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Juniper MPLS Best Practice Part 2 Configuring LDP, RSVP-Signalled LSP, LDP Tunneling, and LSP routing table integration Fe...
MPLS overview (cont’d) <ul><li>Label-switched Path    The predetermined paths that make MPLS works, this is unidirectiona...
Lab Topology
LDP Configuration 1. Configure the interface to support the MPLS family btm@lab:Batam> show configuration interfaces  em1 ...
LDP Configuration 2. Enable MPLS protocol on the interface 3. Turn on LDP as the signalling Protocol 4. On the transit and...
LDP Configuration <ul><li>Once LDP is turned on on all the routers, the protocol automatically builds multipoint-to-point ...
LDP Configuration <ul><li>You see that each LDP interface is operational and has learned about one neighbor. </li></ul>btm...
LDP Configuration <ul><li>Use the detail form of this command to see the session parameters: (omitted) </li></ul>jkt@lab:J...
RSVP Configuration <ul><li>We’ll setup RSVP from Batam to Ambon </li></ul>
RSVP Configuration 1. Configure the interface to support the MPLS family btm@lab:Batam> show configuration interfaces  em1...
RSVP Configuration 2. Turn on RSVP as the signalling protocol 3. On the transit and egress routers, turn on MPLS and RSVP ...
RSVP Configuration 4. Finally set up a return LSP from Ingress to Egress so that the LSP is bidirectional and traffic can ...
RSVP Configuration <ul><li>Installing LSPs into the Unicast Routing Table ( inet.0 ) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Before </li></u...
RSVP Configuration <ul><li>After installing LSP into the Unicast Routing Table </li></ul><ul><li>While performs traceroute...
Placing Routing constraints on RSVP <ul><li>Using Bandwidth Reservation </li></ul><ul><li>Using Named-Path </li></ul><ul><...
Placing Routing constraints on RSVP <ul><li>Using Bandwidth Reservation </li></ul><ul><li>Verifying bandwidth on an LSP </...
Using naming path with ERO <ul><li>We’ll setup Primary and Secondary path from Batam to Ambon </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Path  ...
Using naming path with ERO <ul><ul><li>Path  Furthest     this will be the Primary </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Will traver...
Using naming path with ERO <ul><ul><li>Defining path  Shortest  :  </li></ul></ul>btm@lab:Batam> show configuration protoc...
Using naming path with ERO <ul><ul><li>Defining path  Furthest  :  </li></ul></ul>btm@lab:Batam> show configuration protoc...
Using naming path with ERO <ul><ul><li>Named Path configuration  </li></ul></ul>btm@lab:Batam> show configuration protocol...
Using naming path with ERO <ul><ul><li>Traceroute result </li></ul></ul>btm@lab:Batam> traceroute 192.168.48.1  traceroute...
Allowing IGP traffic to use an LSP <ul><ul><li>As a next-hop in static route </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>After we created L...
Allowing IGP traffic to use an LSP <ul><ul><li>Configure OSPF or IS-IS so that the LSP is advertised into the IGP </li></u...
Label Stacking : LDP Tunneling <ul><ul><li>We’ll use LDP through an RSVP network  </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>JuOS software...
Label Stacking : LDP Tunneling <ul><ul><li>Current LDP session on Batam </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Current LDP session on ...
Label Stacking : LDP Tunneling <ul><ul><li>Enabling LDP Tunneling on Batam’s LSP </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Enabling LDP T...
Label Stacking : LDP Tunneling <ul><ul><li>After LDP Tunneling configured on Batam </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>After LDP Tu...
LSP and Routing Table Integration <ul><ul><li>Mapping BGP next-hops to LSPs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Routes associat...
LSP and Routing Table Integration <ul><ul><li>Route Resolution Example </li></ul></ul>
LSP and Routing Table Integration <ul><ul><li>We begin by examining how traffic is forwarded to the 118.96.0/16 from the p...
LSP and Routing Table Integration <ul><ul><li>BGP configuration in Batam </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>BGP configuration in A...
LSP and Routing Table Integration <ul><ul><li>Advertisement from Ambon </li></ul></ul>amb@lab:Ambon> show bgp summary  Gro...
LSP and Routing Table Integration <ul><ul><li>What Batam sees </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>No route received, thus no BGP ro...
