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Introduction to MPLS 
Santanu Dasgupta 
santanu@cisco.com
Goals of this Session 
 Understand history and business drivers for MPLS 
 Learn about MPLS customer and market segments 
 Understand the problems MPLS is addressing 
 Understand benefits of deploying MPLS 
 Understand the major MPLS technology 
components 
 Learn the basics of MPLS technology 
 Understand typical applications of MPLS 
© 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. 2
The Big Picture 
End-to-end MPLS VPN Services 
End-to-end Services 
MPLS in Core Network 
Layer-3 VPNs Layer-2 VPNs 
Edge 
End-to-end MPLS-enabled 
Services 
MPLS Network Services 
MPLS Network Services 
MPLS QoS MPLS TE MPLS OAM/MIBs 
Layer-3 VPNs Layer-2 VPNs 
MPLS Signaling and Forwarding 
Core MPLS 
MPLS QoS MPLS TE MPLS OAM/MIBs 
MPLS Signaling and Forwarding 
MPLS Signaling and Forwarding 
Network Infrastructure 
© 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. 3 
Edge 
Edge 
Edge 
Edge 
Core 
Core 
Core 
Core 
Edge 
Edge Edge 
Network Infrastructure
© 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. 4 
Agenda 
 Introduction 
 MPLS Network Components 
 MPLS VPNs 
MPLS Layer-3 VPNs 
MPLS Layer-2 VPNs 
 MPLS QoS 
 MPLS Traffic Engineering 
 MPLS Management 
 Summary 
Core MPLS 
End-to-end MPLS 
Services 
MPLS Network 
Services
Introduction 
The business drivers for MPLS 
Presentation_ID © 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 5
Why Multi Protocol Label Switching? 
 SP/Carrier perspective 
Reduce costs (CAPEX); consolidate networks 
Consolidated network for multiple Layer-2/3 services 
Support increasingly stringent SLAs 
Handle increasing scale/complexity of IP-based services 
 Enterprise/end-user perspective 
© 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. 6 
Campus/LAN 
Need for network segmentation (users, applications, 
etc.) 
WAN connectivity (connecting enterprise networks) 
Need for easier configuration of site-to-site WAN 
connectivity
What Is MPLS Technology? 
 It’s all about labels … 
 Use the best of both worlds 
Layer-2 (ATM/FR): efficient forwarding and traffic engineering 
Layer-3 (IP): flexible and scalable 
 MPLS forwarding plane 
Use of labels for forwarding Layer-2/3 data traffic 
Labeled packets are being switched instead of routed 
Leverage layer-2 forwarding efficiency 
 MPLS control/signaling plane 
Use of existing IP control protocols extensions + new 
protocols to exchange label information 
Leverage layer-3 control protocol flexibility and scalability 
© 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. 7
Evolution of MPLS 
 Evolved from tag switching in 1996 to full IETF 
standard, covering over 130 RFCs 
 Key application initially were Layer-3 VPNs, followed 
by Traffic Engineering (TE), and Layer-2 VPNs 
© 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. 8
MPLS Applications 
For your 
reference 
only 
VPN’s / VRF’s 
VRF Aware Security 
High Availability 
© 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. 9 
• 
• 
• 
• 
• 
EWAN 
Edge 
Service 
Providers 
Enterprise Data 
Center 
Data center 
interconnects 
L2/L3VPN’s 
TE/FRR 
QoS 
High Availability 
VPN’s / VRF’s 
VRF-Aware Security 
High Availability 
Hosted Data centers 
Data center 
interconnect 
Segmentation for IT 
Mergers, 
Acquisitions, spinoffs 
Applications Key Features 
Departmental 
segmentation 
Service multiplexing 
Security 
Mergers, Acquisitions, 
spinoffs 
Disaster Recovery 
Vmotion support 
Branch Interconnects 
Internet Access 
Branch Connectivity 
VPN’s 
TE/FRR 
High Availability 
• Network Consolidation – Merging Multiple parallel network into a shared infrastructure 
• Network segmentation – By user groups or business function 
• Service and policy centralization – Security policies and appliances at a central location 
• New applications readiness – Converged multi-service network 
• Increased network security – User groups segmentation with VPNs
Enterprise MPLS Customers 
 Two types of enterprise customers for MPLS 
technology 
 MPLS indirectly used as subscribed WAN service 
Enterprise subscribes to WAN connectivity data service 
offered by external Service Provider 
Data connectivity service implemented by Service Provider 
via MPLS VPN technology (e.g., layer-2 and layer-3 VPNs) 
VPN Service can be managed or unmanaged 
 MPLS used as part of self managed network 
Enterprise deploys MPLS in it’s own network 
Enterprise manages it’s own MPLS-based network 
© 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. 10
MPLS Technology Framework 
End-to-end Services 
Layer-3 VPNs Layer-2 VPNs 
MPLS Network Services 
MPLS QoS MPLS TE MPLS OAM/MIBs 
Core MPLS 
MPLS Signaling and Forwarding 
Network Infrastructure 
© 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. 11
MPLS Technology Components 
Basic building blocks of MPLS 
Presentation_ID © 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 12
MPLS Forwarding and Signaling 
 MPLS label forwarding and signaling mechanisms 
Layer-3 VPNs Layer-2 VPNs 
MPLS QoS MPLS TE MPLS OAM/MIBs 
Core MPLS 
MPLS Signaling and Forwarding 
Network Infrastructure 
© 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. 13
Basic Building Blocks 
© 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. 14 
 The big picture 
MPLS-enabled network devices 
Label Switched Paths (LSPs) 
 The internals 
MPLS labels 
Processing of MPLS labels 
Exchange of label mapping information 
Forwarding of labeled packets 
 Other related protocols and protocols to exchange 
label information 
Between MPLS-enabled devices
MPLS Network Overview 
MPLS Domain 
CE 
CE 
 P (Provider) router = label switching router = core router (LSR) 
PE 
© 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. 15 
Switches MPLS-labeled packets 
 PE (Provider Edge) router = edge router (LSR) 
Imposes and removes MPLS labels 
 CE (Customer Edge) router 
Connects customer network to MPLS network 
CE 
CE 
Label switched traffic 
P 
P 
P 
P 
PE 
PE PE
MPLS Label and Label Encapsulation 
MPLS Label 
0 1 2 3 
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 
Label # – 20bits EXP S TTL-8bits 
COS/EXP = Class of Service: 3 Bits; S = Bottom of Stack; TTL = Time to Live 
MPLS Label Encapsulation 
PPP Header Label Layer 2/L3 Packet PPP Header 
© 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. 16 
(Packet over SONET/SDH) 
One or More Labels Appended to the Packet 
(Between L2/L3 packet header and link layer header) 
LAN MAC Label Header MAC Header Label Layer 2/L3 Packet
MPLS Label Operations 
Label Swap 
Label Swap 
Label Disposition (PoP) 
L3 
© 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. 17 
Label Imposition (Push) 
 Label imposition (Push) 
By ingress PE router; classify and label packets 
 Label swapping or switching 
By P router; forward packets using labels; indicates service class & destination 
 Label disposition (PoP) 
By egress PE router; remove label and forward original packet to destination CE 
CE 
CE 
CE 
CE 
P P PE 
PE 
PE 
L1 
L2/L3 Packet 
L1 L2 
P 
L2 L3 
PE 
P
Forwarding Equivalence Class 
 Mechanism to map ingress layer-2/3 packets onto a Label 
Switched Path (LSP) by ingress PE router 
Part of label imposition (Push) operation 
 Variety of FEC mappings possible 
IP prefix/host address 
Groups of addresses/sites (VPN x) 
© 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. 18 
Used for L3VPNs 
Layer 2 circuit ID (ATM, FR, PPP, HDLC, Ethernet) 
Used for Pseudowires (L2VPNs) 
A bridge/switch instance (VSI) 
Used for VPLS (L2VPNs) 
Tunnel interface 
Used for MPLS traffic engineering (TE)
Label Distribution Protocol 
 MPLS nodes need to exchange label information with each other 
Ingress PE node (Push operation) 
Needs to know what label to use for a given FEC to send packet to neighbor 
Core P node (Swap operation) 
Needs to know what label to use for swap operation for incoming labeled packets 
Egress PE node (Pop operation) 
Needs to tell upstream neighbor what label to use for specific FEC type LDP used for 
exchange of label (mapping) information 
 Label Distribution Protocol (LDP) 
Defined in RFC 3035 and RFC3036; updated by RFC5036 
LDP is a superset of the Cisco-specific Tag Distribution Protocol 
 Note that, in addition LDP, also other protocols are being used for 
label information exchange 
Will be discussed later 
© 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. 19
Some More LDP Details 
 Assigns, distributes, and installs (in forwarding) labels for 
prefixes advertised by unicast routing protocols 
OSPF, IS-IS, EIGRP, etc. 
 Also used for Pseudowire/PW (VC) signaling 
Used for L2VPN control plane signaling 
 Uses UDP (port 646) for session discovery and TCP (port 
646) for exchange of LDP messages 
 LDP operations 
LDP Peer Discovery 
LDP Session Establishment 
MPLS Label Allocation, Distribution, and Updating MPLS 
forwarding 
 Information repositories used by LDP 
LIB: Label Information Database (read/write) 
RIB: Routing Information Database/routing table (read-only) 
For your 
reference 
only 
© 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. 20
LDP Operations 
 LDP startup 
LDP Control Plane MPLS Node A 
RIB 
LIB 
© 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. 21 
Local labels 
assigned to RIB 
prefixes and 
stored in LIB 
Peer discovery 
and session setup 
Exchange of 
MPLS label 
bindings 
 Programming of 
MPLS forwarding 
Based on LIB info 
CEF/MFI updates 
MPLS Node B 
Session Setup 
Label Binding 
Exchange 
MPLS 
Forwarding 
CEF/MFI 
MPLS 
Forwarding 
CEF/MFI 
LDP Interactions 
with 
MPLS Forwarding 
LIB 
RIB
MPLS Control and Forwarding Plane 
 MPLS control plane 
Used for distributing labels 
and building label-switched 
paths (LSPs) 
Typically supported by LDP; 
also supported via RSVP and 
BGP 
Labels define destination 
and service 
 MPLS forwarding plane 
Used for label imposition, 
swapping, and disposition 
Independent of type of control 
plane 
Labels separate forwarding 
from IP address-based routing 
RIB 
LIB 
Routing 
Updates/ 
Adjacencies 
MFI 
MPLS Traffic 
Forwarding 
Routing 
Process 
MPLS 
Process 
FIB 
Label Binding 
Updates/ 
Adjacencies 
IP Traffic 
Forwarding 
© 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. 22
IP Packet Forwarding Example 
Address 
Prefix I/F 
0 
1 
Address 
Prefix I/F 
0 
128.89 
171.69 
128.89 
171.69 
© 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. 23 
1 
128.89 
171.69 
Address 
Prefix I/F 
128.89 
171.69 
… 
128.89.25.4 Data 
128.89.25.4 Data 
128.89.25.4 Data 
128.89.25.4 Data 
1 
1 
Packets Forwarded 
Based on IP Address 
(via RIB lookup) 
… 
0 
1 … 
0 
1 
FIB FIB 
FIB
Step 1: IP Routing (IGP) Convergence 
128.89 
MFI/FIB MFI/FIB MFI/FIB 
171.69 
1 
0 
You Can Reach 128.89 and 
© 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. 24 
1 
In 
Label 
Address 
Prefix 
… 
Out 
I’face 
128.89 1 
171.69 1 
… 
Out 
Label 
In 
Label 
Address 
Prefix 
… 
Out 
I’face 
128.89 0 
171.69 1 
… 
Out 
Label 
In 
Label 
Address 
Prefix 
128.89 
… 
Out 
I’face 
0 
… 
Out 
Label 
0 
You Can Reach 171.69 Thru Me 
171.69 Thru Me 
Routing Updates 
(OSPF, EIGRP, …) 
You Can Reach 128.89 Thru Me
Step 2a: LDP Assigns Local Labels 
MFI/FIB MFI/FIB MFI/FIB 
- 
- 
… … 
1 
128.89 
0 
© 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. 25 
1 
0 
171.69 
In 
Label 
Address 
Prefix 
128.89 
171.69 
… 
Out 
I’face 
1 
1 
… 
Out 
Label 
In 
Label 
Address 
Prefix 
128.89 
171.69 
… 
Out 
I’face 
0 
1 
… 
Out 
Label 
In 
Label 
Address 
Prefix 
128.89 
… 
Out 
I’face 
0 
… 
Out 
Label 
… 
4 
5 
… 
- 
… 
9 
…
Step 2b: LDP Assigns Remote Labels 
MFI/FIB MFI/FIB MFI/FIB 
1 
128.89 
0 
© 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. 26 
1 
0 
Use Label 9 for 128.89 
Use Label 4 for 128.89 and 
Use Label 5 for 171.69 
Label Distribution 
Protocol (LDP) 
(Downstream Allocation) 
Use Label 7 for 171.69 171.69 
In 
Label 
Address 
Prefix 
128.89 
171.69 
… 
Out 
I’face 
1 
1 
… 
Out 
Label 
In 
Label 
Address 
Prefix 
128.89 
171.69 
… 
Out 
I’face 
0 
1 
… 
Out 
Label 
In 
Label 
Address 
Prefix 
128.89 
… 
Out 
I’face 
0 
… 
Out 
Label 
4 
5 
… 
- 
- 
… 
9 
7 
… 
4 
5 
… 
- 
… 
9 
…
Step 3: Forwarding MPLS Packets 
MFI/FIB MFI/FIB MFI/FIB 
1 
0 
0 128.89 
© 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. 27 
1 
128.89.25.4 Data 4 128.89.25.4 Data 
9 128.89.25.4 Data 
Label Switch Forwards 
Based on Label 
128.89.25.4 Data 
171.69 
In 
Label 
Address 
Prefix 
128.89 
171.69 
… 
Out 
I’face 
1 
1 
… 
Out 
Label 
In 
Label 
Address 
Prefix 
128.89 
171.69 
… 
Out 
I’face 
0 
1 
… 
Out 
Label 
In 
Label 
Address 
Prefix 
128.89 
… 
Out 
I’face 
0 
… 
Out 
Label 
4 
5 
… 
- 
- 
… 
9 
7 
… 
4 
5 
… 
- 
… 
9 
…
Summary Steps For MPLS Forwarding 
 Each node maintains IP routing information via IGP 
IP routing table (RIB) and IP forwarding table (FIB) 
 LDP leverages IGP routing information 
 LDP label mapping exchange (between MPLS 
nodes) takes place after IGP has converged 
LDP depends on IGP convergence 
Label binding information stored in LIB 
 Once LDP has received remote label binding 
information MPLS forwarding is updated 
Label bindings are received from remote LDP peers 
MPLS forwarding via MFI 
© 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. 28
MPLS Network Protocols 
P 
P 
MP-iBGP 
OSPF, IS-IS, 
EIGRP, EIGRP 
LDP, RSVP 
Label switched traffic 
P 
P 
PE 
 IGP: OSPF, EIGRP, IS-IS on core facing and core links 
 RSVP and/or LDP on core and/or core facing links 
 MP-iBGP on PE devices (for MPLS services) 
© 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. 29 
PE 
PE PE 
CE 
CE 
CE 
CE
Label Stacking 
 More than one label can be used for MPLS packet encapsulation 
Creation of a label stack 
 Recap: labels correspond to Forwarding Equivalence Class 
(FEC) 
Each label in stack used for different purposes 
 Outer label always used for switching MPLS packets in network 
 Remaining inner labels used to specific services/FECs, etc. 
