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nazism and rise of adolf hitler CHAPTER FORM HISTORY
Nazism & The Rise
Of Adolf Hitler
By: Vanshika Rana
Class: IX B
a. They wanted a nation which
supported all religions.
a. They wanted a government which
was based on the majority population
of a country.
b. Radicals consisted of such European
c. These liberals did not support any
universal adult suffrage and perceived
that only that only men with property
could vote. THEY WERE NOT
c. In contrast, the Radicals were
discriminative about serving the big
business men and allowed the women
LIBERALS, RADICALS &
• Conservatives were opposed to radicals and liberals.
After the French Revolution, they had opened their
• The conservatives oppose the idea of change back in the
eighteenth century. By the 19th century, they accepted that
some change was inevitable
• They were still the believers who believed that the past
was to be respected and change was to be a gradual
• These political trends were signs of industrial changes.
This phase of time saw unemployment and the new
emerging cities were not under proper control and faced
• Many radicals and liberals were the owners and
employers of property themselves.
• They felt a need to encourage , that its benefits be
achieved only when the workforce is healthy and
Industrial Society &
• Opposed to the privileges the old aristocracy had by birth,
firmly believed in the value of individual effort, labor and
• If the freedom of individuals was ensured, if the poor
could labor, and those with capital could operate without
restraint, they believed that societies would develop.
• The nationalists, radicals & liberals wanted an end to the
type of governments estd. In Europe in 1815.
• In Italy, Germany & Russia, they became revolutionaries
to overthrow the monarchs.
• After 1815, Giuseppe Mazzini, an Italian nationalist,
conspired with others to achieve this Italy.
• Allies were namely: UK and France In 1941 they were
joined by the USSR and USA. They fought against the
Axis powers, namely Germany, Italy & Japan.
Allied powers and Axis
• The first world war was fought between by Germany alongside
the Austrian empire against Allied powers (1914-1918)
• With the entry of US along side the Allied powers made the
Allied powers win over Germany in November 1918.
• The defeat of Imperial Germany and the abdication of the
emperor gave an opportunity to parliamentary parties to recast
• A national Assembly met at Weimar republic and established a
democratic constitution with a federal structure.
Birth of the Weimar
• This republic was not received buy the public because:
1. It was to be accepted by the people after the defeat of
2. The peace treaty at Versailles with The allies was harsh.
• Germany was forced to pay a compensation of €6 billion.
• The allied armies also occupied the resource rich
Rhineland for much of 1920s.
• Weimar Republic was held responsible for this disgrace.
Weimar republic… contd.
• The war had a devastating impact on the European
continent both financially and psychologically.
• From creditors they became debtors. :’(
• The infant Weimar republic paid the reparations.
• The Weimar consisted of socialists, democrats, Catholics
and were called the NOVEMBER CRIMINALS.
• Now the soldiers were placed above civilians, aggressive
war propaganda, support grew for conservative
!!The effects of
• Soviets of workers and sailors were established in many
cities of Germany and was called the Spartacist league.
• The populace of Weimar opposed to it. Thus, they met in
Weimar and with the help of FREE COOPS (war
veterans) crushed the uprising
• Political radicalization was only heightened by the
economic crisis of 1923.
• The reparations were to be paid in gold that depleted the
Political Radicalism and
• In 1923 Germany refused to pay reparations thus, French
occupied Ruhr to claim their coal.
• Then came the HYPERINFALTION.
• USA intervened and bailed Germany out of this situation
by introducing Dawes Plan; which eased the reparation
• The years of depression were between 1929 to 1932.
• Most of German industrial recovery was dependent on
loans from USA but in 1929 when the wall street
exchange crashed this was to be stopped.
• On a single day, 24 October , 13 million shares were sold.
• From 1929 to 1930 the national income of USA fell by
• The German economy was hit by a crisis. And by 1932
their industrial production fell by 40% of the 1929 level.
The years of DEPRESSION
• Now, there was a great sum of unemployed that reached a
very high 6 billion and the economically okay sections
• Politically too Weimar Republic was fragile and the
reasons for that were:
a. Proportional representation (this made achieving a
majority by any one party a impossible task)
b. ARTICLE 48, the president to propose emergency,
suspend civil rights and rule by decree.