LSP and Routing Table Integration <ul><ul><li>Unusable next-hop </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Batam router can not resolve it...
LSP and Routing Table Integration <ul><ul><li>Typical solutions, by using next-hop self </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Resolve...
LSP and Routing Table Integration <ul><ul><li>LSP configured Batam-to-Ambon </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Prefix  192.168.48....
LSP and Routing Table Integration <ul><ul><li>BGP installs LSP as next-hop </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The results of BGP n...
LSP and Routing Table Integration <ul><ul><li>What actually happened ? </li></ul></ul>btm@lab:Batam> show route table inet...
LSP and Routing Table Integration <ul><ul><li>Ingress Resolves BGP next-hop </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>BGP performs re...
 
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Juniper mpls best practice part 2

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Juniper mpls lab

Juniper mpls best practice part 2

  1. 1. Juniper MPLS Best Practice Part 2 Configuring LDP, RSVP-Signalled LSP, LDP Tunneling, and LSP routing table integration Febrian Setiadi
  2. 2. MPLS overview (cont’d) <ul><li>Label-switched Path  The predetermined paths that make MPLS works, this is unidirectional path through the networks </li></ul><ul><li>Label Switching routers </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ingress : an entry point of an LSP </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Transit : any router in the middle of LSP </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Penultimate : The second-to-last router in the LSP </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Egress : an exit point for the LSP </li></ul></ul><ul><li>LSP Signalling Protocols </li></ul><ul><ul><li>RSVP </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Well-known signaling protocol, which is extended to support Traffic- Eng </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Supports explicit paths and bandwidth reservation </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Label allocated only along the defined LSP path </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>LDP </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Uses the same shortest-path as IGP for forwarding </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Label allocated and exchanged between neighbors </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>LDP Tunnelling </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Permits establishments of and LDP session across an RSVP network by tunneling the LDP traffic within RSVP-based LSPs. </li></ul></ul>
  3. 3. Lab Topology
  4. 4. LDP Configuration 1. Configure the interface to support the MPLS family btm@lab:Batam> show configuration interfaces em1 { unit 7 { vlan-id 7; family inet { address 10.0.7.1/30; } family mpls; } unit 10 { vlan-id 10; family inet { address 10.0.10.1/30; } family mpls; } unit 90 { vlan-id 90; family inet { address 10.0.90.1/30; } family mpls; } unit 100 { vlan-id 100; family inet { address 100.100.100.1/30; } } }
  5. 5. LDP Configuration 2. Enable MPLS protocol on the interface 3. Turn on LDP as the signalling Protocol 4. On the transit and egress routers, turn on MPLS and LDP in a similar fashion, e.g : Semarang btm@lab:Batam> show configuration protocols mpls { interface all; } btm@lab:Batam> show configuration protocols ldp { interface all; } smg@lab:Semarang> show configuration interfaces em1 { unit 0 { vlan-id 0; family inet { address 10.0.0.1/30; } family mpls; } unit 3 { vlan-id 3; family inet { address 10.0.3.1/30; } family mpls; } em2 { unit 1 { vlan-id 1; family inet { address 10.0.1.2/30; } family mpls; } unit 7 { vlan-id 7; family inet { address 10.0.7.2/30; } family mpls; } }
