AP European History Gray-4 th Brandon Long Brandon Rusk Dustin Vu Kym Weston
 
<ul><li>Substitution of steel in place of iron </li></ul><ul><ul><li>New methods of rolling and shaping steel </li></ul></...
<ul><li>The introduction of electricity was revolutionary since its energy could be converted into heat, light, and motion...
<ul><li>In 1878, the first internal combustion engine, fired by gas and air </li></ul><ul><li>In 1897, an oil-fired engine...
<ul><li>Post 1870, saturated foreign markets required renewed look at domestic markets </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Population In...
<ul><li>Formation of cartels </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Especially strong in German potash, coal, steel, and chemical industrie...
<ul><li>The Great Depression of 1873-1895 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Dramatic drop in price of agricultural products </li></ul>...
<ul><li>The bridge between Science and Technology </li></ul><ul><ul><li>New fields, such as organic chemistry and electric...
<ul><li>Abundance and low transportation cost cause prices to drop </li></ul><ul><li>Scarce labor in Britain and Germany <...
<ul><li>Economic developments and the transportation revolution, such as marine transports and railroads created a true wo...
&quot;Man was born free, and he is everywhere in chains&quot; -Jean Jacques Rousseau
<ul><li>Nationalism/ Prestige </li></ul><ul><ul><li>political competition + power= expansion </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Expand...
<ul><li>Britain was losing its economic lead </li></ul><ul><li>European countries started the land grab and Britain follow...
<ul><li>Direct Military Intervention- total control of the country </li></ul><ul><li>Protectorate- own government but &quo...
<ul><li>Europeans controlled little of Africa before 1880 </li></ul><ul><li>British established themselves in Capetown (fo...
<ul><li>British took active interest in Egypt after Suez Canal opened in 1869. Believed that the Canal was there lifeline ...
<ul><li>Italians </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Libya </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Germans </li></ul><ul><ul><li>South-West Africa, the C...
<ul><li>Britain begins interest in East after the explorations of Captain James Cook </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Influx of Briti...
<ul><li>Reasons of such a strong Asian push is the decline of the Manchu dynasty in the nineteenth century </li></ul><ul><...
<ul><li>Boxer Rebellion </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Crushed </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Manchu dynasty overthrown in 1912 </li></ul><...
<ul><li>Jean-Jacques Rousseau </li></ul><ul><li>The quote sums up the attributes of people ruled by European countries. Th...
<ul><li>Imperialism was away for countries to grab the raw resources that they needed and the cheap labor without having t...
 
<ul><li>Bismarck knew that after Germany unified in 1871, the balance of power established in the congress of Vienna had b...
<ul><li>People in the Balkans clamored for independence, while the Ottoman empire was weak </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Great Eur...
<ul><li>Met in the Summer of 1878 </li></ul><ul><li>Dominated by Bismarck </li></ul><ul><li>Demolished the Treaty of San S...
<ul><li>European Powers began to seek no alliances </li></ul><ul><li>Russia was angry at Germany for their responses at th...
<ul><li>After William II dropped the Reinsurance act, because of Austrian Alliance </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ended up bringing...
<ul><li>German response to Entente Cordiale </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Opposed French designs to try and drive wedge between Fr...
<ul><li>1908-1909, initiated a chain of events that went out of control  </li></ul><ul><li>Austria annexed Bosnia and Herz...
<ul><li>Serbia, Bulgaria, Montenegro, and Greece created Balkan League </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Defeated the Ottomans in Firs...
 
<ul><li>Reform Act of 1867- the right to vote further extended; also with William Gladstone and passage of the Reform Act ...
<ul><li>after defeat by the Prussian army (1870), French initially set up provisional government, but Bismarck made them c...
<ul><li>SPAIN </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1875- new constitution under King Alfonso, established a parliamentary government domi...
<ul><li>despite unification, many important divisions still existed in Germany and they were already evident in the new Ge...
<ul><li>Bismarck often prevented the growth of democratic institutions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>worked with liberals to achie...
<ul><li>1867- creation of Austria-Hungary; Austria side had parliamentary system with principle, but Emperor Francis Josep...
<ul><li>the government made no concessions at all to liberal and democratic </li></ul><ul><li>after his father Alexander I...
<ul><li>near end of 19 th  century, revival of racism and extreme nationalism produced new right-wing politics aimed at Je...