 Last label in stack marked with EOS bit 
 Allows building services such as 
MPLS VPNs; LDP + VPN label 
Traffic engineering (FRR): LDP + TE label 
VPNs over TE core: LDP + TE + VPN label 
Any transport over MPLS: LDP + PW label 
Outer Label 
TE Label 
LDP Label 
VPN Label 
Inner Label 
Layer 2/3 
Packet Header 
© 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. 30
© 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. 31 
Summary 
 MPLS uses labels to forward traffic 
 More than one label can be used for traffic 
encapsulation; multiple labels make up a label stack 
 Traffic is encapsulated with label(s) at ingress and at 
egress labels are removed in MPLS network 
 MPLS network consists of PE router at ingress/egress 
and P routers in the core 
 MPLS control plane used for signaling label mapping 
information to set up end-to-end Label Switched Paths 
 MPLS forwarding plane used for label imposition 
(PUSH), swapping, and disposition (POP) operation
MPLS VPNs 
Overviews 
Presentation_ID © 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 32
MPLS Technology Framework 
 End-to-end data connectivity services across MPLS 
networks (from PE to PE) 
End-to-end Services 
Layer-3 VPNs Layer-2 VPNs 
MPLS QoS MPLS TE MPLS OAM/MIBs 
MPLS Signaling and Forwarding 
Network Infrastructure 
© 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. 33 

What Is a Virtual Private Network? 
 VPN is a set of sites or groups which are allowed to communicate 
with each other in a secure way 
Typically over a shared public or private network infrastructure 
 VPN is defined by a set of administrative policies 
Policies established by VPN customers themselves (DIY) 
Policies implemented by VPN service provider (managed/ 
unmanaged) 
 Different inter-site connectivity schemes possible 
Ranging from complete to partial mesh, hub-and-spoke 
 Sites may be either within the same or in different organizations 
VPN can be either intranet or extranet 
 Site may be in more than one VPN 
© 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. 34 
VPNs may overlap 
 Not all sites have to be connected to the same service provider 
VPN can span multiple providers
MPLS VPN Example 
P 
CE PE 
PE P 
PE 
Label switched traffic 
P 
P 
© 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. 35 
CE 
 PE-CE link 
PE 
Connect customer network to SP network; layer-2 or layer-3 
 VPN 
Dedicated secure connectivity over shared infrastructure 
CE 
CE 
VPN 
PE-CE 
Link 
PE-CE 
Link
MPLS VPN Benefits 
 SP/Carrier perspective 
Reduce costs (CAPEX) 
Leverage same network for multiple services and 
customers 
Migrate legacy networks onto single converged network 
Reduce costs (OPEX) 
Easier service enablement; only edge node configuration 
 Enterprise/end-user perspective 
Enables site/campus network segmentation 
Allows for dedicated connectivity for users, applications, 
etc. 
Enables easier setup of WAN connectivity 
Easier configuration of site-to-site WAN connectivity (for 
L3VPN and VPLS); only one WAN connection needed 
© 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. 36
MPLS VPN Options 
MPLS VPN Models 
Layer-2 VPNs Layer-3 VPNs 
• CPE connected to PE via IP-based connection 
(over any layer-2 type) 
– Static routing 
– PE-CE routing protocol; eBGP, OSPF, IS-IS 
• CEs peer with PE router 
• PE routers maintain customer-specific routing 
tables and exchange customer=specific routing 
information 
• Layer-3 VPN provider’s PE routers are part of 
customer routing 
© 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. 37 
Point-to-Point 
Layer-2 VPNs 
Multi-Point 
Layer-2 VPNs 
• CPE connected to 
PE via p2p Layer-2 
connection (FR, 
ATM) 
• CEs peer with each 
other (IP routing) 
via p2p layer-2 VPN 
connection 
• CE-CE routing; no 
SP involvement 
• CPE connected to 
PE via Ethernet 
connection (VLAN) 
• CEs peer with each 
other via fully/ 
partial mesh Layer-2 
VPN connection 
• CE-CE routing; no 
SP involvement
MPLS Layer-3 VPNs 
Technology Overview and Applications 
Presentation_ID © 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 38
MPLS L3 VPN Overview 
 Customer router (CE) has a IP peering connection 
with PE/edge router in MPLS network 
IP routing/forwarding across PE-CE link 
 MPLS VPN network responsible for distributing 
routing information to remote VPN sites 
MPLS VPN part of customer IP routing domain 
 MPLS VPNs enable full-mesh, hub-and-spoke, and 
hybrid connectivity among connected CE sites 
 MPLS VPN service enablement in MPLS networks 
only requires VPN configuration at edge/PE nodes 
Connectivity in core automatically established via BGP 
signaling 
© 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. 39
MPLS L3 VPN Technology Components 
© 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. 40 
 PE-CE link 
Can be any type of layer-2 connection (e.g., FR, Ethernet) 
CE configured to route IP traffic to/from adjacent PE router 
Variety of routing options; static routes, eBGP, OSPF, IS-IS 
 MPLS L3VPN Control Plane 
Separation of customer routing via virtual VPN routing table 
In PE router: customer I/Fs connected to virtual routing table 
Between PE routers: customer routes exchanged via BGP 
 MPLS L3VPN Forwarding Plane 
Separation of customer VPN traffic via additional VPN label 
VPN label used by receiving PE to identify VPN routing table
Virtual Routing and Forwarding Instance 
VRF Green 
VRF Blue 
VPN 1 
 Virtual Routing and Forwarding Instance (VRF) 
 Typically one VRF created for each customer VPN on PE router 
 VRF associated with one or more customer interfaces 
 VRF has its own instance of routing table (RIB) and forwarding 
table (CEF) 
 VRF has its own instance for PE-CE configured routing protocols 
© 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. 41 
CE 
PE 
CE 
VPN 2 
MPLS Backbone IGP
VPN Route Distribution 
P 
CE PE 
VRF VRF VPN 1 
P 
Label switched traffic 
P 
P 
 Full mesh of BGP sessions among all PE routers 
Multi-Protocol BGP extensions (MP-iBGP) 
Typically BGP Route Reflector (RR) used for improved scalability 
© 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. 42 
PE 
PE PE 
CE 
CE 
CE 
Customer 
Route 
Exchange 
Customer 
Route 
Exchange 
VPN Route Exchange 
BGP RR 
VRF VRF VPN 2 
MP-iBGP Session
VPN Control Plane Processing 
No VPN Routes 
in core (P) nodes 
PE1 P P PE2 CE1 CE2 
ip vrf Green 
RD 1:100 
route-target export 1:100 
route-target import 1:100 
Make customer routes unique: 
 Route Distinguisher (RD): 8-byte field, VRF 
parameters; unique value assigned by a 
provider to each VPN to make different VPN 
routes unique 
 VPNv4 address: RD+VPN IP prefix 
Selective distribute customer routes: 
 Route Target (RT): 8-byte field, VRF 
parameter, unique value to define the import/ 
export rules for VPNv4 routes 
 MP-iBGP: advertises VPNv4* prefixes + labels 
Processing Steps: 
1. CE1 redistribute IPv4 route to PE1 via eBGP. 
2. PE1 allocates VPN label for prefix learnt from 
CE1 to create unique VPNv4 route 
3. PE1 redistributes VPNv4 route into MP-iBGP, it 
sets itself as a next hop and relays VPN site 
routes to PE2 
4. PE2 receives VPNv4 route and, via processing 
in local VRF (green), it redistributes original 
IPv4 route to CE2. 
© 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. 43 
eBGP: 
16.1/16 
IP Subnet 
BGP advertisement: 
VPN-IPv4 Addr = RD:16.1/16 
BGP Next-Hop = PE1 
Route Target = 100:1 
Label=42 eBGP: 
16.1/16 
IP Subnet 
VRF VPN 1 VRF
VPN Forwarding Plane Processing 
VPNv4 IPv4 IPv4 
Label 
VPNv4 
Label 
IPv4 IGP 
Label A VPNv4 
Label 
IPv4 IGP 
Label B IGP 
IPv4 Label C 
PE1 P1 P2 PE2 CE1 CE2 
VRF VPN 1 VRF 
ip vrf Green 
RD 1:100 
route-target export 1:100 
route-target import 1:100 
IPv4 
Packet 
IPv4 
Packet 
Processing Steps: 
1. CE2 forwards IPv4 packet to PE2. 
2. PE2 imposes pre-allocated VPN label (learned via MP-IBGP) to IPv4 packet 
© 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. 44 
received from CE2. 
3. PE2 imposes outer IGP label (learned via LDP) and forwards labeled packet 
to next-hop P-router P2. 