  6. 6. LDP Configuration <ul><li>Once LDP is turned on on all the routers, the protocol automatically builds multipoint-to-point LSPs, each ending on a different router in the network. </li></ul>btm@lab:Batam> show ldp interface Interface Label space ID Nbr count Next hello lo0.4 192.168.4.1:0 1 0 em1.7 192.168.4.1:0 1 4 em1.10 192.168.4.1:0 1 2 em1.90 192.168.4.1:0 1 1 smg@lab:Semarang> show ldp interface Interface Label space ID Nbr count Next hello em1.0 192.168.16.1:0 1 1 em1.3 192.168.16.1:0 1 0 em1.11 192.168.16.1:0 1 4 em2.1 192.168.16.1:0 1 0 em2.7 192.168.16.1:0 1 3 lo0.16 192.168.16.1:0 0 0
  7. 7. LDP Configuration <ul><li>You see that each LDP interface is operational and has learned about one neighbor. </li></ul>btm@lab:Batam> show ldp session Address State Connection Hold time 192.168.8.1 Operational Open 20 192.168.16.1 Operational Open 20 192.168.20.1 Operational Open 20 smg@lab:Semarang> show ldp session Address State Connection Hold time 192.168.4.1 Operational Open 27 192.168.8.1 Operational Open 27 192.168.12.1 Operational Open 27 192.168.24.1 Operational Open 27 192.168.36.1 Operational Open 27
  8. 8. LDP Configuration <ul><li>Use the detail form of this command to see the session parameters: (omitted) </li></ul>jkt@lab:Jakarta> show ldp session detail Address: 192.168.4.1, State: Operational, Connection: Open, Hold time: 21 Session ID: 192.168.8.1:0--192.168.4.1:0 Next keepalive in 1 seconds Active, Maximum PDU: 4096, Hold time: 30, Neighbor count: 1 Neighbor types: discovered Keepalive interval: 10, Connect retry interval: 1 Local address: 192.168.8.1, Remote address: 192.168.4.1 Up for 05:31:12 Local - Restart: disabled, Helper mode: enabled Remote - Restart: disabled, Helper mode: enabled Local maximum recovery time: 240000 msec Nonstop routing state: Not in sync Next-hop addresses received: 10.0.7.1 10.0.10.1 10.0.90.1 192.168.4.1 100.100.100.1
  9. 9. RSVP Configuration <ul><li>We’ll setup RSVP from Batam to Ambon </li></ul>
  10. 10. RSVP Configuration 1. Configure the interface to support the MPLS family btm@lab:Batam> show configuration interfaces em1 { unit 7 { vlan-id 7; family inet { address 10.0.7.1/30; } family mpls; } unit 10 { vlan-id 10; family inet { address 10.0.10.1/30; } family mpls; } unit 90 { vlan-id 90; family inet { address 10.0.90.1/30; } family mpls; } unit 100 { vlan-id 100; family inet { address 100.100.100.1/30; } } }
  11. 11. RSVP Configuration 2. Turn on RSVP as the signalling protocol 3. On the transit and egress routers, turn on MPLS and RSVP in a similar fashion. e.g : Surabaya as the Egress Router btm@lab:Batam> show configuration protocols rsvp { interface all; } sby@lab:Surabaya> show configuration protocols rsvp { interface all; } mpls { interface all; }
  12. 12. RSVP Configuration 4. Finally set up a return LSP from Ingress to Egress so that the LSP is bidirectional and traffic can travel from the egress router back to the ingress router: 5. Use show mpls lsp command to confirm configuration on Ingress, Transit, and Egress router. btm@lab:Batam> show configuration protocols mpls label-switched-path Batam-to-Ambon { to 192.168.48.1; no-cspf; } btm@lab:Batam> show mpls lsp ingress Ingress LSP: 1 sessions To From State Rt ActivePath P LSPname 192.168.48.1 192.168.4.1 Up 0 * Batam-to-Ambon Total 1 displayed, Up 1, Down 0 smg@lab:Semarang> show mpls lsp transit Transit LSP: 1 sessions To From State Rt Style Labelin Labelout LSPname 192.168.48.1 192.168.4.1 Up 1 1 FF 100288 100288 Batam-to-Ambon Total 1 displayed, Up 1, Down 0 sby@lab:Surabaya> show mpls lsp transit Transit LSP: 1 sessions To From State Rt Style Labelin Labelout LSPname 192.168.48.1 192.168.4.1 Up 1 1 FF 100288 3 Batam-to-Ambon Total 1 displayed, Up 1, Down 0 amb@lab:Ambon> show mpls lsp egress Egress LSP: 1 sessions To From State Rt Style Labelin Labelout LSPname 192.168.48.1 192.168.4.1 Up 0 1 FF 3 - Batam-to-Ambon Total 1 displayed, Up 1, Down 0