<ul><li>in Austrian politics, Christian socialists combined anti-Semitism and agitation for workers, strongest in Vienna, ...
<ul><li>the worst treatment of Jews was in Russia where 72% of them lived </li></ul><ul><ul><li>allowed into secondary sch...
 
<ul><li>Events: Britain </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Lack of Social Reforms led to the creation of Trade Unions and The Labour Pa...
<ul><li>Events </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Became strongest military and industrial power on the continent in 1914. </li></ul></...
<ul><li>Events </li></ul><ul><ul><li>By 1900 had 35,000 miles of railroad, including 5,000 mile trans-Siberian line. </li>...
<ul><li>  Events </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1860 – 1914 U.S. shifted to become industrial powerhouse. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><l...
<ul><li>People </li></ul><ul><ul><li>First French-Canadian Prime Minister in 1896, Wilfred Louier, reconciled differences ...
<ul><li>Industrialism – Brandon Long </li></ul><ul><li>Imperialism – Brandon Rusk </li></ul><ul><li>Rivalry – Dustin Vu </...
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1850 to 1914 political themes

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A political timeline of themes from 1850 to 1914.

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1850 to 1914 political themes

  1. 1. AP European History Gray-4 th Brandon Long Brandon Rusk Dustin Vu Kym Weston
  2. 3. <ul><li>Substitution of steel in place of iron </li></ul><ul><ul><li>New methods of rolling and shaping steel </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Made it more useful in construction of </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Machines </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Engines </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Railways </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Ships </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Armaments </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>1860 steel production was 125,000 tons </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>1913 steel production was 32 million tons </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>1910 German production doubled that of Great Britain, however both were surpassed by the United States </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Germany and France took lead in production of alkalis used in textiles, soap, paper, and artificial dyes </li></ul>
  3. 4. <ul><li>The introduction of electricity was revolutionary since its energy could be converted into heat, light, and motion </li></ul><ul><li>By 1881, Britain had its first public power station </li></ul><ul><li>By 1910, Single power distribution systems, consisting of hydroelectric power stations and coal-fired steam-generating plants powered entire districts of homes, shops, and industrial enterprises </li></ul><ul><li>Electricity inspired Inventions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Alexander Graham Bell’s telephone </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Thomas Edison’s light bulb </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Guglielmo Marconi sent first radio waves across Atlantic </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Electricity helped introduce streetcars and subways into cities </li></ul><ul><li>Electricity helped coal-deficient countries enter the industrial age </li></ul>
  4. 5. <ul><li>In 1878, the first internal combustion engine, fired by gas and air </li></ul><ul><li>In 1897, an oil-fired engine was developed and soon was adopted by ocean liners and naval fleets </li></ul><ul><li>The development of the internal combustion engine also gave rise to the automobile and airplane industries </li></ul><ul><ul><li>In 1900, 9000 cars were produced globally </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>By 1916, Henry Ford’s factories in America were producing 735,000 Model Ts annually </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>In 1903, the Wright Brothers achieved the first flight of a fixed wing plane powered by a gasoline engine </li></ul></ul>
  5. 6. <ul><li>Post 1870, saturated foreign markets required renewed look at domestic markets </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Population Increase </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Rise in National Incomes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Wage Increases </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Drop in price of manufactured goods and food due to lower transportation costs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mass marketing was introduced to help sell consumer goods </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Creation of the Department Store </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Consumerism, especially with sewing machines, clocks, bicycles, electric lights, and typewriters created new consumer ethic </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The 1870’s saw a reaction against free trade, which was the norm in the 1860’s, due to increased competition for foreign markets and domestic demand </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Protective tariffs were reinstated in Austro-Hungarian Empire, Russia, Germany, the United States, and France </li></ul></ul>
  6. 7. <ul><li>Formation of cartels </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Especially strong in German potash, coal, steel, and chemical industries </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Example: The Rheinish Westphalian Coal Syndicate controlled 98 percent of German coal production by 1904 </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Increase in Manufacturing Plants, particularly in iron and steel, machinery, heavy electrical equipment, and chemical industries </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Most prominent in Germany ( From 1882 to 1907 the number of workers in factories with 1000 employees or more jumped from 205,000 to 879,0000 </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Development of cartels and plants led to need for greater efficiency in factory production </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Cut labor costs through mechanization of transport in plants </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Development of precision tools </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Creation of interchangeable parts </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Creation of assembly line production </li></ul></ul>