4. P-routers P1 and P2 swap outer IGP label and forward label packet to PE1. 
5. Router PE1 strips VPN label and forwards IPv4 packet to CE1.
Use Case 1: Traffic Separation 
Requirement: Need to ensure data separation between Aerospace, Cosmetics and 
Financial Services, while leveraging a shared infrastructure 
Solution: Create MPLS VPN for each group 
Aerospace Cosmetics Financial Services 
Remote Site 1 
Remote Site 2 
VRF instances 
created for each 
group at the edge 
© 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. 45 
Central site - HQ 
Financial Cosmetics 
Services 
Cosmetics Aerospace 
Remote Site 3 
Aerospace Financial 
Services 
VPN_Fin 
VPN_Fin 
VPN_Fin 
VPN_Cos 
VPN_Cos 
VPN_Cos 
VPN_Aero 
VPN_Aero 
VPN_Aero 
MPLS Backbone
Use Case 2: Simplify Hub Site Design 
Requirement: To ease the scale and design of head-end site 
Solution: Implement MPLS Layer 3 VPNs, which reduces the number of routing 
peers of the central site 
© 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. 46 
Central Site 
Remote Sites 
Central site has high 
number of routing 
peers – creates a 
complicated 
headend design 
Central Site 
Remote Sites 
Central site has 
a single routing 
peer – enhancing 
head-end design 
MPLS Backbone
Enterprise Network Architecture 
For your 
reference 
only 
© 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. 47 
Access 
Distribution 
Core 
Internet
Enterprise Network Segmentation 
For your 
reference 
only 
Distribution Core End-to-end 
Connectivity 
© 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. 48 
VRF-lite + 802.1Q 
VLANs 
VRF lite configured on 
distribution nodes 
VLAN mapping onto 
VRFs 
VRF lite configured on 
core nodes 
802.1Q VLAN ID 
mapping onto VRFs 
Device Separation: VRF 
Data Path Separation: 
802.1Q VLAN ID 
VRF-lite + GRE 
tunnels 
VRF lite configured on 
distribution nodes 
VRFs associated with 
GRE tunnels 
Core nodes forward IP 
packets (GRE IP 
Packets) 
End-to-end GRE tunnels 
between distribution 
nodes 
Layer-3 MPLS 
VPNs 
Distribution nodes 
configured as PE routers 
with VRF(s) 
Core nodes forward 
MPLS packets (via LFIB) 
End-to-end label 
switched paths (LSPs) 
between distribution 
nodes (PE routers)
Option 1: VRF-lite + 802.1Q 
 Layer-2 access 
 No BGP or MPLS 
 VRF-lite configured on core and 
distribution nodes 
 MPLS labels substituted by 
802.1q tags end-to-end 
 Every link is a 802.1Q trunk 
 Many-to-Many model 
 Restricted scalability 
 Typical for department 
inter-connectivity 
v v 
v v 
v 
For your 
reference 
only 
L2 Layer 3 L2 
v 
v 
v 
v 
Multi-VRF 
VPN1 
VPN2 
802.1Q 
© 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. 49
Option 2: VRF-lite + GRE 
 L2 access 
 No BGP or MPLS 
 VRF-lite only configured on 
distribution nodes 
 VLANs associated with end-to-end 
Multi-VRF 
VPN1 
VPN2 
© 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. 50 
GRE Tunnels 
 Many-to-One model 
 Restricted scalability 
 Typical for user-specific VPN 
connectivity 
v v 
v v 
v 
L2 Layer 3 L2 
GRE 
For your 
reference 
only
Option 3: Layer-3 MPLS VPNs 
 L2 access 
 Distribution nodes configured as 
PE routers with VRFs 
 MP-iBGP between distribution 
nodes 
 MPLS packet forwarding by core 
nodes 
 Many-to-Many model 
 High scalability 
v v 
v v 
v 
For your 
reference 
only 
L2 MPLS L2 
VRF 
VPN1 
VPN2 
© 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. 51
MPLS Layer-3 VPN Summary 
 Provide layer-3 connectivity among CE sites via IP 
peering (across PE-CE link) 
 Implemented via VRFs on edge/PE nodes providing 
customer route and forwarding segmentation 
 BGP used for control plane to exchange customer 
VPN (VPNv4) routes between PE routers 
 MPLS VPNs enable full-mesh, hub-and-spoke, and 
hybrid IP connectivity among connected CE sites 
 L3 VPNs for enterprise network segmentation can 
also be implemented via VRFs + GRE tunnels or 
VLANs 
© 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. 52
MPLS Layer-2 VPNs 
Technology Overview and Applications 
Presentation_ID © 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 53
VPLS 
Virtual Private LAN Service 
Point to Multipoint 
MPLS Layer-2 VPNs 
L2VPN Options 
Ethernet 
© 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. 54 
VPWS 
Virtual Private Wire Service 
Point to Point 
L2VPN Models 
L2TPv3 AToM 
IP Core 
Ethernet 
Frame Relay 
ATM (AAL5 and Cell) 
PPP and HDLC 
MPLS Core 
Frame Relay 
ATM (AAL5 and Cell) 
PPP and HDLC 
MPLS Core 
Ethernet 
Any Transport over MPLS: AToM
Layer-2 VPN Overview 
 Enables transport of any Layer-2 
traffic over MPLS network 
Includes label encapsulation 
and translation 
Ethernet 
© 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. 55 
ATM 
PPP HDLC 
FR 
Pseudo Wire 
SP 
Network 
SP 
Interconnection 
PE Router 
PE Router 
Many Subscriber 
Encapsulations 
Supportable
Any Transport over MPLS Architecture 
 Based on IETF’s Pseudo-Wire (PW) Reference Model 
 PW is a connection (tunnel) between 2 PE Devices, which 
connects 2 PW End-Services 
PW connects 2 Attachment Circuits (ACs) 
Bi-directional (for p2p connections) 
Use of PW/VC label for encapsulation 
PWES PSN Tunnel PWES 
Pseudo-Wires 
PWES PWES 
Emulated Layer-2 Service 
© 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. 56 
Customer2 
Site1 
Customer1 
Site1 
Customer1 
Site2 
PE PE 
Customer2 
Site2
AToM Technology Components 
 PE-CE link 
Referred to as Attachment Circuit (AC) 
Can be any type of layer-2 connection (e.g., FR, Ethernet) 
© 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. 57 
 AToM Control Plane 
Targeted LDP (Label Distribution Protocol) Session 
Virtual Connection (VC)-label negotiation, withdrawal, error notification 
 AToM Forwarding Plane 
2 labels used for encapsulation + control word 
Outer tunnel (LDP) label 
To get from ingress to egress PE using MPLS LSP 
Inner de-multiplexer (VC) label 
To identify L2 circuit (packet) encapsulated within tunnel label 
Control word 
Replaces layer-2 header at ingress; used to rebuild layer-2 header at 
egress
AToM Control Plane Processing 
4 Label Mapping Messages 
5 5 
PE1 P P PE2 CE1 CE2 
Processing Steps (for both P1 and P2): 
1. CE1 and CE2 are connected to PE routers via layer-2 connections 
2. Via CLI, a new virtual circuit cross-connect is configured, connecting 
customer interface to manually provided VC ID with target remote PE 
3. New targeted LDP session between PE routers established, in case one 
does not already exist 
4. PE binds VC label with customer layer-2 interface and sends label-mapping 
message to remote PE over LDP session 
5. Remote PE receives LDP label binding message and matches VC ID with 
local configured cross-connect 
© 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. 58 
Layer-2 
Connection 
Layer-2 
Connection 
3 LDP session 
2 2
AToM Forwarding Plane Processing 
L2 Label A VC 
Label 
L2 Label B VC 
Label 
PE1 P1 P2 PE2 CE1 CE2 
Processing Steps: 
1. CE2 forwards layer-2 packet to PE2. 
2. PE2 imposes VC (inner) label to layer-2 packet received from 
CE2 and optionally a control word as well (not shown). 
3. PE2 imposes Tunnel outer label and forwards packet to P2. 
4. P2 and P1 router forwards packet using outer (tunnel) label. 
5. Router PE2 strips Tunnel label and, based on VC label, layer-2 
packet is forwarded to customer interface to CE1, after VC label 
is removed 
In case control word is used, new layer-2 header is generated first. 
© 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. 59 
Layer-2 
Packet 
Layer-2 
Packet 
VC L2 L2 
Label 
Tunnel 
Tunnel 
Tunnel 
L2 Label C
Use Case: L2 Network Interconnect 
Requirement: Need to create connectivity between remote customer sites, currently 
interconnected via Frame Relay WAN connectivity. Only point-to-point connectivity 
required. 
Solution: Interconnect AToM PW between sites, enabling transparent Frame Relay 
WAN connectivity. 
101 10 50 101 10 90 
DLCI 101 DLCI 201 
© 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. 60 
PE1 
MPLS 
Backbone 
PE2 
CPE Router, 
FRAD 
Directed LDP 
Label Exchange for VC1 – Label 10 
Neighbor LDP– 
Label 50 
Neighbor LDP– 
Label 90 
VC1 – Connects DLCI 101 
to DLCI 201 
CPE Router, 
FRAD
Virtual Private LAN Service Overview 
PE1 PE2 
MPLS 
WAN 
Site3 
CE 
Site2 
CE 
 Architecture for Ethernet Multipoint Services (EMS) over MPLS 
 Emulates IEEE Ethernet bridge; VPLS network acts like a virtual 
switch that emulates conventional L2 bridge 
 Fully meshed or Hub-Spoke topologies supported 
© 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. 61 
Site1 
CE
VPLS Technology Components 
 PE-CE link 
Referred to as Attachment Circuit (AC) 
Ethernet VCs are either port mode or VLAN ID 
 VPLS Control Plane 
Full mesh of targeted LDP sessions 
Virtual Connection (VC)-label negotiation, withdrawal, error 
© 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. 62 
notification 
 VPLS Forwarding Plane 
Virtual Switching Instance: VSI or VFI (Virtual Forwarding 
Instance) 
VPN ID: Unique value for each VPLS instance 
PWs for interconnection of related VSI instances
VPLS Overview 
n-PE n-PE 
Red VSI 
Blue VSI 
Full Mesh of PWs 
Between VSIs 
© 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. 63 
Directed LDP 
Session Between 
Participating PEs 
PW 
PW 
PW 
CE 
CE 
CE 
CE 
CE 
CE 
CE 
Tunnel LSP 
Red VSI 
Blue VSI 
Green VSI 
Green VSI 
Attachment Circuit 
Full Mesh of Targeted-LDP Sessions 
Exchange VC Labels
Use Case: VPLS Network Interconnect 
Requirement: Need to create full-mesh connectivity between separate metro 
networks. 
Solution: Use VPLS to create transparent bridge layer-2 Ethernet connectivity 
between ethernet networks. 
Customer A1 Customer A1 
CE13 
PE1 PE2 
Metro 
Backbone 
Provider 
Metro Customer A1 
Ethernet 
Carrier A 
CE23 
© 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. 64 
L2 Metro 
Ethernet 
Carrier A 
CE11 
CE21 
L2 Metro 
Ethernet 
Carrier A 
CE12 
CE22 
PE3 
VPLS VPN Name: VPLS-CarrierA 
VPN ID: 1100 
VCID: 1234 
Each PE points to other peer 
PE’s loopback address 
QinQ
Layer-2 VPN Summary 
 Enables transport of any Layer-2 traffic over MPLS 
network 
 Two types of L2 VPNs; AToM for point-to-point and 
VPLS point-to-multipoint layer-2 connectivity 
 Layer-2 VPN forwarding based on Pseudo Wires (PW), 
which use VC label for L2 packet encapsulation 
LDP used for PW signaling 
 AToM PWs suited for implementing transparent point-to-point 
connectivity between Layer-2 circuits 
 VPLS suited for implementing transparent point-to-multipoint 
connectivity between Ethernet links/sites 
© 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. 65
MPLS QoS 
Technology Overview and Applications 
Presentation_ID © 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 66
MPLS Technology Framework 
 MPLS QoS support for traffic marking and 
classification to enable differentiated services 
  
Layer-3 VPNs Layer-2 VPNs 
MPLS QoS MPLS TE MPLS OAM/MIBs 
MPLS Signaling and Forwarding 
Network Infrastructure 
© 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. 67 

Why MPLS QoS? 
 Typically different traffic types (packets) sent over MPLS 
networks 
E.g., Web HTTP, VoIP, FTP, etc. 
 Not all application traffic types/flows are the same … 
Some require low latency to work correctly; e.g., VoIP 
 MPLS QoS used for traffic prioritization to guarantee 
minimal traffic loss and delay for high priority traffic 
Involves packet classification and queuing 
 MPLS leverages mostly existing IP QoS architecture 
Based on Differentiated Services (DiffServ) model; defines 
per-hop behavior based on IP Type of Service (ToS) field 
© 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. 68
MPLS QoS Operations 
 MPLS EXP bits used for packet classification and 
prioritization instead of IP Type of Service (ToS) field 
DSCP values mapped into EXP bits at ingress PE router 
 Most providers provide 3–5 service classes 
 Different DSCP <-> EXP mapping schemes 
Uniform mode, pipe mode, and short pipe mode 
MPLS DiffServ Marking 
in Experimental Bits IP DiffServ Marking 
EXP DSCP 
Layer-2 Header MPLS Header Layer 3 Header 
© 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. 69
MPLS Uniform Mode 
 End-to-end behavior: original IP DSCP value not preserved 
At ingress PE, IP DSCP value copied in EXP value 
EXP value changed in the MPLS core 
At egress PE, EXP value copied back into IP DSCP value 
CE CE 
PE P P PE 
MPLS 
EXP 2 
MPLS 
EXP 3 
MPLS 
EXP 2 
© 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. 70 
IP 
DSCP 
3 
MPLS 
EXP 3 
MPLS 
EXP 3 
IP 
DSCP 
3 
IP 
DSCP 
2 
IP 
DSCP 
3 
IP 
DSCP 
3 
IP 
DSCP 
2 
For your 
reference 
only
MPLS Pipe Mode 
 End-to-end behavior: original IP DSCP is preserved 
At ingress PE, EXP value set based on ingress classification 
EXP changed in the MPLS core 
At egress PE, EXP value not copied back into IP DSCP value 
CE CE 
PE P P PE 
MPLS 
EXP 2 
MPLS 
EXP 3 
MPLS 
EXP 2 
MPLS 
EXP 2 
MPLS 
EXP 3 
© 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. 71 
IP 
DSCP 
3 
MPLS 
EXP 3 
MPLS 
EXP 3 
IP 
DSCP 
3 
IP 
DSCP 
3 
IP 
DSCP 
3 
IP 
DSCP 
3 
IP 
DSCP 
3 
For your 
reference 
only
MPLS Short Pipe Mode 
 End-to-end behavior: original IP DSCP is preserved 
At ingress PE, EXP value set based on ingress classification 
EXP changed in the MPLS core 
At egress PE, original IP DSCP value used for QoS processing 
CE CE 
PE P P PE 
MPLS 
EXP 2 
MPLS 
EXP 3 
MPLS 
EXP 2 
© 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. 72 
IP 
DSCP 
3 
MPLS 
EXP 3 
MPLS 
EXP 3 
IP 
DSCP 
3 
IP 
DSCP 
3 
IP 
DSCP 
3 
IP 
DSCP 
3 
IP 
DSCP 
3 
For your 
reference 
only
MPLS QoS Summary 
 MPLS QoS used for MPLS packet-specific marking 
and classification 
Based on EXP bits 
 Different schemes for mapping between IP (ToS/ 
DSCP) and MPLS packet (EXP) classification 
At ingress and egress PE router 
MPLS pipe mode mostly used; preserves end-to-end IP 
QoS 
 Enables traffic prioritization to guarantee minimal 
traffic loss and delay for high priority traffic 
Useful when packet loss and delay guarantees must be 
provided for high priority traffic across MPLS network 
© 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. 73
MPLS Traffic Engineering 
Technology Overview and Applications 
Presentation_ID © 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 74
MPLS Technology Framework 
 Traffic engineering capabilities for bandwidth 
management and network failure protection 
  
Layer-3 VPNs Layer-2 VPNs 
MPLS QoS MPLS TE MPLS OAM/MIBs 
MPLS Signaling and Forwarding 
Network Infrastructure 
© 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. 75 
 

Why Traffic Engineering? 