  13. 13. RSVP Configuration <ul><li>Installing LSPs into the Unicast Routing Table ( inet.0 ) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Before </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Use traffic-engineering bgp-igp or installing additional prefixes per LSP with install prefix active </li></ul>btm@lab:Batam> show route 192.168.48.1 inet.0: 37 destinations, 37 routes (36 active, 0 holddown, 1 hidden) + = Active Route, - = Last Active, * = Both 192.168.48.1/32 *[OSPF/10] 00:00:53, metric 3 > to 10.0.7.2 via em1.7 to 10.0.10.2 via em1.10 inet.3: 11 destinations, 13 routes (10 active, 0 holddown, 2 hidden) + = Active Route, - = Last Active, * = Both 192.168.48.1/32 *[RSVP/7] 00:00:08, metric 3 > to 10.0.10.2 via em1.10, label-switched-path Batam-to-Ambon [LDP/9] 00:00:07, metric 1 > to 10.0.10.2 via em1.10, label-switched-path Batam-to-Ambon btm@lab:Batam> show configuration protocols mpls traffic-engineering bgp-igp ; label-switched-path Batam-to-Ambon { to 192.168.48.1; no-cspf; }
  14. 14. RSVP Configuration <ul><li>After installing LSP into the Unicast Routing Table </li></ul><ul><li>While performs traceroute, mpls label will be appeared </li></ul>btm@lab:Batam> show route 192.168.48.1 inet.0: 37 destinations, 48 routes (36 active, 0 holddown, 1 hidden) + = Active Route, - = Last Active, * = Both 192.168.48.1/32 *[RSVP/7] 00:27:22, metric 3 > to 10.0.7.2 via em1.7, label-switched-path Batam-to-Ambon [LDP/9] 00:27:22, metric 1 > to 10.0.7.2 via em1.7, label-switched-path Batam-to-Ambon [OSPF/10] 00:27:27, metric 3 > to 10.0.7.2 via em1.7 to 10.0.10.2 via em1.10 btm@lab:Batam> traceroute 192.168.48.1 traceroute to 192.168.48.1 (192.168.48.1), 30 hops max, 40 byte packets 1 SMG (10.0.7.2) 2.153 ms 0.703 ms 0.798 ms MPLS Label= 100320 CoS=0 TTL=1 S=1 2 SBY (10.0.0.2) 1.048 ms 0.995 ms 1.007 ms MPLS Label= 100320 CoS=0 TTL=1 S=1 3 AMB (192.168.48.1) 1.377 ms 1.401 ms 1.442 ms
  15. 15. Placing Routing constraints on RSVP <ul><li>Using Bandwidth Reservation </li></ul><ul><li>Using Named-Path </li></ul><ul><li>Using Explicit Route Object </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Strict : Must be directly attached to previous hop </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Loose : Not always be adjacencied </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Allowing IGP traffic to use an LSP </li></ul><ul><ul><li>As a next-hop in static route </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Configure OSPF or IS-IS so that the LSP is advertised into the IGP </li></ul></ul>
  16. 16. Placing Routing constraints on RSVP <ul><li>Using Bandwidth Reservation </li></ul><ul><li>Verifying bandwidth on an LSP </li></ul>btm@lab:Batam> show configuration protocols mpls traffic-engineering bgp-igp; label-switched-path Batam-to-Ambon { to 192.168.48.1; ldp-tunneling; bandwidth 500m ; no-cspf; } btm@lab:Batam> show rsvp interface RSVP interface: 4 active Active Subscr- Static Available Reserved Highwater Interface State resv iption BW BW BW mark em1.7 Up 1 100% 1000Mbps 500Mbps 500Mbps 500Mbps em1.90 Up 0 100% 1000Mbps 1000Mbps 0bps 500Mbps smg@lab:Semarang> show rsvp interface RSVP interface: 5 active Active Subscr- Static Available Reserved Highwater Interface State resv iption BW BW BW mark em1.0 Up 1 100% 1000Mbps 500Mbps 500Mbps 500Mbps em1.11 Up 0 100% 1000Mbps 1000Mbps 0bps 0bps em2.1 Up 0 100% 1000Mbps 1000Mbps 0bps 500Mbps sby@lab:Surabaya> show rsvp interface RSVP interface: 5 active Active Subscr- Static Available Reserved Highwater Interface State resv iption BW BW BW mark em1.8 Up 1 100% 1000Mbps 500Mbps 500Mbps 500Mbps em1.9 Up 0 100% 1000Mbps 1000Mbps 0bps 0bps em2.0 Up 0 100% 1000Mbps 1000Mbps 0bps 500Mbps