  7. 8. <ul><li>The Great Depression of 1873-1895 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Dramatic drop in price of agricultural products </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Slumps in the business cycle </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Economic recession in various countries </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Post 1895 was considered a golden age in the European economy </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The Fall of Britain to Germany </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Techniques previously developed made the new techniques of the 2 nd Industrial Revolution difficult to adopt </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>British reluctance in new plants and industries </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>German cartels on the other hand led banks to provide large sums of investment and encouraged innovation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>British were unwilling to formally encourage education in scientific and technological fields </li></ul></ul>
  8. 9. <ul><li>The bridge between Science and Technology </li></ul><ul><ul><li>New fields, such as organic chemistry and electrical engineering promoted union </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Companies began employing scientific consultants and setting up laboratories </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>In Germany doctorate degrees could be handed out at technical schools </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The Division of Europe </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Southern Italy, majority of Austria-Hungary, Spain, Portugal, the Balkans, and Russia still largely agricultural </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Provided foodstuffs and raw material to Western Europe </li></ul></ul>
  9. 10. <ul><li>Abundance and low transportation cost cause prices to drop </li></ul><ul><li>Scarce labor in Britain and Germany </li></ul><ul><li>Introduction of new machines for threshing and harvesting </li></ul><ul><li>Country Specialization of products </li></ul><ul><li>Introduction of chemical fertilizers </li></ul><ul><li>Small Farmers had difficulties transitioning </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Formed farm cooperatives </li></ul></ul>
  10. 11. <ul><li>Economic developments and the transportation revolution, such as marine transports and railroads created a true world economy </li></ul><ul><li>Europe imported foodstuffs and raw materials from all continents </li></ul><ul><li>Capital was invested in foreign ventures, such as railways, mines, power plants, and banks </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Very high rates of return </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Foreign countries provided markets for the surplus of the manufactured goods </li></ul>
  11. 12. &quot;Man was born free, and he is everywhere in chains&quot; -Jean Jacques Rousseau
  12. 13. <ul><li>Nationalism/ Prestige </li></ul><ul><ul><li>political competition + power= expansion </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Expanded Markets </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Demand for resources not found in Europe </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>rubber, oil, tin, etc. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Social Darwinism </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The British believed it was the special genus of the Anglo-Saxon race, that justified there rights for imperialism and use of military force. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Suggested that some races were better suited to survive and flourish </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reason for this mentality from the British is that they had a material, scientific and intellectual advantage over all other nations </li></ul></ul><ul><li>&quot;White Mans Burden“ </li></ul><ul><ul><li>idea of a religious-humanitarian approach to imperialism. Effort to rationalize imperialism </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>believed it was the &quot;White Mans Burden&quot; to help &quot;uncivilized&quot; countries become civilized. Just another form of racism </li></ul></ul>
  13. 14. <ul><li>Britain was losing its economic lead </li></ul><ul><li>European countries started the land grab and Britain followed fearing the rise of America and Germany, and also the economic competition from France. </li></ul><ul><li>Economic belief of &quot;Why should I buy when I can take?&quot; </li></ul>
  14. 15. <ul><li>Direct Military Intervention- total control of the country </li></ul><ul><li>Protectorate- own government but &quot;guided&quot; by mother country </li></ul><ul><li>Sphere of Influence </li></ul><ul><ul><li>imperialist hold over exclusive economic interests </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Overall Aim = gain the most with the least expense. MAXIMISE PROFITS! </li></ul>
