET (10 points each) 1. NO personal pronouns or rhetorical questions (no exceptions) 2. Written in past tense, grammar, spelling, margins, line spacing, and font 3. Purpose restated 4. Major findings concisely stated a. restate measures of central tendency (range may also be of interest) b. briefly discuss results of statistical analysis c. briefly discuss significance of statistical analysis ** was the null rejected or accepted 5. Research hypothesis restated support by the data is discussed. 6. Comparison of results to other researchers or researchers with similar topics cited 7. Explanation of findings (reference to other research collected) 8. Improvements to be made to make this experiment better/more accurate 9. Recommendations for future scientific studies 10. Proper literature citations within text (minimum 3)
  20. 20. Guide for Writing an Abstract (PAST TENSE) An abstract is a very important part of a research project and should be carefully written. It will be the first thing readers see when they look at your paper because it is placed before the introduction. Sometimes a reader will look at an abstract to see if the rest of the paper is worth reading; so make a good first impression with a great abstract. It must be typed, double spaced with even ONE inch margins. It should include all of the important components of your project and only be ONE PAGE long. The abstract MUST be on a single page BY ITSELF...that means with nothing else on it. ANYTHING OVER A PAGE WILL RECEIVE A ZERO. One or more sentences about each of the following MUST be included: 1. introduction 2. purpose 3. hypothesis 4. procedure 5. results (see below) 6. conclusion example: Swedish scientists noticed in the 1950’s that the acidity of rain had dropped drastically, and this decrease was tied to an increase in industrial air pollution. This began the study of an environmental problem that is now named “acid rain.” It is produced when sulfur and nitrogen oxides are released by sources such as smokestacks and automobiles into the atmosphere. While in the air, these oxides are often transformed into sulfates and nitrates which then combine with moisture to produce acid rain. The purpose of this project was to determine how smoke from a coal-burning plant would affect the acidity of rain at the following distances from the site one half mile, one mile, one and one half miles and eleven miles. Three rain samples were collected in sterile containers at each location. Each was tested for its acidity using a combination glass electrode. The results indicated that the rain at the closest site was the most acidic with a mean pH of 4.6 and the rain from the site farthest away was the least acidic with a mean pH of 5.1. A t-test performed on the data indicated a significant difference between the means of the groups (t= 2.241> 2.101; t= 4.25 > 2.101; t= 3.206 > 2.101 at α=0.05 and df=18). The data supported the research hypothesis that if rain water was collected one mile, 5 miles, and 10 miles away from a smokestack, then the rain water collected nearest the smokestack will have the lowest pH. Based on the pH values determined in this research, there appears to be a direct correlation between the acidity of the rain and the proximity to the smokestack. Before it can be concluded that the coal-burning plant was the sole cause of the low pH of the rain however, a survey will need to be made to determine the location of other large sources of polluting gases and particulates. Modified from M. F. Hobbs, 1999.
  21. 21. Name(s): ABSTRACT RUBRIC & COVER SHEET (10 points each) 1. NO personal pronouns or rhetorical questions (no exceptions), proper grammar, past tense, and font 2. Introduction of project idea included from the introduction section 3. Purpose stated 4. Hypothesis stated 5. Procedure BRIEFLY summarized 6. Major results noted with comment on null and research hypotheses 7. Brief explanation of conclusions 8. Is no longer than ONE page double spaced, on its own page, and is placed BEFORE the introduction LITERATURE CITED RUBRIC & COVER SHEET (10 points each) 9. Literature Cited of at least 5 different approved sources with correct format and location a. entries are in alphabetical order (not numbered) b. 2nd , 3rd , 4th ...line of any entry is indented 5 spaces c. it is at the end of the paper between the conclusion and appendix d. Internet sources/addresses are UNACCEPTABLE: ALL .edu, .gov, and .org must be traced to a paper source. 10. Correct spacing a. single spaced within a reference b. double spaced between references See Sample Literature Cited Page Below Literature Cited Branch, Barbara. 2001. “Thought Maps: The Growing Concept.” Educational Leadership. 36(9), 478-485. Owen, Michael, Chris Ramsey, and Sue Hoyle. 1999. “Concept maps for lecture notes.” Journal of Reading. December 1999/January 2000, 67-71. Smithson, Gerald and Beth Turman. 2002. “Using graphic organizers and concept maps to increase the understanding of mathematics concepts.” Reading Teacher. 48(3), 290-297. Smithson, Gerald and Beth Turman. 1998. “Concept mapping for better reading and comprehension.” Reading Teacher. 44(7), 421-427.
  22. 22. Name(s): Completed Research Paper Evaluation Coversheet: Attach this entire page to the front of your final paper. I. Abstract (5) II. Introduction (15) Background on IV and DV (6) Review of prior research (6) Statement of the problem (3) III. Methods and Materials (Procedure) (10) All materials/equipment included (3) Clear/precise description (4) Written in paragraph from (3) IV. Results (20) Paragraphs of results (5) Statistical Data Table (3) Graphs (5) Statistical test (5) Null hypothesis and explanation (2) V. Discussion and conclusion (30) Purpose of experiment (3) Major findings and statistics (6) Support of research hypothesis (5) Comparison with other research (5) Explanations for findings (7) Recommendations for improvements and future research (4) VI. Writing (10) NO PERSONAL PRONOUNS or rhetorical questions (no exceptions) Logical organization/effective transitions (3) Sentence/paragraph structure/spacing/margins (2) Grammar/spelling/font (5) VII. General Format (10) (margins on ALL pages must not be less than one inch) (Do not use proper names of people/places that could identify you or the place in which you did your research) Pay attention to the ORDER of your paper!! One inch margins throughout and Proper order (4) Abstract, Intro., Procedure, Results, Conclusion, Literature Cited, Appendix, Acknowledgments Parenthetical documentation (3) Literature Cited (3) Appendix (labeled correctly) Acknowledgments (you may choose not to have this section) **Evaluate your paper using the rubric from above and enter the number and letter grade that you feel you have earned in the blank marked “self-evaluation” below. Self-Evaluation Grade: _________ Instructor’s Grade: __________

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