  17. 17. Using naming path with ERO <ul><li>We’ll setup Primary and Secondary path from Batam to Ambon </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Path Shortest  this will be the Secondary </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Will traverse along Batam – Semarang – Surabaya – Ambon </li></ul></ul>
  18. 18. Using naming path with ERO <ul><ul><li>Path Furthest  this will be the Primary </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Will traverse along Furthest Path : </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Batam – Jakarta – Bandung – Denpasar – Surabaya – Semarang – Banjarmasin – Pontianak – Balikpapan – Ambon </li></ul></ul>
  19. 19. Using naming path with ERO <ul><ul><li>Defining path Shortest : </li></ul></ul>btm@lab:Batam> show configuration protocols mpls traffic-engineering bgp-igp; label-switched-path Batam-to-Ambon { to 192.168.48.1; bandwidth 500m; no-cspf; } path Shortest { 192.168.16.1 loose; // Semarang 192.168.36.1 loose; // Surabaya }
  20. 20. Using naming path with ERO <ul><ul><li>Defining path Furthest : </li></ul></ul>btm@lab:Batam> show configuration protocols mpls path Furthest { 10.0.90.2 strict; // Jakarta 10.0.80.2 strict; // Bandung 10.0.70.2 strict; // Denpasar 10.0.60.2 strict; // Makasar 10.0.9.1 strict; // Surabaya 10.0.0.1 strict; // Semarang 10.0.1.1 strict; // Banjarmasin 10.0.5.1 strict; // Pontianak 10.0.20.2 strict; // Balikpapan 10.0.30.2 strict; // Ambon }
  21. 21. Using naming path with ERO <ul><ul><li>Named Path configuration </li></ul></ul>btm@lab:Batam> show configuration protocols mpls label-switched-path Batam-to-Ambon { to 192.168.48.1; bandwidth 500m; no-cspf; primary Furthest; secondary Shortest; } path Shortest { 192.168.16.1 loose; 192.168.36.1 loose; } path Furthest { 10.0.90.2 strict; 10.0.80.2 strict; 10.0.70.2 strict; 10.0.60.2 strict; 10.0.9.1 strict; 10.0.0.1 strict; 10.0.1.1 strict; 10.0.5.1 strict; 10.0.20.2 strict; 10.0.30.2 strict; }
  22. 22. Using naming path with ERO <ul><ul><li>Traceroute result </li></ul></ul>btm@lab:Batam> traceroute 192.168.48.1 traceroute to 192.168.48.1 (192.168.48.1), 30 hops max, 40 byte packets 1 JKT (10.0.90.2) 0.758 ms 0.827 ms 0.510 ms MPLS Label=100368 CoS=0 TTL=1 S=1 2 BDG (10.0.80.2) 1.042 ms 1.521 ms 0.965 ms MPLS Label=100208 CoS=0 TTL=1 S=1 3 DPS (10.0.70.2) 1.523 ms 1.341 ms 1.459 ms MPLS Label=100192 CoS=0 TTL=1 S=1 4 MKS (10.0.60.2) 1.771 ms 2.494 ms 4.011 ms MPLS Label=100192 CoS=0 TTL=1 S=1 5 SBY (10.0.9.1) 1.605 ms 2.153 ms 1.700 ms MPLS Label=100336 CoS=0 TTL=1 S=1 6 SMG (10.0.0.1) 1.749 ms 1.795 ms 1.783 ms MPLS Label=100336 CoS=0 TTL=1 S=1 7 BJM (10.0.1.1) 3.818 ms 2.259 ms 5.182 ms MPLS Label=100192 CoS=0 TTL=1 S=1 8 PON (10.0.5.1) 2.363 ms 2.252 ms 2.221 ms MPLS Label=100448 CoS=0 TTL=1 S=1 9 BPP (10.0.20.2) 3.291 ms 3.385 ms 4.967 ms MPLS Label=100320 CoS=0 TTL=1 S=1 10 AMB (192.168.48.1) 4.495 ms 4.450 ms 4.498 ms
  23. 23. Allowing IGP traffic to use an LSP <ul><ul><li>As a next-hop in static route </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>After we created LSP, next task is to make sure that all traffic destined to Ambon travels through the LSP we have created. We have to specify all LSP bound-traffic use the LSP as the next-hop and allow all forwarding decisions. </li></ul></ul>btm@lab:Batam> show configuration routing-options static { route 192.168.48.1/32 { lsp-next-hop Batam-to-Ambon; } } btm@lab:Batam> show route 192.168.48.1 inet.0: 37 destinations, 49 routes (36 active, 0 holddown, 1 hidden) + = Active Route, - = Last Active, * = Both 192.168.48.1/32 *[Static/5] 00:00:11 > to 10.0.90.2 via em1.90, label-switched-path Batam-to-Ambon