  15. 16. <ul><li>Europeans controlled little of Africa before 1880 </li></ul><ul><li>British established themselves in Capetown (former Dutch property) in South Africa during the Napoleonic War </li></ul><ul><li>British encouraged people to newly called Cape Colony- </li></ul><ul><li>Great Trek- migration of original Dutch settlers known as Boers to the region between the Orange and Vaal Rivers </li></ul><ul><li>Hostilities between British and the Boers lead to the massacring and subjugation of the Zulu and Xhosa people caught in the middle </li></ul><ul><li>1880's British policy in South Africa largely determined by Cecil Rhodes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Cecil Rhodes (1853-1903) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>founded both diamond and gold companies that monopolized production on both commodities. Followed belief of maximizing profits </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Resigned in 1896 after conspiring to overthrow Boer government with out British approval </li></ul></ul></ul>
  16. 17. <ul><li>British took active interest in Egypt after Suez Canal opened in 1869. Believed that the Canal was there lifeline to India </li></ul><ul><li>In 1882 became protectorate over Egypt </li></ul><ul><li>Driving Force of colonization in central Africa was King Leopold II of Belgium </li></ul><ul><li>Wanted profit over progress </li></ul><ul><li>Brutal treatment of Africans </li></ul>
  17. 18. <ul><li>Italians </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Libya </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Germans </li></ul><ul><ul><li>South-West Africa, the Cameroons, Togoland, and East Africa </li></ul></ul><ul><li>France </li></ul><ul><ul><li>territory north of Congo River, French West Africa, and Tunisia </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Any Resistance= DEATH! </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Except for Ethiopia </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Europeans did not pay attention to tribal differences and combined sworn enemies with each other. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Resulted in the problems that Africa currently faces today </li></ul></ul>
  18. 19. <ul><li>Britain begins interest in East after the explorations of Captain James Cook </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Influx of British to Australia due to good ranching area and gold </li></ul></ul><ul><li>British East India Company responsible for subjugation of India </li></ul><ul><li>Russia begins to settle Siberia </li></ul><ul><ul><li>By 1830 the Russians had established control over the northern coast of the Black Sea </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Then moved into Manchuria and then Korea, but ended in Russo-Japanese War of 1905. Ended in Russian defeat. Created dissent among already angry populous of Russia </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Temporarily stopped Russians Asian expansion </li></ul></ul></ul>
  19. 20. <ul><li>Reasons of such a strong Asian push is the decline of the Manchu dynasty in the nineteenth century </li></ul><ul><li>So many countries took a chunk out of China that they had to create an &quot;Open Door: policy </li></ul><ul><li>Japan managed to avoid Western influence </li></ul><ul><ul><li>until 1853-1854 when Matthew Perry forced the Japanese to give the US trade and diplomatic rights. </li></ul></ul>
  20. 21. <ul><li>Boxer Rebellion </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Crushed </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Manchu dynasty overthrown in 1912 </li></ul><ul><li>Meiji Restoration </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Turning point in Japan under successful rule of Mutsuhito. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Modernized Japan on Western methods but with Japanese morals. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Created a successful hybrid that became an efficient and highly industrialized society </li></ul></ul><ul><li>India </li></ul><ul><ul><li>British had controlled India since the mid-nineteenth century </li></ul></ul><ul><li>After crushing a revolt in 1858 Britain ruled India directly </li></ul><ul><li>Although Western ideas helped to further India they were always regarded as less in British eyes </li></ul>
  21. 22. <ul><li>Jean-Jacques Rousseau </li></ul><ul><li>The quote sums up the attributes of people ruled by European countries. Thanks to advances in technology Europe and parts of the East were able to assert a level of dominance unprecedented in human history </li></ul>
  22. 23. <ul><li>Imperialism was away for countries to grab the raw resources that they needed and the cheap labor without having to spend enormous amounts of money. The whole idea of maximizing profit was a key factor that led to the brutal treatment and the degradation of the cultures that most European powers basically enslaved. </li></ul>
  23. 25. <ul><li>Bismarck knew that after Germany unified in 1871, the balance of power established in the congress of Vienna had been upset </li></ul><ul><ul><li>He created the three emperor’s league in 1873 for fearing the French </li></ul></ul>
  24. 26. <ul><li>People in the Balkans clamored for independence, while the Ottoman empire was weak </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Great European Powers kept them alive </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Situation was complicated by Austria and Russia’s Rivalry </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Russia, for a short overland route to Constantinople </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Austria, for fertile grounds and expansion </li></ul></ul><ul><li>1876, Serbia and Montenegro declare war on Ottoman Empire </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Failed, but Russia stepped in and defeated Otto. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Treaty of San Stefano, creates Bulgaria </li></ul></ul>
  25. 27. <ul><li>Met in the Summer of 1878 </li></ul><ul><li>Dominated by Bismarck </li></ul><ul><li>Demolished the Treaty of San Stefano </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Humiliating Russia </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Bulgarian lands were considerably reduced </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Bosnia and Herzegovina </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Placed under Austria’s Protection </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Germans believed they had at least kept the peace, they didn’t receive any lands </li></ul>