 Congestion in the network due to changing traffic patterns 
Election news, online trading, major sports events 
 Better utilization of available bandwidth 
Route on the non-shortest path 
 Route around failed links/nodes 
Fast rerouting around failures, transparently to users 
Like SONET APS (Automatic Protection Switching) 
 Build new services—virtual leased line services 
VoIP toll-bypass applications, point-to-point bandwidth guarantees 
© 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. 76 
 Capacity planning 
TE improves aggregate availability of the network
The Problem with Shortest-Path 
 Some links are DS3, some are OC-3 
 Router A has 40M of traffic for 
router F, 40M of traffic for router G 
 Massive (44%) packet loss at router 
B→router E! 
Changing to A->C->D->E won’t help 
Router F 
Router C Router D 
OC-3 
© 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. 77 
Router A 
Router B 
OC-3 
OC-3 
DS3 
DS3 
DS3 
OC-3 
Router E 
Router G 
Node Next-Hop Cost 
B B 10 
C C 10 
D C 20 
E B 20 
F B 30 
G B 30 
IP (Mostly) Uses Destination-Based Least-Cost Routing 
Alternate Path Under Utilized
How MPLS TE Solves the Problem 
 Router A sees all links 
 Router A computes paths on 
properties other than just 
shortest cost; creation of 2 
tunnels 
 No link oversubscribed! 
Router C Router D 
OC-3 
© 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. 78 
OC-3 
OC-3 
DS3 
DS3 
DS3 
OC-3 
Router F 
Router G 
Router A 
Router B 
Router E 
40 Mb 
Node Next-Hop Cost 
B B 10 
C C 10 
D C 20 
E B 20 
F Tunnel 0 30 
G Tunnel 1 30
How MPLS TE Works 
 Link information Distribution* 
ISIS-TE 
OSPF-TE 
 Path Calculation (CSPF)* 
 Path Setup (RSVP-TE) 
 Forwarding Traffic 
down Tunnel 
Auto-route 
Static 
PBR 
CBTS / PBTS 
Forwarding Adjacency 
Tunnel select 
* Optional 
© 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. 79 
IP/MPLS 
Head end 
Mid-point Tail end 
TE LSP
Link Information Distribution 
 Additional link characteristics 
Interface address 
Neighbor address 
Physical bandwidth 
Maximum reservable bandwidth 
Unreserved bandwidth 
(at eight priorities) 
TE metric 
Administrative group (attribute flags) 
 IS-IS or OSPF flood link 
information 
 TE nodes build a topology 
database 
 Not required if using off-line path 
computation 
IP/MPLS 
For your 
reference 
only 
© 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights http://reserved. www.cisco.com/go/mpls 
80 
TE 
Topology 
database
Path Calculation 
 TE nodes can perform 
constraint-based routing 
 Constraints and topology 
database as input to path 
computation 
 Shortest-path-first algorithm 
ignores links not meeting 
constraints 
 Tunnel can be signaled once 
a path is found 
 Not required if using offline 
path computation 
© 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights http://reserved. www.cisco.com/go/mpls 
81 
IP/MPLS 
TE 
Topology 
database 
5 
3 
Find shortest 
path to R8 
with 8Mbps 
15 
10 
10 
10 
8 
10 
R1 
R8 
Link with insufficient bandwidth 
Link with sufficient bandwidth 
n 
n
TE LSP Signaling 
 Tunnel signaled with TE 
extensions to RSVP 
 Soft state maintained with 
downstream PATH messages 
 Soft state maintained with 
upstream RESV messages 
 New RSVP objects 
LABEL_REQUEST (PATH) 
LABEL (RESV) 
EXPLICIT_ROUTE 
RECORD_ROUTE (PATH/RESV) 
SESSION_ATTRIBUTE (PATH) 
 LFIB populated using 
RSVP labels allocated by RESV 
messages 
Head end IP/MPLS 
L=16 
RESV 
© 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights http://reserved. www.cisco.com/go/mpls 
82 
Tail end 
TE LSP 
PATH 
Input 
Label 
Out Label, 
Interface 
17 16, 0 
For your 
reference 
only
MPLS TE FRR - Link Protection 
Router A Router B Router D 
Router E 
Router X Router Y 
Router C 
 Primary tunnel: A → B → D → E 
 Backup tunnel: B → C → D (preprovisioned) 
 Recovery = ~ 50 ms 
*Actual Time Varies—Well Below 50 ms in Lab Tests, Can Also Be Higher 
© 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. 83
Use Case 1: Tactical TE Deployment 
Requirement: Need to Handle Scattered Congestion Points in the Network 
Solution: Deploy MPLS TE on Only Those Nodes that Face Congestion 
Internet 
MPLS Traffic Engineering 
Tunnel Relieves Congestion Points 
Service Provider 
Backbone 
Bulk of Traffic Flow 
e.g. Internet Download 
Oversubscribed 
Shortest Links 
© 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. 84
Use Case 2: 1-Hop Tunnel Deployment 
Requirement: Need Protection Only — Minimize Packet Loss of 
Bandwidth in the Core 
Solution: Deploy MPLS Fast Reroute for Less than 50ms Failover Time 
with 1-Hop Primary TE Tunnels and Backup Tunnel for Each 
Service Provider 
Backbone 
VPN Site A Primary 1-Hop TE Tunnel VPN Site B 
Backup Tunnel 
Physical Links 
© 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. 85
MPLS TE Summary 
 MPLS TE can be used to implement traffic engineering to enable 
enhanced network availability, utilization, and performance 
 Enhanced network availability can be implemented via MPLS TE 
Fast Re-Route (FRR) 
Link, node, and path protection 
Automatically route around failed links/nodes; like SONET APS 
 Better network bandwidth utilization can be implemented via 
creation of MPLS TE tunnels using explicit routes 
Route on the non-shortest path 
 MPLS TE can be used for capacity planning by creation of 
bandwidth-specific tunnels with explicit paths through the network 
Bandwidth management across links and end-to-end paths 
© 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. 86
MPLS Management 
Technology Overview and Applications 
Presentation_ID © 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 87
MPLS Technology Framework 
 MPLS management using SNMP MPLS MIB and 
MPLS OAM capabilities 
 Layer-3 VPNs  
Layer-2 VPNs 
  
MPLS QoS MPLS TE MPLS OAM/MIBs 
MPLS Signaling and Forwarding 
Network Infrastructure 
© 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. 88 

What’s Needed for MPLS management? 
 What’s needed beyond the basic MPLS CLI? 
CLI used for basic configuration and trouble shooting (show 
commands) 
Traditional management tools: 
 MIBs to provide management information for SNMP 
management applications (e.g., HPOV) 
MIB counters, Trap notifications, etc. 
New management tools: 
 MPLS OAM -> for reactive trouble shooting 
Ping and trace capabilities of MPLS label switched paths 
 Automated MPLS OAM -> for proactive trouble shooting 
Automated LSP ping/trace via Auto IP SLA 
© 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. 89
MPLS Operations Lifecycle 
 Build and plan the network 
Capacity planning and 
resource monitoring 
© 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. 90 
 Monitor the network 
Node/link failure detection 
May impact multiple services 
 Provision new services and 
maintain existing services 
Edge/service node 
configuration 
 Monitor service 
End-to-end monitoring 
Linked to customer SLAs 
For your 
reference 
only
MPLS MIBs and OAM 
Management Feature Key Functionality 
© 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. 91 
MPLS MIBs 
MPLS-LDP-STD-MIB LDP session status Trap notifications 
MPLS-L3VPN-STD-MIB VRF max-route Trap notifications 
MPLS-TE-STD-MIB TE Tunnel status Trap notifications 
MPLS OAM 
MPLS LSP Ping/Trace for LDP-based 
LSPs 
Validate end-to-end connectivity of LDP-signaled 
LSPs 
MPLS LSP Ping/Trace for TE tunnels Validate end-to-end connectivity of TE 
tunnels 
LSP Multipath (ECMP) Tree Trace Discovery of all available equal cost LSP 
paths between PEs
LDP Event Monitoring Using LDP Traps 
Interface Shutdown (E1/0 on PE1) LDP Session Down (PE1 – P01) 
Time = t: Received SNMPv2c Trap from pe1: 
sysUpTimeInstance = 8159606 
snmpTrapOID.0 = mplsLdpSessionDown 
mplsLdpSessionState.<index> = nonexistent(1) 
mplsLdpSessionDiscontinuityTime.<index> = 8159605 
mplsLdpSessionStatsUnknownMesTypeErrors.<index> = 0 
mplsLdpSessionStatsUnknownTlvErrors.<index> = 0 
ifIndex.5 = 5 
LDP session goes down 
© 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. 92 
Interface goes down 
Time = t+1: Received SNMPv2c Trap from pe1: 
sysUpTimeInstance = 8159906 
snmpTrapOID.0 = linkDown 
ifIndex.5 = 5 
ifDescr.5 = Ethernet1/0 
ifType.5 = ethernetCsmacd(6) 
locIfReason.5 = administratively down 
Time = t+2: Received SNMPv2c Trap from p01: 
sysUpTimeInstance = 8160579 
snmpTrapOID.0 = mplsLdpSessionDown 
mplsLdpSessionState.<index> = nonexistent(1) 
mplsLdpSessionDiscontinuityTime.<index> = 8160579 
mplsLdpSessionStatsUnknownMesTypeErrors.<index> = 0 
mplsLdpSessionStatsUnknownTlvErrors.<index> = 0 
ifIndex.5 = 5 
Time = t: Received SNMPv2c Trap from pe1: 
sysUpTimeInstance = 8159606 
snmpTrapOID.0 = mplsLdpSessionDown 
mplsLdpSessionState.<index> = nonexistent(1) 
mplsLdpSessionDiscontinuityTime.<index> = 8159605 
mplsLdpSessionStatsUnknownMesTypeErrors.<index> = 0 
mplsLdpSessionStatsUnknownTlvErrors.<index> = 0 
ifIndex.5 = 5 
Time = t+1: Received SNMPv2c Trap from p01: 
sysUpTimeInstance = 8160579 
snmpTrapOID.0 = mplsLdpSessionDown 
mplsLdpSessionState.<index> = nonexistent(1) 
mplsLdpSessionDiscontinuityTime.<index> = 8160579 
mplsLdpSessionStatsUnknownMesTypeErrors.<index> = 0 
mplsLdpSessionStatsUnknownTlvErrors.<index> = 0 
ifIndex.5 = 5 
PE1 
P1 
LDP session 
PE1 
P1 
LDP session
Validation of PE-PE MPLS Connectivity 
 Connectivity of LSP path(s) between PE routers 
can be validated using LSP ping (ping mpls 
command via CLI) 
pe1>ping mpls ipv4 10.1.2.249/32 
Sending 5, 100-byte MPLS Echos to 10.1.2.249/32, 
timeout is 2 seconds, send interval is 0 msec: 
Codes: '!' - success, 'Q' - request not sent, '.' - timeout, 
'L' - labeled output interface, 'B' - unlabeled output interface, 
'D' - DS Map mismatch, 'F' - no FEC mapping, 'f' - FEC mismatch, 
'M' - malformed request, 'm' - unsupported tlvs, 'N' - no label entry, 
'P' - no rx intf label prot, 'p' - premature termination of LSP, 
'R' - transit router, 'I' - unknown upstream index, 
'X' - unknown return code, 'x' - return code 0 
Type escape sequence to abort. 