  24. 24. Allowing IGP traffic to use an LSP <ul><ul><li>Configure OSPF or IS-IS so that the LSP is advertised into the IGP </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>We want to configure OSPF so they can also use the LSPs on the ingress router. </li></ul></ul>btm@lab:Batam> show configuration protocols ospf area 0.0.0.0 { interface all; interface em1.100 { disable; } label-switched-path Batam-to-Ambon; } btm@lab:Batam> show route 192.168.48.1 inet.0: 37 destinations, 49 routes (36 active, 0 holddown, 1 hidden) + = Active Route, - = Last Active, * = Both 192.168.48.1/32 *[Static/5] 00:03:04 > to 10.0.90.2 via em1.90, label-switched-path Batam-to-Ambon [OSPF/10] 00:00:06, metric 1 > to 10.0.90.2 via em1.90, label-switched-path Batam-to-Ambon
  25. 25. Label Stacking : LDP Tunneling <ul><ul><li>We’ll use LDP through an RSVP network </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>JuOS software permits the establishment of an LDP session across an RSVP network by tunneling the LDP traffic within RSVP-based LSPs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>It requires 2 RSVP signaled LSP to exist between the LDP neighbors  one in each direction </li></ul></ul>
  26. 26. Label Stacking : LDP Tunneling <ul><ul><li>Current LDP session on Batam </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Current LDP session on Ambon </li></ul></ul>btm@lab:Batam> show ldp session Address State Connection Hold time 192.168.8.1 Operational Open 29 192.168.16.1 Operational Open 29 192.168.20.1 Operational Open 29 amb@lab:Ambon> show ldp session Address State Connection Hold time 192.168.32.1 Operational Open 23 192.168.36.1 Operational Open 23 192.168.44.1 Operational Open 23
  27. 27. Label Stacking : LDP Tunneling <ul><ul><li>Enabling LDP Tunneling on Batam’s LSP </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Enabling LDP Tunneling on Ambon’s LSP </li></ul></ul>btm@lab:Batam> show configuration protocols mpls label-switched-path Batam-to-Ambon { to 192.168.48.1; ldp-tunneling; bandwidth 500m; no-cspf; primary Furthest; secondary Shortest; } amb@lab:Ambon> show configuration protocols mpls label-switched-path Ambon-to-Batam { to 192.168.4.1; ldp-tunneling; no-cspf; }
  28. 28. Label Stacking : LDP Tunneling <ul><ul><li>After LDP Tunneling configured on Batam </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>After LDP Tunneling configured on Ambon </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>At this point, the LDP neighbor relationship is formed and the routers exchange LDP initialization messages, as displayed on LDP session at each routers. </li></ul></ul>btm@lab:Batam> show ldp session Address State Connection Hold time 192.168.8.1 Operational Open 20 192.168.16.1 Operational Open 20 192.168.20.1 Operational Open 20 192.168.48.1 Operational Open 26 amb@lab:Ambon> show ldp session Address State Connection Hold time 192.168.4.1 Operational Open 25 192.168.32.1 Operational Open 24 192.168.36.1 Operational Open 25 192.168.44.1 Operational Open 23
  29. 29. LSP and Routing Table Integration <ul><ul><li>Mapping BGP next-hops to LSPs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Routes associated with signaled LSPs are installed in the inet.3 routing table </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Only BGP can view the contents of inet.3 </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>BGP tries to resolve its next hop through LSPs in the inet.3 </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>BGP installs an LSP as the physical next-hop for transit destinations </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Internal destinations aren’t associated with a BGP next-hop and therefore don’t LSPs by default </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>BGP first look in inet.3 table when attempting to resolve the BGP next-hop associated with given prefix </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>We’ll demonstrate how BGP install next-hop from inet.3 table </li></ul></ul>
  30. 30. LSP and Routing Table Integration <ul><ul><li>Route Resolution Example </li></ul></ul>