  26. 28. <ul><li>European Powers began to seek no alliances </li></ul><ul><li>Russia was angry at Germany for their responses at the congress </li></ul><ul><li>Bismarck created an alliance with Austria in 1879 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Later joined by Italy in 1882 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Triple Alliance </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Defensive alliance against France </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Bismarck's system of alliances, worked </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Preserving peace and status quo </li></ul></ul>
  27. 29. <ul><li>After William II dropped the Reinsurance act, because of Austrian Alliance </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ended up bringing what he feared, Franco-Russian Alliance </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Britain needed an alliance </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Enmity with France </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Imperialistic interests collided with Russia </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Germany seemed like the most likely ally </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>“ Natural allies” </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Did not work, industrial rivalry </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Entente Cordiale, 1904 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Britain and France set aside their differences </li></ul></ul>
  28. 30. <ul><li>German response to Entente Cordiale </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Opposed French designs to try and drive wedge between France and Britain </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Opposite effect </li></ul><ul><ul><li>United Russia and even the United States with the Entente Cordiale </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Germany was awarded nothing </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Triple Alliance = Germany, Austria-Hungary, and Italy </li></ul><ul><li>Triple Entente = loose confederation of Russia, France and Great Britain </li></ul>
  29. 31. <ul><li>1908-1909, initiated a chain of events that went out of control </li></ul><ul><li>Austria annexed Bosnia and Herzegovina </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Serbia became outraged </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Had interests in creating large Serbian Kingdom including most south slavs </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Annexed to prevent unity, was a threat </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Germany threatened war with Russia if they intervened </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Defeated in the Russo-Japanese War (1904-1905), they backed down </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Humiliated, the Russians swore revenge </li></ul></ul></ul>
  30. 32. <ul><li>Serbia, Bulgaria, Montenegro, and Greece created Balkan League </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Defeated the Ottomans in First war </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Victorious allies could not decide how to split Macedonia and Albania </li></ul><ul><li>Second Balkan War 1913 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Greece, Serbia, Romania, and the Ottoman Empire defeated Bulgaria </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Only attained small part of Macedonia </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The rest, divided among Serbia and Greece </li></ul></ul></ul>
  31. 34. <ul><li>Reform Act of 1867- the right to vote further extended; also with William Gladstone and passage of the Reform Act of 1884 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>gave the right to vote to all men who paid regular taxes or rents, thus largely enfranchising agricultural workers </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Redistribution Act (1885) - eliminated historic boroughs and counties and established constituencies with approximately equal populations and one representative each </li></ul><ul><li>in 1911, salaries start being paid to the House of Commons </li></ul><ul><li>gradual reform through parliamentary institutions </li></ul><ul><li>Act of Union (1801) - united the British and Irish parliamentary </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Irish developed sense of self-consciousness; detested British </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Gladstone attempted to alleviate Irish discontent by enacting land reform, but Irish kept being evicted; Irish launched terrorist attacks </li></ul><ul><li>(1886 and 1893) –Irish introduced home rule bills that would have led to reform, but they failed to win by majority vote </li></ul><ul><li>Home Rule Act of 1914- created more complications and problems; put off during WWI </li></ul>
  32. 35. <ul><li>after defeat by the Prussian army (1870), French initially set up provisional government, but Bismarck made them choose a government based on universal male suffrage </li></ul><ul><li>March 26, 1871, radical republicans formed independent government in Paris called the Commune </li></ul><ul><li>National Assembly didn’t want to lose their power, decided to crush the Commune; many in the working classes stepped up to defend the Commune (Louise Michel) </li></ul><ul><li>government troops shot 20000 and shipped 10000 to French penal colony New Caledonia </li></ul><ul><li>Constitution of 1875- improvised constitution that republican form of government as least decisive option </li></ul><ul><ul><li>established bicameral legislature with upper house(Senate) and lower house (Chamber of Deputies) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>chosen by male suffrage </li></ul></ul>