!!!!! 
Success rate is 100 percent (5/5), round-trip min/avg/max = 284/294/300 ms 
© 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. 93 
PE1 
P1 P2 
PE2
Automated MPLS OAM 
 Automatic MPLS OAM probes between PE routers 
Automatic discovery of PE targets via BGP next-hop discovery 
Automatic discovery of all available LSP paths for PE targets via LSP 
multi-path trace 
Scheduled LSP pings to verify LSP path connectivity 
3 consecutive LSP ping failures result in SNMP Trap notification 
PE3 
PE2 
P1 P2 
© 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. 94 
PE1 - MPLS OAM Probe 
PE2 - MPLS OAM Probe 
PE3 - MPLS OAM Probe 
PE1
MPLS Management Summary 
 MPLS management operations include MPLS node 
and service configuration, and monitoring 
 In addition to CLI, SNMP MIBs and OAM 
capabilities are available for MPLS management 
 MPLS MIBs provide LDP, VPN, and TE 
management information, which can be collected by 
SNMP tools 
MIB counters, Trap notifications 
 Advanced MPLS management capabilities can be 
implemented via MPLS OAM 
LSP path discovery and connectivity validation 
Proactive monitoring via automated MPLS OAM 
© 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. 95
Summary 
Final Notes and Wrap Up 
Presentation_ID © 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 96
Summary and Key Takeaways 
 It’s all about labels … 
Label-based forwarding and IP protocol extensions for label exchange 
Best of both worlds … L2-type forwarding and L3 control plane 
 Key application of MPLS is to implement VPN services 
Secure and scalable layer 2 and 3 VPN connectivity 
 MPLS supports advanced traffic engineering capabilities 
QoS, bandwidth control, and failure protection 
 MPLS is a mature technology with widespread deployments 
Both SP and enterprise networks 
 Two types of MPLS users 
Indirect (Subscriber): MPLS used as transport for subscribed service 
Direct (DIY): MPLS implemented in (own) SP or enterprise network 
© 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. 97
MPLS Applications 
For your 
reference 
only 
VPN’s / VRF’s 
VRF Aware Security 
High Availability 
© 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. 98 
• 
• 
• 
• 
• 
EWAN 
Edge 
Service 
Providers 
Enterprise Data 
Center 
Data center 
interconnects 
L2/L3VPN’s 
TE/FRR 
QoS 
High Availability 
VPN’s / VRF’s 
VRF-Aware Security 
High Availability 
Hosted Data centers 
Data center 
interconnect 
Segmentation for IT 
Mergers, 
Acquisitions, spinoffs 
Applications Key Features 
Departmental 
segmentation 
Service multiplexing 
Security 
Mergers, Acquisitions, 
spinoffs 
Disaster Recovery 
Vmotion support 
Branch Interconnects 
Internet Access 
Branch Connectivity 
VPN’s 
TE/FRR 
High Availability 
• Network Consolidation – Merging Multiple parallel network into a shared infrastructure 
• Network segmentation – By user groups or business function 
• Service and policy centralization – Security policies and appliances at a central location 
• New applications readiness – Converged multi-service network 
• Increased network security – User groups segmentation with VPNs
Consider MPLS When … 
 There’s a need for network segmentation 
Segmented connectivity for specific locations, users, 
applications, etc. 
Full-mesh and hub-and-spoke connectivity 
 There’s a need for network realignment/migration 
Consolidation of (multiple) legacy networks 
Staged network consolidation after company merger/ 
acquisition 
 There’s a need for optimized network availability 
and performance 
Node/link protection, pro-active connectivity validation 
Bandwidth traffic engineering and QoS traffic prioritization 
© 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. 99
Q and A 
Presentation_ID © 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 100
© 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. 101

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MPLS Presentation

  • 1. Introduction to MPLS Santanu Dasgupta santanu@cisco.com
  • 2. Goals of this Session  Understand history and business drivers for MPLS  Learn about MPLS customer and market segments  Understand the problems MPLS is addressing  Understand benefits of deploying MPLS  Understand the major MPLS technology components  Learn the basics of MPLS technology  Understand typical applications of MPLS © 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. 2
  • 3. The Big Picture End-to-end MPLS VPN Services End-to-end Services MPLS in Core Network Layer-3 VPNs Layer-2 VPNs Edge End-to-end MPLS-enabled Services MPLS Network Services MPLS Network Services MPLS QoS MPLS TE MPLS OAM/MIBs Layer-3 VPNs Layer-2 VPNs MPLS Signaling and Forwarding Core MPLS MPLS QoS MPLS TE MPLS OAM/MIBs MPLS Signaling and Forwarding MPLS Signaling and Forwarding Network Infrastructure © 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. 3 Edge Edge Edge Edge Core Core Core Core Edge Edge Edge Network Infrastructure
  • 4. © 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. 4 Agenda  Introduction  MPLS Network Components  MPLS VPNs MPLS Layer-3 VPNs MPLS Layer-2 VPNs  MPLS QoS  MPLS Traffic Engineering  MPLS Management  Summary Core MPLS End-to-end MPLS Services MPLS Network Services
  • 5. Introduction The business drivers for MPLS Presentation_ID © 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 5
  • 6. Why Multi Protocol Label Switching?  SP/Carrier perspective Reduce costs (CAPEX); consolidate networks Consolidated network for multiple Layer-2/3 services Support increasingly stringent SLAs Handle increasing scale/complexity of IP-based services  Enterprise/end-user perspective © 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. 6 Campus/LAN Need for network segmentation (users, applications, etc.) WAN connectivity (connecting enterprise networks) Need for easier configuration of site-to-site WAN connectivity
  • 7. What Is MPLS Technology?  It’s all about labels …  Use the best of both worlds Layer-2 (ATM/FR): efficient forwarding and traffic engineering Layer-3 (IP): flexible and scalable  MPLS forwarding plane Use of labels for forwarding Layer-2/3 data traffic Labeled packets are being switched instead of routed Leverage layer-2 forwarding efficiency  MPLS control/signaling plane Use of existing IP control protocols extensions + new protocols to exchange label information Leverage layer-3 control protocol flexibility and scalability © 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. 7
  • 8. Evolution of MPLS  Evolved from tag switching in 1996 to full IETF standard, covering over 130 RFCs  Key application initially were Layer-3 VPNs, followed by Traffic Engineering (TE), and Layer-2 VPNs © 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. 8
  • 9. MPLS Applications For your reference only VPN’s / VRF’s VRF Aware Security High Availability © 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. 9 • • • • • EWAN Edge Service Providers Enterprise Data Center Data center interconnects L2/L3VPN’s TE/FRR QoS High Availability VPN’s / VRF’s VRF-Aware Security High Availability Hosted Data centers Data center interconnect Segmentation for IT Mergers, Acquisitions, spinoffs Applications Key Features Departmental segmentation Service multiplexing Security Mergers, Acquisitions, spinoffs Disaster Recovery Vmotion support Branch Interconnects Internet Access Branch Connectivity VPN’s TE/FRR High Availability • Network Consolidation – Merging Multiple parallel network into a shared infrastructure • Network segmentation – By user groups or business function • Service and policy centralization – Security policies and appliances at a central location • New applications readiness – Converged multi-service network • Increased network security – User groups segmentation with VPNs
  • 10. Enterprise MPLS Customers  Two types of enterprise customers for MPLS technology  MPLS indirectly used as subscribed WAN service Enterprise subscribes to WAN connectivity data service offered by external Service Provider Data connectivity service implemented by Service Provider via MPLS VPN technology (e.g., layer-2 and layer-3 VPNs) VPN Service can be managed or unmanaged  MPLS used as part of self managed network Enterprise deploys MPLS in it’s own network Enterprise manages it’s own MPLS-based network © 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. 10
  • 11. MPLS Technology Framework End-to-end Services Layer-3 VPNs Layer-2 VPNs MPLS Network Services MPLS QoS MPLS TE MPLS OAM/MIBs Core MPLS MPLS Signaling and Forwarding Network Infrastructure © 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. 11
  • 12. MPLS Technology Components Basic building blocks of MPLS Presentation_ID © 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 12
  • 13. MPLS Forwarding and Signaling  MPLS label forwarding and signaling mechanisms Layer-3 VPNs Layer-2 VPNs MPLS QoS MPLS TE MPLS OAM/MIBs Core MPLS MPLS Signaling and Forwarding Network Infrastructure © 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. 13
  • 14. Basic Building Blocks © 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. 14  The big picture MPLS-enabled network devices Label Switched Paths (LSPs)  The internals MPLS labels Processing of MPLS labels Exchange of label mapping information Forwarding of labeled packets  Other related protocols and protocols to exchange label information Between MPLS-enabled devices
  • 15. MPLS Network Overview MPLS Domain CE CE  P (Provider) router = label switching router = core router (LSR) PE © 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. 15 Switches MPLS-labeled packets  PE (Provider Edge) router = edge router (LSR) Imposes and removes MPLS labels  CE (Customer Edge) router Connects customer network to MPLS network CE CE Label switched traffic P P P P PE PE PE
  • 16. MPLS Label and Label Encapsulation MPLS Label 0 1 2 3 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 Label # – 20bits EXP S TTL-8bits COS/EXP = Class of Service: 3 Bits; S = Bottom of Stack; TTL = Time to Live MPLS Label Encapsulation PPP Header Label Layer 2/L3 Packet PPP Header © 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. 16 (Packet over SONET/SDH) One or More Labels Appended to the Packet (Between L2/L3 packet header and link layer header) LAN MAC Label Header MAC Header Label Layer 2/L3 Packet
  • 17. MPLS Label Operations Label Swap Label Swap Label Disposition (PoP) L3 © 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. 17 Label Imposition (Push)  Label imposition (Push) By ingress PE router; classify and label packets  Label swapping or switching By P router; forward packets using labels; indicates service class & destination  Label disposition (PoP) By egress PE router; remove label and forward original packet to destination CE CE CE CE CE P P PE PE PE L1 L2/L3 Packet L1 L2 P L2 L3 PE P
  • 18. Forwarding Equivalence Class  Mechanism to map ingress layer-2/3 packets onto a Label Switched Path (LSP) by ingress PE router Part of label imposition (Push) operation  Variety of FEC mappings possible IP prefix/host address Groups of addresses/sites (VPN x) © 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. 18 Used for L3VPNs Layer 2 circuit ID (ATM, FR, PPP, HDLC, Ethernet) Used for Pseudowires (L2VPNs) A bridge/switch instance (VSI) Used for VPLS (L2VPNs) Tunnel interface Used for MPLS traffic engineering (TE)
  • 19. Label Distribution Protocol  MPLS nodes need to exchange label information with each other Ingress PE node (Push operation) Needs to know what label to use for a given FEC to send packet to neighbor Core P node (Swap operation) Needs to know what label to use for swap operation for incoming labeled packets Egress PE node (Pop operation) Needs to tell upstream neighbor what label to use for specific FEC type LDP used for exchange of label (mapping) information  Label Distribution Protocol (LDP) Defined in RFC 3035 and RFC3036; updated by RFC5036 LDP is a superset of the Cisco-specific Tag Distribution Protocol  Note that, in addition LDP, also other protocols are being used for label information exchange Will be discussed later © 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. 19
  • 20. Some More LDP Details  Assigns, distributes, and installs (in forwarding) labels for prefixes advertised by unicast routing protocols OSPF, IS-IS, EIGRP, etc.  Also used for Pseudowire/PW (VC) signaling Used for L2VPN control plane signaling  Uses UDP (port 646) for session discovery and TCP (port 646) for exchange of LDP messages  LDP operations LDP Peer Discovery LDP Session Establishment MPLS Label Allocation, Distribution, and Updating MPLS forwarding  Information repositories used by LDP LIB: Label Information Database (read/write) RIB: Routing Information Database/routing table (read-only) For your reference only © 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. 20