  31. 31. LSP and Routing Table Integration <ul><ul><li>We begin by examining how traffic is forwarded to the 118.96.0/16 from the perspective of ASN 17974 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>118.96.0/16 is being learned by Ambon router through EBGP session to Hongkong, Jakarta router then learns about 118.96.0/16 through its IBGP session to Ambon, Jakarta installs prefix 118.96.0/16 then readvertises it to the Singapore router, using EBGP session. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>In this example. Routers in Singapore begin sending traffic to 118.96.0/16 prefixes through Batam, when this transit traffic arrives at the Batam router, it must decide how to forward this transit traffic to 118.98.0/16 </li></ul></ul>
  32. 32. LSP and Routing Table Integration <ul><ul><li>BGP configuration in Batam </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>BGP configuration in Ambon </li></ul></ul>btm@lab:Batam> show configuration protocols bgp group EBGP-to-SG { type external; local-address 100.100.100.1; peer-as 4657; local-as 7713; neighbor 100.100.100.2; } group IBGP { type internal; local-address 192.168.4.1; neighbor 192.168.48.1; } amb@lab:Ambon> show configuration protocols bgp group EBGP-to-HK { type external; local-address 200.200.200.1; peer-as 38154; local-as 7713; neighbor 200.200.200.2; } group IBGP { type internal; local-address 192.168.48.1; neighbor 192.168.4.1; }
  33. 33. LSP and Routing Table Integration <ul><ul><li>Advertisement from Ambon </li></ul></ul>amb@lab:Ambon> show bgp summary Groups: 2 Peers: 2 Down peers: 0 Table Tot Paths Act Paths Suppressed History Damp State Pending inet.0 1 1 0 0 0 0 Peer AS InPkt OutPkt OutQ Flaps Last Up/Dwn State|#Active/Received/Damped... 192.168.4.1 7713 647 655 0 2 4:16:08 0/0/0 0/0/0 200.200.200.2 38154 664 659 0 0 4:56:03 1/1/0 amb@lab:Ambon> show route receive-protocol bgp 200.200.200.2 inet.0: 37 destinations, 48 routes (37 active, 0 holddown, 0 hidden) Prefix Nexthop MED Lclpref AS path * 118.96.0.0/16 200.200.200.2 38154 I inet.3: 2 destinations, 2 routes (0 active, 0 holddown, 2 hidden) mpls.0: 16 destinations, 16 routes (16 active, 0 holddown, 0 hidden) amb@lab:Ambon> show route advertising-protocol bgp 192.168.4.1 inet.0: 37 destinations, 48 routes (37 active, 0 holddown, 0 hidden) Prefix Nexthop MED Lclpref AS path * 118.96.0.0/16 200.200.200.2 100 38154 I 0/0/0
  34. 34. LSP and Routing Table Integration <ul><ul><li>What Batam sees </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>No route received, thus no BGP route installed, why? </li></ul></ul>btm@lab:Batam> show bgp summary Groups: 2 Peers: 2 Down peers: 0 Table Tot Paths Act Paths Suppressed History Damp State Pending inet.0 1 0 0 0 0 0 Peer AS InPkt OutPkt OutQ Flaps Last Up/Dwn State|#Active/Received/Damped... 100.100.100.2 4657 576 579 0 2 4:18:34 0/0/0 0/0/0 192.168.48.1 7713 576 575 0 2 4:18:34 0/1/0 0/0/0 btm@lab:Batam> show route receive-protocol bgp 192.168.48.1 inet.0: 37 destinations, 49 routes (36 active, 0 holddown, 1 hidden) mpls.0: 16 destinations, 16 routes (16 active, 0 holddown, 0 hidden)
  35. 35. LSP and Routing Table Integration <ul><ul><li>Unusable next-hop </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Batam router can not resolve it’s next-hop (200.200.200.2) </li></ul></ul>btm@lab:Batam> show route 118.96.0.0/16 all extensive inet.0: 37 destinations, 49 routes (36 active, 0 holddown, 1 hidden) 118.96.0.0/16 (1 entry, 0 announced) BGP Preference: 170/-101 Next hop type: Unusable Next-hop reference count: 1 State: <Hidden Int Ext> Local AS: 7713 Peer AS: 7713 Age: 4:20:12 Task: BGP_7713.192.168.48.1+51648 AS path: 38154 I Localpref: 100 Router ID: 192.168.48.1 Indirect next hops: 1 Protocol next hop: 200.200.200.2 Indirect next hop: 0 -