  33. 36. <ul><li>SPAIN </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1875- new constitution under King Alfonso, established a parliamentary government dominated by Conservatives and Liberals </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>1898- lost Spanish-American War and lost Cuba and the Philippines to US </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>1898- Generation- a group of young intellectuals who called for political and social reforms </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Liberals and Conservatives tried to please them, but what they did had little effect on the unrest </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>industrialization led people to be attracted to ideas such as socialism and anarchism </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>1909- violence erupts in Barcelona; forces brutally suppressed rebels </li></ul></ul><ul><li>ITALY </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1870- Italy emerges as a geographically unified country, but their internal weaknesses hurt them (division between the workers of the poverty-stricken South and the industrialists of the industrial North)0 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>1912- granted universal male suffrage </li></ul></ul>
  34. 37. <ul><li>despite unification, many important divisions still existed in Germany and they were already evident in the new German constitution </li></ul><ul><ul><li>upper house, called the Bundesrat represented the 25 states of Germany </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>independent states such as Bavaria and Prussia, still had own king, post services and army in times of peace </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>lower house, called the Reichstag, elected by universal male suffrage, but had no ministerial responsibilities </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>chancellor responsible to the emperor, who commanded the army and controlled foreign affairs and internal administration </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>army and Bismarck were two main reasons why Germany failed to develop before WWI </li></ul></ul><ul><li>German (mainly Prussian) army viewed themselves as protectors of monarchy and aristocracy, wanting to escape all control of Reichstag by working under people only responsible to the emperor </li></ul><ul><ul><li>for loyalty, only Junkers and honorable Bourgeois were allowed to be officers </li></ul></ul>
  35. 38. <ul><li>Bismarck often prevented the growth of democratic institutions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>worked with liberals to achieve greater centralization of Germany through common codes of criminal and commercial law </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>made attacks on the Catholic Church, then abandoned it later after he made a sudden change in policy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>abandoned liberals and started persecuting socialists </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>worried when Socialist Democratic Party elected 12 deputies into Reichstag </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>believed that socialists’ antinationalistic, anti-capitalistic and antimonarchical ideas were putting country in danger, so he had them disbanded and limited their powers </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Bismarck’s social security system was the most progress had yet seen, but and the socialists pointed out, left much to be desired </li></ul><ul><li>socialism continued to grow and in 1890, Bismarck was dismissed from his position by William II </li></ul>
  36. 39. <ul><li>1867- creation of Austria-Hungary; Austria side had parliamentary system with principle, but Emperor Francis Joseph ignored it and rule by decree </li></ul><ul><li>problems with minorities continued to be an issue as well; ethnic Germans (1/3 of population) governed, but felt threatened the Slavic nationalities </li></ul><ul><li>1879-1893- Count Edward von Taffe was prime minister; tried to go through by relying on conservatives, Czechs, and Poles, but his policies were often opposed </li></ul><ul><ul><li>non-Germans demanded concessions, will Germans wanted change, always leading to controversy </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Hungary had a working parliamentary system, but was dominated by the Magyar- landowners who dominated both the Hungarian peasantry and other ethnic groups </li></ul><ul><ul><li>tried to solve nationalities problems by Magyarization ( Magyar language was imposed in all education and was only language used by military officials and government </li></ul></ul>
  37. 40. <ul><li>the government made no concessions at all to liberal and democratic </li></ul><ul><li>after his father Alexander II was assassinated in 1881 , Alexander III decided reform wasn’t a good idea and he instituted “exceptional measures” </li></ul><ul><ul><li>advocates of constitutional monarchy, social reform, and revolutionary groups were persecutes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>at times entire districts were placed under martial law for suspected inhabitants of treason </li></ul></ul>
  38. 41. <ul><li>near end of 19 th century, revival of racism and extreme nationalism produced new right-wing politics aimed at Jews </li></ul><ul><ul><li>had been granted some legal equality during the Enlightenment and the French Revolution in many European countries </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>in France, emancipated in 1791, but still not accepted in society and anti-Semitism continued </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>in Prussia emancipated in 1812, but still restricted, they couldn’t hold government offices and couldn’t take advanced degrees in universities </li></ul></ul><ul><li>after 1848 revolutions, most Jews became emancipated, throughout Europe </li></ul><ul><ul><li>enabled them to leave the ghettos and go “into the world”; many entered the parliaments and universities they had been refused from, but even still, there was much hatred to the Jews </li></ul></ul>