  • 21. LDP Operations  LDP startup LDP Control Plane MPLS Node A RIB LIB © 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. 21 Local labels assigned to RIB prefixes and stored in LIB Peer discovery and session setup Exchange of MPLS label bindings  Programming of MPLS forwarding Based on LIB info CEF/MFI updates MPLS Node B Session Setup Label Binding Exchange MPLS Forwarding CEF/MFI MPLS Forwarding CEF/MFI LDP Interactions with MPLS Forwarding LIB RIB
  • 22. MPLS Control and Forwarding Plane  MPLS control plane Used for distributing labels and building label-switched paths (LSPs) Typically supported by LDP; also supported via RSVP and BGP Labels define destination and service  MPLS forwarding plane Used for label imposition, swapping, and disposition Independent of type of control plane Labels separate forwarding from IP address-based routing RIB LIB Routing Updates/ Adjacencies MFI MPLS Traffic Forwarding Routing Process MPLS Process FIB Label Binding Updates/ Adjacencies IP Traffic Forwarding © 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. 22
  • 23. IP Packet Forwarding Example Address Prefix I/F 0 1 Address Prefix I/F 0 128.89 171.69 128.89 171.69 © 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. 23 1 128.89 171.69 Address Prefix I/F 128.89 171.69 … 128.89.25.4 Data 128.89.25.4 Data 128.89.25.4 Data 128.89.25.4 Data 1 1 Packets Forwarded Based on IP Address (via RIB lookup) … 0 1 … 0 1 FIB FIB FIB
  • 24. Step 1: IP Routing (IGP) Convergence 128.89 MFI/FIB MFI/FIB MFI/FIB 171.69 1 0 You Can Reach 128.89 and © 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. 24 1 In Label Address Prefix … Out I’face 128.89 1 171.69 1 … Out Label In Label Address Prefix … Out I’face 128.89 0 171.69 1 … Out Label In Label Address Prefix 128.89 … Out I’face 0 … Out Label 0 You Can Reach 171.69 Thru Me 171.69 Thru Me Routing Updates (OSPF, EIGRP, …) You Can Reach 128.89 Thru Me
  • 25. Step 2a: LDP Assigns Local Labels MFI/FIB MFI/FIB MFI/FIB - - … … 1 128.89 0 © 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. 25 1 0 171.69 In Label Address Prefix 128.89 171.69 … Out I’face 1 1 … Out Label In Label Address Prefix 128.89 171.69 … Out I’face 0 1 … Out Label In Label Address Prefix 128.89 … Out I’face 0 … Out Label … 4 5 … - … 9 …
  • 26. Step 2b: LDP Assigns Remote Labels MFI/FIB MFI/FIB MFI/FIB 1 128.89 0 © 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. 26 1 0 Use Label 9 for 128.89 Use Label 4 for 128.89 and Use Label 5 for 171.69 Label Distribution Protocol (LDP) (Downstream Allocation) Use Label 7 for 171.69 171.69 In Label Address Prefix 128.89 171.69 … Out I’face 1 1 … Out Label In Label Address Prefix 128.89 171.69 … Out I’face 0 1 … Out Label In Label Address Prefix 128.89 … Out I’face 0 … Out Label 4 5 … - - … 9 7 … 4 5 … - … 9 …
  • 27. Step 3: Forwarding MPLS Packets MFI/FIB MFI/FIB MFI/FIB 1 0 0 128.89 © 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. 27 1 128.89.25.4 Data 4 128.89.25.4 Data 9 128.89.25.4 Data Label Switch Forwards Based on Label 128.89.25.4 Data 171.69 In Label Address Prefix 128.89 171.69 … Out I’face 1 1 … Out Label In Label Address Prefix 128.89 171.69 … Out I’face 0 1 … Out Label In Label Address Prefix 128.89 … Out I’face 0 … Out Label 4 5 … - - … 9 7 … 4 5 … - … 9 …
  • 28. Summary Steps For MPLS Forwarding  Each node maintains IP routing information via IGP IP routing table (RIB) and IP forwarding table (FIB)  LDP leverages IGP routing information  LDP label mapping exchange (between MPLS nodes) takes place after IGP has converged LDP depends on IGP convergence Label binding information stored in LIB  Once LDP has received remote label binding information MPLS forwarding is updated Label bindings are received from remote LDP peers MPLS forwarding via MFI © 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. 28
  • 29. MPLS Network Protocols P P MP-iBGP OSPF, IS-IS, EIGRP, EIGRP LDP, RSVP Label switched traffic P P PE  IGP: OSPF, EIGRP, IS-IS on core facing and core links  RSVP and/or LDP on core and/or core facing links  MP-iBGP on PE devices (for MPLS services) © 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. 29 PE PE PE CE CE CE CE
  • 30. Label Stacking  More than one label can be used for MPLS packet encapsulation Creation of a label stack  Recap: labels correspond to Forwarding Equivalence Class (FEC) Each label in stack used for different purposes  Outer label always used for switching MPLS packets in network  Remaining inner labels used to specific services/FECs, etc.  Last label in stack marked with EOS bit  Allows building services such as MPLS VPNs; LDP + VPN label Traffic engineering (FRR): LDP + TE label VPNs over TE core: LDP + TE + VPN label Any transport over MPLS: LDP + PW label Outer Label TE Label LDP Label VPN Label Inner Label Layer 2/3 Packet Header © 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. 30
  • 31. © 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. 31 Summary  MPLS uses labels to forward traffic  More than one label can be used for traffic encapsulation; multiple labels make up a label stack  Traffic is encapsulated with label(s) at ingress and at egress labels are removed in MPLS network  MPLS network consists of PE router at ingress/egress and P routers in the core  MPLS control plane used for signaling label mapping information to set up end-to-end Label Switched Paths  MPLS forwarding plane used for label imposition (PUSH), swapping, and disposition (POP) operation
  • 32. MPLS VPNs Overviews Presentation_ID © 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 32
  • 33. MPLS Technology Framework  End-to-end data connectivity services across MPLS networks (from PE to PE) End-to-end Services Layer-3 VPNs Layer-2 VPNs MPLS QoS MPLS TE MPLS OAM/MIBs MPLS Signaling and Forwarding Network Infrastructure © 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. 33 
  • 34. What Is a Virtual Private Network?  VPN is a set of sites or groups which are allowed to communicate with each other in a secure way Typically over a shared public or private network infrastructure  VPN is defined by a set of administrative policies Policies established by VPN customers themselves (DIY) Policies implemented by VPN service provider (managed/ unmanaged)  Different inter-site connectivity schemes possible Ranging from complete to partial mesh, hub-and-spoke  Sites may be either within the same or in different organizations VPN can be either intranet or extranet  Site may be in more than one VPN © 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. 34 VPNs may overlap  Not all sites have to be connected to the same service provider VPN can span multiple providers
  • 35. MPLS VPN Example P CE PE PE P PE Label switched traffic P P © 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. 35 CE  PE-CE link PE Connect customer network to SP network; layer-2 or layer-3  VPN Dedicated secure connectivity over shared infrastructure CE CE VPN PE-CE Link PE-CE Link
  • 36. MPLS VPN Benefits  SP/Carrier perspective Reduce costs (CAPEX) Leverage same network for multiple services and customers Migrate legacy networks onto single converged network Reduce costs (OPEX) Easier service enablement; only edge node configuration  Enterprise/end-user perspective Enables site/campus network segmentation Allows for dedicated connectivity for users, applications, etc. Enables easier setup of WAN connectivity Easier configuration of site-to-site WAN connectivity (for L3VPN and VPLS); only one WAN connection needed © 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. 36
  • 37. MPLS VPN Options MPLS VPN Models Layer-2 VPNs Layer-3 VPNs • CPE connected to PE via IP-based connection (over any layer-2 type) – Static routing – PE-CE routing protocol; eBGP, OSPF, IS-IS • CEs peer with PE router • PE routers maintain customer-specific routing tables and exchange customer=specific routing information • Layer-3 VPN provider’s PE routers are part of customer routing © 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. 37 Point-to-Point Layer-2 VPNs Multi-Point Layer-2 VPNs • CPE connected to PE via p2p Layer-2 connection (FR, ATM) • CEs peer with each other (IP routing) via p2p layer-2 VPN connection • CE-CE routing; no SP involvement • CPE connected to PE via Ethernet connection (VLAN) • CEs peer with each other via fully/ partial mesh Layer-2 VPN connection • CE-CE routing; no SP involvement
  • 38. MPLS Layer-3 VPNs Technology Overview and Applications Presentation_ID © 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 38
  • 39. MPLS L3 VPN Overview  Customer router (CE) has a IP peering connection with PE/edge router in MPLS network IP routing/forwarding across PE-CE link  MPLS VPN network responsible for distributing routing information to remote VPN sites MPLS VPN part of customer IP routing domain  MPLS VPNs enable full-mesh, hub-and-spoke, and hybrid connectivity among connected CE sites  MPLS VPN service enablement in MPLS networks only requires VPN configuration at edge/PE nodes Connectivity in core automatically established via BGP signaling © 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. 39
  • 40. MPLS L3 VPN Technology Components © 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. 40  PE-CE link Can be any type of layer-2 connection (e.g., FR, Ethernet) CE configured to route IP traffic to/from adjacent PE router Variety of routing options; static routes, eBGP, OSPF, IS-IS  MPLS L3VPN Control Plane Separation of customer routing via virtual VPN routing table In PE router: customer I/Fs connected to virtual routing table Between PE routers: customer routes exchanged via BGP  MPLS L3VPN Forwarding Plane Separation of customer VPN traffic via additional VPN label VPN label used by receiving PE to identify VPN routing table
  • 41. Virtual Routing and Forwarding Instance VRF Green VRF Blue VPN 1  Virtual Routing and Forwarding Instance (VRF)  Typically one VRF created for each customer VPN on PE router  VRF associated with one or more customer interfaces  VRF has its own instance of routing table (RIB) and forwarding table (CEF)  VRF has its own instance for PE-CE configured routing protocols © 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. 41 CE PE CE VPN 2 MPLS Backbone IGP
  • 42. VPN Route Distribution P CE PE VRF VRF VPN 1 P Label switched traffic P P  Full mesh of BGP sessions among all PE routers Multi-Protocol BGP extensions (MP-iBGP) Typically BGP Route Reflector (RR) used for improved scalability © 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. 42 PE PE PE CE CE CE Customer Route Exchange Customer Route Exchange VPN Route Exchange BGP RR VRF VRF VPN 2 MP-iBGP Session
  • 43. VPN Control Plane Processing No VPN Routes in core (P) nodes PE1 P P PE2 CE1 CE2 ip vrf Green RD 1:100 route-target export 1:100 route-target import 1:100 Make customer routes unique:  Route Distinguisher (RD): 8-byte field, VRF parameters; unique value assigned by a provider to each VPN to make different VPN routes unique  VPNv4 address: RD+VPN IP prefix Selective distribute customer routes:  Route Target (RT): 8-byte field, VRF parameter, unique value to define the import/ export rules for VPNv4 routes  MP-iBGP: advertises VPNv4* prefixes + labels Processing Steps: 1. CE1 redistribute IPv4 route to PE1 via eBGP. 2. PE1 allocates VPN label for prefix learnt from CE1 to create unique VPNv4 route 3. PE1 redistributes VPNv4 route into MP-iBGP, it sets itself as a next hop and relays VPN site routes to PE2 4. PE2 receives VPNv4 route and, via processing in local VRF (green), it redistributes original IPv4 route to CE2. © 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. 43 eBGP: 16.1/16 IP Subnet BGP advertisement: VPN-IPv4 Addr = RD:16.1/16 BGP Next-Hop = PE1 Route Target = 100:1 Label=42 eBGP: 16.1/16 IP Subnet VRF VPN 1 VRF
  • 44. VPN Forwarding Plane Processing VPNv4 IPv4 IPv4 Label VPNv4 Label IPv4 IGP Label A VPNv4 Label IPv4 IGP Label B IGP IPv4 Label C PE1 P1 P2 PE2 CE1 CE2 VRF VPN 1 VRF ip vrf Green RD 1:100 route-target export 1:100 route-target import 1:100 IPv4 Packet IPv4 Packet Processing Steps: 1. CE2 forwards IPv4 packet to PE2. 2. PE2 imposes pre-allocated VPN label (learned via MP-IBGP) to IPv4 packet © 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. 44 received from CE2. 3. PE2 imposes outer IGP label (learned via LDP) and forwards labeled packet to next-hop P-router P2. 4. P-routers P1 and P2 swap outer IGP label and forward label packet to PE1. 5. Router PE1 strips VPN label and forwards IPv4 packet to CE1.