  36. 36. LSP and Routing Table Integration <ul><ul><li>Typical solutions, by using next-hop self </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Resolved, from Batam router, next-hop is 192.168.48.1 </li></ul></ul>amb@lab:Ambon> show configuration policy-options policy-statement nhs { then { next-hop self ; } } amb@lab:Ambon> show configuration protocols bgp group IBGP type internal; local-address 192.168.48.1; export nhs; neighbor 192.168.4.1; btm@lab:Batam> show route 118.96.0/16 inet.0: 37 destinations, 37 routes (37 active, 0 holddown, 0 hidden) + = Active Route, - = Last Active, * = Both 118.96.0.0/16 *[BGP/170] 00:04:09, localpref 100, from 192.168.48.1 AS path: 38154 I to 10.0.7.2 via em1.7 > to 10.0.10.2 via em1.10
  37. 37. LSP and Routing Table Integration <ul><ul><li>LSP configured Batam-to-Ambon </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Prefix 192.168.48.1 installed in inet.3, lowest preference wins, but BGP will use information in table inet.3 </li></ul></ul>btm@lab:Batam> show configuration protocols mpls label-switched-path Batam-to-Ambon { to 192.168.48.1 no-cspf; } btm@lab:Batam> show route 192.168.48.1 inet.0: 37 destinations, 37 routes (37 active, 0 holddown, 0 hidden) + = Active Route, - = Last Active, * = Both 192.168.48.1/32 *[OSPF/10] 00:00:05, metric 3 to 10.0.7.2 via em1.7 > to 10.0.10.2 via em1.10 inet.3: 1 destinations, 1 routes (1 active, 0 holddown, 0 hidden) + = Active Route, - = Last Active, * = Both 192.168.48.1/32 *[RSVP/7] 00:03:21, metric 3 > to 10.0.90.2 via em1.90, label-switched-path Batam-to-Ambon
  38. 38. LSP and Routing Table Integration <ul><ul><li>BGP installs LSP as next-hop </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The results of BGP next-hop resolution through the inet.3 table results in the Batam-to-Ambon LSP being installed as the forwarding next-hop for traffic associated with 118.96.0/16 prefix. </li></ul></ul>btm@lab:Batam> show route 118.96.0.0/16 inet.0: 37 destinations, 37 routes (37 active, 0 holddown, 0 hidden) + = Active Route, - = Last Active, * = Both 118.96.0.0/16 *[BGP/170] 00:00:35, localpref 100, from 192.168.48.1 AS path: 38154 I > to 10.0.90.2 via em1.90, label-switched-path Batam-to-Ambon
  39. 39. LSP and Routing Table Integration <ul><ul><li>What actually happened ? </li></ul></ul>btm@lab:Batam> show route table inet.3 detail inet.3: 1 destinations, 1 routes (1 active, 0 holddown, 0 hidden) 192.168.48.1/32 (1 entry, 1 announced) State: <FlashAll> *RSVP Preference: 7 Next hop type: Router, Next hop index: 1058 Next-hop reference count: 7 Next hop: 10.0.90.2 via em1.90 weight 0x1, selected Label-switched-path Batam-to-Ambon Label operation: Push 100560 State: <Active Int> Local AS: 7713 Age: 6:26 Metric: 3 Task: RSVP Announcement bits (1): 3-Resolve tree 2 AS path: I
  40. 40. LSP and Routing Table Integration <ul><ul><li>Ingress Resolves BGP next-hop </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>BGP performs recursive lookup to resolve BGP next hop </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>BGP also looks in the inet.3 MPLS routing table </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>BGP looks in the inet.0 IP routing table </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>BGP selects route with lowest preference </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>btm@lab:Batam> show route 192.168.48.1 inet.0: 37 destinations, 37 routes (37 active, 0 holddown, 0 hidden) + = Active Route, - = Last Active, * = Both 192.168.48.1/32 *[OSPF/10] 00:16:38, metric 3 to 10.0.7.2 via em1.7 > to 10.0.10.2 via em1.10 inet.3: 1 destinations, 1 routes (1 active, 0 holddown, 0 hidden) + = Active Route, - = Last Active, * = Both 192.168.48.1/32 *[ RSVP/7] 00:11:29, metric 3 > to 10.0.90.2 via em1.90, label-switched-path Batam-to-Ambon

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