The years of DEPRESSION
• Adolf Hitler was born in Austria in 1889,he spent his youth in
• After rendering honest service to the German army, in 1919 he
joined National Socialist German Worker’s Party.
• He subsequently took over the organization and this party was
now called ‘Nazi Party’.
• In 1923, Hitler planned to seize control of Bavaria, march to
Berlin and capture power and he failed, was arrested, tried for
• It was during the Great Depression in the 1930s that Nazism
became a mass movement.
• Nazi propaganda stirred hope in people of a better future.
• In 1928 the party got no more than 2.6% votes but by 1932,
the party got 37% votes in the Reichstag.
Hitler’s rise to power
• Hitler was a powerful speaker, his words had passion.
• He promised to build a strong nation, employment to
all, and to weed out foreign ‘conspiracies’.
• He had his special ways of giving a speech and
Hitler’s rise to power
Nazi ‘SWASTIKA’ symbol
• On January 30, 1933, President Hindenburg offered
chancellorship to Hitler.
• Firstly, they rallied out the conservatives their cause .
• Then, subsequently, a mysterious fire broke down in
German parliament building, and this was said to be
• With this fire decree the civil rights like freedom of
speech etc. were also suspended.
• He first took it upon his arch enemies the Communists
and the Jews by sending them to the concentration camps
• On March 3, 1933, the famous enabling act was passed
that introduced Germany to DICTATORSHIP.
• Special and more strict police forces were established in
Germany: 1. gestapo (secret police)
2. SS (the protection squads)
3. Security squad (SD)
• Hitler assigned the responsibility of economic welfare to Hjalmar
Schacht who aimed: 1. full production
2. full employment
3. state-funded work-creation
• This project produced the very famous VOLKSWAGEN- the
• Hitler also made quick successes:
a. Pulled out of the League of Nations in 1933
b. Occupied Rhineland in 1936
c. In 1938, he integrated Austria under Germany under the slogan
‘one man, one empire, one leader’
d. He even got Czechoslovakia under Germany with malpractices.
• All this was done with unspoken support of England, who found
the Versailles treaty too harsh.
• In 1939, Germany, invaded Poland giving a rise to war
with France and England.
• Germany, Italy and Japan signed a tripartite pact in 1940
• Hitler now, wanted to ensure food supplies for all
Germans, thus he made a Historic Blunder by attacking
• This exposed the German western front to British aerial
attacks and the eastern front to the powerful Soviet
• Meanwhile USA resisted war for long due to economic
instability but it could not do that for long due to Japan’s
bombing at US base at Pearl Harbor.
• The Nazis got inspiration from thinkers like Charles Darwin and
Herbert Spencer like Darwin’s : creation of plants based on their
natural evolution ; Spencer’s : survival of the fittest!.
• But we must remember they never meant it to be related to humans
• The Nazi argument was simple : the strongest race would survive!
• Another aspect was lebensraum that was that more territories must
be acquired to widen the scope of production of strongest race
• They moved eastwards to Poland.
The NAZI Worldview
• Now Hitler killed the undesirables also within the
ARYAN GERMANS, this programmme was called
• The Jews and Gypsies were widely persecuted.
• The Germans hated the Jews having a pseudo-scientific
thinking that Jews were the killers of Christ.
• From 1933-1938 the Nazis terrorized, pauperized and
segregated the Jews
Establishment of the
• The undesirable children (Jews) were evacuated from
• The school books were re-written and descriptive about
• The ten year old boys had to enter jungvolk , the Nazi
organization for the little boys.
• Then from 14 years they were to be sent to Nazi youth
• At 18 they had to serve in the labor service.
Youth in Nazi Germany
• The girls in Nazi Germany were encouraged to be good
• If they gave away particular number of children they
would get a reward.
• But if they keep connections with a Jew and if the child
is RACIALLY UNDESIARABLE then the mother is to
have severe punishments.
• It was then, a criminal offence!!
The Nazi cult of
• The Nazis introduced too many ways to hate Jews by
making posters that showed how Jews were making the
• They made movies showing the Jews to be villains in it.
• They always pictured the Jews to be with long hanging
beard always wearing a Kaftan.
• They forced the opinion of them being undesirable all
over the German empire.
The Nazi propaganda