  • 45. Use Case 1: Traffic Separation Requirement: Need to ensure data separation between Aerospace, Cosmetics and Financial Services, while leveraging a shared infrastructure Solution: Create MPLS VPN for each group Aerospace Cosmetics Financial Services Remote Site 1 Remote Site 2 VRF instances created for each group at the edge © 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. 45 Central site - HQ Financial Cosmetics Services Cosmetics Aerospace Remote Site 3 Aerospace Financial Services VPN_Fin VPN_Fin VPN_Fin VPN_Cos VPN_Cos VPN_Cos VPN_Aero VPN_Aero VPN_Aero MPLS Backbone
  • 46. Use Case 2: Simplify Hub Site Design Requirement: To ease the scale and design of head-end site Solution: Implement MPLS Layer 3 VPNs, which reduces the number of routing peers of the central site © 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. 46 Central Site Remote Sites Central site has high number of routing peers – creates a complicated headend design Central Site Remote Sites Central site has a single routing peer – enhancing head-end design MPLS Backbone
  • 47. Enterprise Network Architecture For your reference only © 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. 47 Access Distribution Core Internet
  • 48. Enterprise Network Segmentation For your reference only Distribution Core End-to-end Connectivity © 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. 48 VRF-lite + 802.1Q VLANs VRF lite configured on distribution nodes VLAN mapping onto VRFs VRF lite configured on core nodes 802.1Q VLAN ID mapping onto VRFs Device Separation: VRF Data Path Separation: 802.1Q VLAN ID VRF-lite + GRE tunnels VRF lite configured on distribution nodes VRFs associated with GRE tunnels Core nodes forward IP packets (GRE IP Packets) End-to-end GRE tunnels between distribution nodes Layer-3 MPLS VPNs Distribution nodes configured as PE routers with VRF(s) Core nodes forward MPLS packets (via LFIB) End-to-end label switched paths (LSPs) between distribution nodes (PE routers)
  • 49. Option 1: VRF-lite + 802.1Q  Layer-2 access  No BGP or MPLS  VRF-lite configured on core and distribution nodes  MPLS labels substituted by 802.1q tags end-to-end  Every link is a 802.1Q trunk  Many-to-Many model  Restricted scalability  Typical for department inter-connectivity v v v v v For your reference only L2 Layer 3 L2 v v v v Multi-VRF VPN1 VPN2 802.1Q © 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. 49
  • 50. Option 2: VRF-lite + GRE  L2 access  No BGP or MPLS  VRF-lite only configured on distribution nodes  VLANs associated with end-to-end Multi-VRF VPN1 VPN2 © 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. 50 GRE Tunnels  Many-to-One model  Restricted scalability  Typical for user-specific VPN connectivity v v v v v L2 Layer 3 L2 GRE For your reference only
  • 51. Option 3: Layer-3 MPLS VPNs  L2 access  Distribution nodes configured as PE routers with VRFs  MP-iBGP between distribution nodes  MPLS packet forwarding by core nodes  Many-to-Many model  High scalability v v v v v For your reference only L2 MPLS L2 VRF VPN1 VPN2 © 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. 51
  • 52. MPLS Layer-3 VPN Summary  Provide layer-3 connectivity among CE sites via IP peering (across PE-CE link)  Implemented via VRFs on edge/PE nodes providing customer route and forwarding segmentation  BGP used for control plane to exchange customer VPN (VPNv4) routes between PE routers  MPLS VPNs enable full-mesh, hub-and-spoke, and hybrid IP connectivity among connected CE sites  L3 VPNs for enterprise network segmentation can also be implemented via VRFs + GRE tunnels or VLANs © 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. 52
  • 53. MPLS Layer-2 VPNs Technology Overview and Applications Presentation_ID © 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 53
  • 54. VPLS Virtual Private LAN Service Point to Multipoint MPLS Layer-2 VPNs L2VPN Options Ethernet © 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. 54 VPWS Virtual Private Wire Service Point to Point L2VPN Models L2TPv3 AToM IP Core Ethernet Frame Relay ATM (AAL5 and Cell) PPP and HDLC MPLS Core Frame Relay ATM (AAL5 and Cell) PPP and HDLC MPLS Core Ethernet Any Transport over MPLS: AToM
  • 55. Layer-2 VPN Overview  Enables transport of any Layer-2 traffic over MPLS network Includes label encapsulation and translation Ethernet © 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. 55 ATM PPP HDLC FR Pseudo Wire SP Network SP Interconnection PE Router PE Router Many Subscriber Encapsulations Supportable
  • 56. Any Transport over MPLS Architecture  Based on IETF’s Pseudo-Wire (PW) Reference Model  PW is a connection (tunnel) between 2 PE Devices, which connects 2 PW End-Services PW connects 2 Attachment Circuits (ACs) Bi-directional (for p2p connections) Use of PW/VC label for encapsulation PWES PSN Tunnel PWES Pseudo-Wires PWES PWES Emulated Layer-2 Service © 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. 56 Customer2 Site1 Customer1 Site1 Customer1 Site2 PE PE Customer2 Site2
  • 57. AToM Technology Components  PE-CE link Referred to as Attachment Circuit (AC) Can be any type of layer-2 connection (e.g., FR, Ethernet) © 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. 57  AToM Control Plane Targeted LDP (Label Distribution Protocol) Session Virtual Connection (VC)-label negotiation, withdrawal, error notification  AToM Forwarding Plane 2 labels used for encapsulation + control word Outer tunnel (LDP) label To get from ingress to egress PE using MPLS LSP Inner de-multiplexer (VC) label To identify L2 circuit (packet) encapsulated within tunnel label Control word Replaces layer-2 header at ingress; used to rebuild layer-2 header at egress
  • 58. AToM Control Plane Processing 4 Label Mapping Messages 5 5 PE1 P P PE2 CE1 CE2 Processing Steps (for both P1 and P2): 1. CE1 and CE2 are connected to PE routers via layer-2 connections 2. Via CLI, a new virtual circuit cross-connect is configured, connecting customer interface to manually provided VC ID with target remote PE 3. New targeted LDP session between PE routers established, in case one does not already exist 4. PE binds VC label with customer layer-2 interface and sends label-mapping message to remote PE over LDP session 5. Remote PE receives LDP label binding message and matches VC ID with local configured cross-connect © 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. 58 Layer-2 Connection Layer-2 Connection 3 LDP session 2 2
  • 59. AToM Forwarding Plane Processing L2 Label A VC Label L2 Label B VC Label PE1 P1 P2 PE2 CE1 CE2 Processing Steps: 1. CE2 forwards layer-2 packet to PE2. 2. PE2 imposes VC (inner) label to layer-2 packet received from CE2 and optionally a control word as well (not shown). 3. PE2 imposes Tunnel outer label and forwards packet to P2. 4. P2 and P1 router forwards packet using outer (tunnel) label. 5. Router PE2 strips Tunnel label and, based on VC label, layer-2 packet is forwarded to customer interface to CE1, after VC label is removed In case control word is used, new layer-2 header is generated first. © 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. 59 Layer-2 Packet Layer-2 Packet VC L2 L2 Label Tunnel Tunnel Tunnel L2 Label C
  • 60. Use Case: L2 Network Interconnect Requirement: Need to create connectivity between remote customer sites, currently interconnected via Frame Relay WAN connectivity. Only point-to-point connectivity required. Solution: Interconnect AToM PW between sites, enabling transparent Frame Relay WAN connectivity. 101 10 50 101 10 90 DLCI 101 DLCI 201 © 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. 60 PE1 MPLS Backbone PE2 CPE Router, FRAD Directed LDP Label Exchange for VC1 – Label 10 Neighbor LDP– Label 50 Neighbor LDP– Label 90 VC1 – Connects DLCI 101 to DLCI 201 CPE Router, FRAD
  • 61. Virtual Private LAN Service Overview PE1 PE2 MPLS WAN Site3 CE Site2 CE  Architecture for Ethernet Multipoint Services (EMS) over MPLS  Emulates IEEE Ethernet bridge; VPLS network acts like a virtual switch that emulates conventional L2 bridge  Fully meshed or Hub-Spoke topologies supported © 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. 61 Site1 CE
  • 62. VPLS Technology Components  PE-CE link Referred to as Attachment Circuit (AC) Ethernet VCs are either port mode or VLAN ID  VPLS Control Plane Full mesh of targeted LDP sessions Virtual Connection (VC)-label negotiation, withdrawal, error © 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. 62 notification  VPLS Forwarding Plane Virtual Switching Instance: VSI or VFI (Virtual Forwarding Instance) VPN ID: Unique value for each VPLS instance PWs for interconnection of related VSI instances
  • 63. VPLS Overview n-PE n-PE Red VSI Blue VSI Full Mesh of PWs Between VSIs © 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. 63 Directed LDP Session Between Participating PEs PW PW PW CE CE CE CE CE CE CE Tunnel LSP Red VSI Blue VSI Green VSI Green VSI Attachment Circuit Full Mesh of Targeted-LDP Sessions Exchange VC Labels
  • 64. Use Case: VPLS Network Interconnect Requirement: Need to create full-mesh connectivity between separate metro networks. Solution: Use VPLS to create transparent bridge layer-2 Ethernet connectivity between ethernet networks. Customer A1 Customer A1 CE13 PE1 PE2 Metro Backbone Provider Metro Customer A1 Ethernet Carrier A CE23 © 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. 64 L2 Metro Ethernet Carrier A CE11 CE21 L2 Metro Ethernet Carrier A CE12 CE22 PE3 VPLS VPN Name: VPLS-CarrierA VPN ID: 1100 VCID: 1234 Each PE points to other peer PE’s loopback address QinQ
  • 65. Layer-2 VPN Summary  Enables transport of any Layer-2 traffic over MPLS network  Two types of L2 VPNs; AToM for point-to-point and VPLS point-to-multipoint layer-2 connectivity  Layer-2 VPN forwarding based on Pseudo Wires (PW), which use VC label for L2 packet encapsulation LDP used for PW signaling  AToM PWs suited for implementing transparent point-to-point connectivity between Layer-2 circuits  VPLS suited for implementing transparent point-to-multipoint connectivity between Ethernet links/sites © 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. 65
  • 66. MPLS QoS Technology Overview and Applications Presentation_ID © 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 66
  • 67. MPLS Technology Framework  MPLS QoS support for traffic marking and classification to enable differentiated services   Layer-3 VPNs Layer-2 VPNs MPLS QoS MPLS TE MPLS OAM/MIBs MPLS Signaling and Forwarding Network Infrastructure © 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. 67 
  • 68. Why MPLS QoS?  Typically different traffic types (packets) sent over MPLS networks E.g., Web HTTP, VoIP, FTP, etc.  Not all application traffic types/flows are the same … Some require low latency to work correctly; e.g., VoIP  MPLS QoS used for traffic prioritization to guarantee minimal traffic loss and delay for high priority traffic Involves packet classification and queuing  MPLS leverages mostly existing IP QoS architecture Based on Differentiated Services (DiffServ) model; defines per-hop behavior based on IP Type of Service (ToS) field © 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. 68
  • 69. MPLS QoS Operations  MPLS EXP bits used for packet classification and prioritization instead of IP Type of Service (ToS) field DSCP values mapped into EXP bits at ingress PE router  Most providers provide 3–5 service classes  Different DSCP <-> EXP mapping schemes Uniform mode, pipe mode, and short pipe mode MPLS DiffServ Marking in Experimental Bits IP DiffServ Marking EXP DSCP Layer-2 Header MPLS Header Layer 3 Header © 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. 69
  • 70. MPLS Uniform Mode  End-to-end behavior: original IP DSCP value not preserved At ingress PE, IP DSCP value copied in EXP value EXP value changed in the MPLS core At egress PE, EXP value copied back into IP DSCP value CE CE PE P P PE MPLS EXP 2 MPLS EXP 3 MPLS EXP 2 © 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. 70 IP DSCP 3 MPLS EXP 3 MPLS EXP 3 IP DSCP 3 IP DSCP 2 IP DSCP 3 IP DSCP 3 IP DSCP 2 For your reference only
  • 71. MPLS Pipe Mode  End-to-end behavior: original IP DSCP is preserved At ingress PE, EXP value set based on ingress classification EXP changed in the MPLS core At egress PE, EXP value not copied back into IP DSCP value CE CE PE P P PE MPLS EXP 2 MPLS EXP 3 MPLS EXP 2 MPLS EXP 2 MPLS EXP 3 © 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. 71 IP DSCP 3 MPLS EXP 3 MPLS EXP 3 IP DSCP 3 IP DSCP 3 IP DSCP 3 IP DSCP 3 IP DSCP 3 For your reference only
  • 72. MPLS Short Pipe Mode  End-to-end behavior: original IP DSCP is preserved At ingress PE, EXP value set based on ingress classification EXP changed in the MPLS core At egress PE, original IP DSCP value used for QoS processing CE CE PE P P PE MPLS EXP 2 MPLS EXP 3 MPLS EXP 2 © 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. 72 IP DSCP 3 MPLS EXP 3 MPLS EXP 3 IP DSCP 3 IP DSCP 3 IP DSCP 3 IP DSCP 3 IP DSCP 3 For your reference only
  • 73. MPLS QoS Summary  MPLS QoS used for MPLS packet-specific marking and classification Based on EXP bits  Different schemes for mapping between IP (ToS/ DSCP) and MPLS packet (EXP) classification At ingress and egress PE router MPLS pipe mode mostly used; preserves end-to-end IP QoS  Enables traffic prioritization to guarantee minimal traffic loss and delay for high priority traffic Useful when packet loss and delay guarantees must be provided for high priority traffic across MPLS network © 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. 73
  • 74. MPLS Traffic Engineering Technology Overview and Applications Presentation_ID © 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 74