  39. 42. <ul><li>in Austrian politics, Christian socialists combined anti-Semitism and agitation for workers, strongest in Vienna, which was a home of strong German nationalism that blamed Jews for the corruption of German culture </li></ul><ul><ul><li>many anti-Semitic parties used hatred of Jews to get votes, saying they were racially stained </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>after 1898, the political strength of these parties began to decline </li></ul></ul>
  40. 43. <ul><li>the worst treatment of Jews was in Russia where 72% of them lived </li></ul><ul><ul><li>allowed into secondary schools and universities only because of a quota system, were forced to live in certain regions; persecutions were widespread and hundreds of thousands moved to avoid persecution( average of 23,000 left each year) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Zionism - a worldwide movement, originating in the 19th century, that sought to establish and develop a Jewish nation in Palestine </li></ul><ul><li>a key figure to the growth of Zionism was Theodor Herzl, a journalist for a Viennese newspaper, who uncovered the cruelties that occurred and wrote about them </li></ul><ul><li>settlements were hard because Palestine was in Ottoman Empire, which was against Jewish immigration </li></ul><ul><li>the First Zionist Congress met in Switzerland in 1897,which said its goal was the creation of a home in Palestine secured by public law for the Jewish people </li></ul><ul><li>although some did go to Palestine, it still remained a dream for most on the eve of WWI </li></ul>
  41. 45. <ul><li>Events: Britain </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Lack of Social Reforms led to the creation of Trade Unions and The Labour Party. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>By 1906 The Labour Party had elected over 29 members to the House of Commons. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>National Insurance Act of 1911 provided care for sick and unemployed, gave workers comp. And was financed through compulsory contributions. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>People: Britain </li></ul><ul><ul><li>David Lloyd George (1863-1945) – Increased tax burden on wealthy class, moved away from laissez-faire. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Events: Italy   </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Universal Male Suffrage in 1912 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Working conditions bad enough that soldiers had to crush worker riots. (1914) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>People: Italy </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Giovanni Giolitti – Served as prime minister intermittently between 1903 – 1914. His devious methods made Italian politics even more unmanageable.  </li></ul></ul>
  42. 46. <ul><li>Events </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Became strongest military and industrial power on the continent in 1914. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>However, 50% was industrial and 30% was agricultural. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Social Democrats became largest party in Germany by 1912. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>People </li></ul><ul><ul><li>William II (1888-1918) made Germany authoritarian, militant, bureaucratic, power state. </li></ul></ul>
  43. 47. <ul><li>Events </li></ul><ul><ul><li>By 1900 had 35,000 miles of railroad, including 5,000 mile trans-Siberian line. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>By 1900 Russia is 4 th largest producer of steel. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Russia lost Russo-Japanese war in 1905. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Food shortages led to revolution. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>“ Bloody Sunday”, where peaceful demonstrators were massacred by soldiers. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>General strike in October caused the Government to Capitulate. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>People </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Sergei Witte (1849-1915) – guided massive state sponsored Industrialization. He persuaded Nicholas II (1894 -1917) to use tariffs. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Nicholas II created Duma in October Manifesto. Then curtailed its power in 1907. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Peter Stolypin (1906-1911) Chief advisor to Nicholas II. Made Important Agrarian reforms.  </li></ul></ul>
  44. 48. <ul><li>  Events </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1860 – 1914 U.S. shifted to become industrial powerhouse. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>1860, 20% of the pop. was in cities, and by 1900 40%. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>8 – 10 million moved to cities, and influx of 14 million immigrants. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>In 1890 9% of the wealthy had 71% of all wealth. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Meat Inspection and Pure Drug and Food Acts limited corrupt industry practices. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>People: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Woodrow Wilson ( 1913 – 1921), creation of graduated Federal Income Tax, Established Federal Reserve system. </li></ul></ul>
  45. 49. <ul><li>People </li></ul><ul><ul><li>First French-Canadian Prime Minister in 1896, Wilfred Louier, reconciled differences between English Speaking and French Speaking Canadians. </li></ul></ul>
  46. 50. <ul><li>Industrialism – Brandon Long </li></ul><ul><li>Imperialism – Brandon Rusk </li></ul><ul><li>Rivalry – Dustin Vu </li></ul><ul><li>Political (1) – Kym Weston </li></ul><ul><li>Political (2) –Mohammed Mamdani </li></ul>

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