  • 75. MPLS Technology Framework  Traffic engineering capabilities for bandwidth management and network failure protection   Layer-3 VPNs Layer-2 VPNs MPLS QoS MPLS TE MPLS OAM/MIBs MPLS Signaling and Forwarding Network Infrastructure © 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. 75  
  • 76. Why Traffic Engineering?  Congestion in the network due to changing traffic patterns Election news, online trading, major sports events  Better utilization of available bandwidth Route on the non-shortest path  Route around failed links/nodes Fast rerouting around failures, transparently to users Like SONET APS (Automatic Protection Switching)  Build new services—virtual leased line services VoIP toll-bypass applications, point-to-point bandwidth guarantees © 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. 76  Capacity planning TE improves aggregate availability of the network
  • 77. The Problem with Shortest-Path  Some links are DS3, some are OC-3  Router A has 40M of traffic for router F, 40M of traffic for router G  Massive (44%) packet loss at router B→router E! Changing to A->C->D->E won’t help Router F Router C Router D OC-3 © 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. 77 Router A Router B OC-3 OC-3 DS3 DS3 DS3 OC-3 Router E Router G Node Next-Hop Cost B B 10 C C 10 D C 20 E B 20 F B 30 G B 30 IP (Mostly) Uses Destination-Based Least-Cost Routing Alternate Path Under Utilized
  • 78. How MPLS TE Solves the Problem  Router A sees all links  Router A computes paths on properties other than just shortest cost; creation of 2 tunnels  No link oversubscribed! Router C Router D OC-3 © 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. 78 OC-3 OC-3 DS3 DS3 DS3 OC-3 Router F Router G Router A Router B Router E 40 Mb Node Next-Hop Cost B B 10 C C 10 D C 20 E B 20 F Tunnel 0 30 G Tunnel 1 30
  • 79. How MPLS TE Works  Link information Distribution* ISIS-TE OSPF-TE  Path Calculation (CSPF)*  Path Setup (RSVP-TE)  Forwarding Traffic down Tunnel Auto-route Static PBR CBTS / PBTS Forwarding Adjacency Tunnel select * Optional © 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. 79 IP/MPLS Head end Mid-point Tail end TE LSP
  • 80. Link Information Distribution  Additional link characteristics Interface address Neighbor address Physical bandwidth Maximum reservable bandwidth Unreserved bandwidth (at eight priorities) TE metric Administrative group (attribute flags)  IS-IS or OSPF flood link information  TE nodes build a topology database  Not required if using off-line path computation IP/MPLS For your reference only © 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights http://reserved. www.cisco.com/go/mpls 80 TE Topology database
  • 81. Path Calculation  TE nodes can perform constraint-based routing  Constraints and topology database as input to path computation  Shortest-path-first algorithm ignores links not meeting constraints  Tunnel can be signaled once a path is found  Not required if using offline path computation © 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights http://reserved. www.cisco.com/go/mpls 81 IP/MPLS TE Topology database 5 3 Find shortest path to R8 with 8Mbps 15 10 10 10 8 10 R1 R8 Link with insufficient bandwidth Link with sufficient bandwidth n n
  • 82. TE LSP Signaling  Tunnel signaled with TE extensions to RSVP  Soft state maintained with downstream PATH messages  Soft state maintained with upstream RESV messages  New RSVP objects LABEL_REQUEST (PATH) LABEL (RESV) EXPLICIT_ROUTE RECORD_ROUTE (PATH/RESV) SESSION_ATTRIBUTE (PATH)  LFIB populated using RSVP labels allocated by RESV messages Head end IP/MPLS L=16 RESV © 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights http://reserved. www.cisco.com/go/mpls 82 Tail end TE LSP PATH Input Label Out Label, Interface 17 16, 0 For your reference only
  • 83. MPLS TE FRR - Link Protection Router A Router B Router D Router E Router X Router Y Router C  Primary tunnel: A → B → D → E  Backup tunnel: B → C → D (preprovisioned)  Recovery = ~ 50 ms *Actual Time Varies—Well Below 50 ms in Lab Tests, Can Also Be Higher © 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. 83
  • 84. Use Case 1: Tactical TE Deployment Requirement: Need to Handle Scattered Congestion Points in the Network Solution: Deploy MPLS TE on Only Those Nodes that Face Congestion Internet MPLS Traffic Engineering Tunnel Relieves Congestion Points Service Provider Backbone Bulk of Traffic Flow e.g. Internet Download Oversubscribed Shortest Links © 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. 84
  • 85. Use Case 2: 1-Hop Tunnel Deployment Requirement: Need Protection Only — Minimize Packet Loss of Bandwidth in the Core Solution: Deploy MPLS Fast Reroute for Less than 50ms Failover Time with 1-Hop Primary TE Tunnels and Backup Tunnel for Each Service Provider Backbone VPN Site A Primary 1-Hop TE Tunnel VPN Site B Backup Tunnel Physical Links © 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. 85
  • 86. MPLS TE Summary  MPLS TE can be used to implement traffic engineering to enable enhanced network availability, utilization, and performance  Enhanced network availability can be implemented via MPLS TE Fast Re-Route (FRR) Link, node, and path protection Automatically route around failed links/nodes; like SONET APS  Better network bandwidth utilization can be implemented via creation of MPLS TE tunnels using explicit routes Route on the non-shortest path  MPLS TE can be used for capacity planning by creation of bandwidth-specific tunnels with explicit paths through the network Bandwidth management across links and end-to-end paths © 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. 86
  • 87. MPLS Management Technology Overview and Applications Presentation_ID © 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 87
  • 88. MPLS Technology Framework  MPLS management using SNMP MPLS MIB and MPLS OAM capabilities  Layer-3 VPNs  Layer-2 VPNs   MPLS QoS MPLS TE MPLS OAM/MIBs MPLS Signaling and Forwarding Network Infrastructure © 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. 88 
  • 89. What’s Needed for MPLS management?  What’s needed beyond the basic MPLS CLI? CLI used for basic configuration and trouble shooting (show commands) Traditional management tools:  MIBs to provide management information for SNMP management applications (e.g., HPOV) MIB counters, Trap notifications, etc. New management tools:  MPLS OAM -> for reactive trouble shooting Ping and trace capabilities of MPLS label switched paths  Automated MPLS OAM -> for proactive trouble shooting Automated LSP ping/trace via Auto IP SLA © 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. 89
  • 90. MPLS Operations Lifecycle  Build and plan the network Capacity planning and resource monitoring © 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. 90  Monitor the network Node/link failure detection May impact multiple services  Provision new services and maintain existing services Edge/service node configuration  Monitor service End-to-end monitoring Linked to customer SLAs For your reference only
  • 91. MPLS MIBs and OAM Management Feature Key Functionality © 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. 91 MPLS MIBs MPLS-LDP-STD-MIB LDP session status Trap notifications MPLS-L3VPN-STD-MIB VRF max-route Trap notifications MPLS-TE-STD-MIB TE Tunnel status Trap notifications MPLS OAM MPLS LSP Ping/Trace for LDP-based LSPs Validate end-to-end connectivity of LDP-signaled LSPs MPLS LSP Ping/Trace for TE tunnels Validate end-to-end connectivity of TE tunnels LSP Multipath (ECMP) Tree Trace Discovery of all available equal cost LSP paths between PEs
  • 92. LDP Event Monitoring Using LDP Traps Interface Shutdown (E1/0 on PE1) LDP Session Down (PE1 – P01) Time = t: Received SNMPv2c Trap from pe1: sysUpTimeInstance = 8159606 snmpTrapOID.0 = mplsLdpSessionDown mplsLdpSessionState.<index> = nonexistent(1) mplsLdpSessionDiscontinuityTime.<index> = 8159605 mplsLdpSessionStatsUnknownMesTypeErrors.<index> = 0 mplsLdpSessionStatsUnknownTlvErrors.<index> = 0 ifIndex.5 = 5 LDP session goes down © 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. 92 Interface goes down Time = t+1: Received SNMPv2c Trap from pe1: sysUpTimeInstance = 8159906 snmpTrapOID.0 = linkDown ifIndex.5 = 5 ifDescr.5 = Ethernet1/0 ifType.5 = ethernetCsmacd(6) locIfReason.5 = administratively down Time = t+2: Received SNMPv2c Trap from p01: sysUpTimeInstance = 8160579 snmpTrapOID.0 = mplsLdpSessionDown mplsLdpSessionState.<index> = nonexistent(1) mplsLdpSessionDiscontinuityTime.<index> = 8160579 mplsLdpSessionStatsUnknownMesTypeErrors.<index> = 0 mplsLdpSessionStatsUnknownTlvErrors.<index> = 0 ifIndex.5 = 5 Time = t: Received SNMPv2c Trap from pe1: sysUpTimeInstance = 8159606 snmpTrapOID.0 = mplsLdpSessionDown mplsLdpSessionState.<index> = nonexistent(1) mplsLdpSessionDiscontinuityTime.<index> = 8159605 mplsLdpSessionStatsUnknownMesTypeErrors.<index> = 0 mplsLdpSessionStatsUnknownTlvErrors.<index> = 0 ifIndex.5 = 5 Time = t+1: Received SNMPv2c Trap from p01: sysUpTimeInstance = 8160579 snmpTrapOID.0 = mplsLdpSessionDown mplsLdpSessionState.<index> = nonexistent(1) mplsLdpSessionDiscontinuityTime.<index> = 8160579 mplsLdpSessionStatsUnknownMesTypeErrors.<index> = 0 mplsLdpSessionStatsUnknownTlvErrors.<index> = 0 ifIndex.5 = 5 PE1 P1 LDP session PE1 P1 LDP session
  • 93. Validation of PE-PE MPLS Connectivity  Connectivity of LSP path(s) between PE routers can be validated using LSP ping (ping mpls command via CLI) pe1>ping mpls ipv4 10.1.2.249/32 Sending 5, 100-byte MPLS Echos to 10.1.2.249/32, timeout is 2 seconds, send interval is 0 msec: Codes: '!' - success, 'Q' - request not sent, '.' - timeout, 'L' - labeled output interface, 'B' - unlabeled output interface, 'D' - DS Map mismatch, 'F' - no FEC mapping, 'f' - FEC mismatch, 'M' - malformed request, 'm' - unsupported tlvs, 'N' - no label entry, 'P' - no rx intf label prot, 'p' - premature termination of LSP, 'R' - transit router, 'I' - unknown upstream index, 'X' - unknown return code, 'x' - return code 0 Type escape sequence to abort. !!!!! Success rate is 100 percent (5/5), round-trip min/avg/max = 284/294/300 ms © 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. 93 PE1 P1 P2 PE2
  • 94. Automated MPLS OAM  Automatic MPLS OAM probes between PE routers Automatic discovery of PE targets via BGP next-hop discovery Automatic discovery of all available LSP paths for PE targets via LSP multi-path trace Scheduled LSP pings to verify LSP path connectivity 3 consecutive LSP ping failures result in SNMP Trap notification PE3 PE2 P1 P2 © 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. 94 PE1 - MPLS OAM Probe PE2 - MPLS OAM Probe PE3 - MPLS OAM Probe PE1
  • 95. MPLS Management Summary  MPLS management operations include MPLS node and service configuration, and monitoring  In addition to CLI, SNMP MIBs and OAM capabilities are available for MPLS management  MPLS MIBs provide LDP, VPN, and TE management information, which can be collected by SNMP tools MIB counters, Trap notifications  Advanced MPLS management capabilities can be implemented via MPLS OAM LSP path discovery and connectivity validation Proactive monitoring via automated MPLS OAM © 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. 95
  • 96. Summary Final Notes and Wrap Up Presentation_ID © 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 96
  • 97. Summary and Key Takeaways  It’s all about labels … Label-based forwarding and IP protocol extensions for label exchange Best of both worlds … L2-type forwarding and L3 control plane  Key application of MPLS is to implement VPN services Secure and scalable layer 2 and 3 VPN connectivity  MPLS supports advanced traffic engineering capabilities QoS, bandwidth control, and failure protection  MPLS is a mature technology with widespread deployments Both SP and enterprise networks  Two types of MPLS users Indirect (Subscriber): MPLS used as transport for subscribed service Direct (DIY): MPLS implemented in (own) SP or enterprise network © 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. 97
  • 98. MPLS Applications For your reference only VPN’s / VRF’s VRF Aware Security High Availability © 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. 98 • • • • • EWAN Edge Service Providers Enterprise Data Center Data center interconnects L2/L3VPN’s TE/FRR QoS High Availability VPN’s / VRF’s VRF-Aware Security High Availability Hosted Data centers Data center interconnect Segmentation for IT Mergers, Acquisitions, spinoffs Applications Key Features Departmental segmentation Service multiplexing Security Mergers, Acquisitions, spinoffs Disaster Recovery Vmotion support Branch Interconnects Internet Access Branch Connectivity VPN’s TE/FRR High Availability • Network Consolidation – Merging Multiple parallel network into a shared infrastructure • Network segmentation – By user groups or business function • Service and policy centralization – Security policies and appliances at a central location • New applications readiness – Converged multi-service network • Increased network security – User groups segmentation with VPNs
  • 99. Consider MPLS When …  There’s a need for network segmentation Segmented connectivity for specific locations, users, applications, etc. Full-mesh and hub-and-spoke connectivity  There’s a need for network realignment/migration Consolidation of (multiple) legacy networks Staged network consolidation after company merger/ acquisition  There’s a need for optimized network availability and performance Node/link protection, pro-active connectivity validation Bandwidth traffic engineering and QoS traffic prioritization © 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. 99
  • 100. Q and A Presentation_ID © 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 100
  • 101. © 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. 101